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Library  of  trhe  'theological  ^eminarjp 


Mrs.  Robert  Lenox  Kennedy 

ChnrrVh  hlotn^r  *>■,,** 
BR  1607  .F5  1837  v. 4 
Foxe,  John,  1516-1587. 
The  acts  and  monuments  of 
John  Foxe 









or  queen's  college,  Cambridge, 



VOL.  IV. 


AND  SOLD  BY  L.  &  G.  SEELEY, 




<  i,  \v,    l.iu.A  D-8TRSBT-HILL, 
T0»8'   COMMON  g. 


VOL.  IV. 


OUT    OF    SATAN. 


1485.  Henry  VII, ,°> 

1486.  Maximilian  the  Emperor ibid. 

1490.  The  Burning  of  Joan  Boughton,  and  others 7 

1499.  Hieronymus  Savanarola,  with  two  Friars,  Martyrs     ....       8 

Articles  objected  against  Hierome  and  the  two  Friars    ...       9 
1499  The  Ten  Grievances  complained  of  by  the  Germans,  and  the 

to  Remedy  against  them 11 

1503.  An  Advertisement  unto  the  Emperor  Maximilian,  of  the  Subtle 

Practices  of  the  Pope  and  Popish  Prelates 13 

A  certain  Godly  Exhortation  unto  the  Emperor's  Majesty  .     .  ibid. 

The  Edict  of  Maximilian  the  Emperor 14 

A  Letter  of  Jacobus  Selestadiensis  to  the  Emperor  Maximilian, 
in  Answer  to  the  Edict ibid. 

1503.            The  History  of  the  Turks 18 

Ottoman,  the  First  great  Emperor  of  the  Turks,  a.  d.  1300     .  25 

Orchan,  the  Second  Emperor ibid. 

Amurath,  the  Third  Emperor 26 

Bajazet,  the  Fourth  Emperor 27 

Calephine,  the  Fifth  Emperor 29 

Orchan,  Mahomet,   and  Amurath,   the   Sixth,   Seventh,   and 

Eighth  Emperors 30 

Mahomet  II.,  the  Ninth  Emperor 36 

Bajazet  II.,  the  Tenth  Emperor 41 

Selim,  the  Eleventh  Emperor 48 

Solyman,  the  Twelfth  Emperor 51 

A  Notice  touching  the  Miserable  Persecution,  Slaughter,  and 
Captivity  of  the  Christians  under  the  Turks,  and  the  Authors 

of  the  Turks'  Story      . 79 

The  Division  of  Asia  Minor,  called  Cheronesus 88 

Africa 91 


\  I. 

'II,,    i',,,|,i„ ,  ii    of  the  Holy  Scriptures  considered,  touching 

ii,.    i ng  up,  and  final   Ruin  and   Destruction,  of  thu 

wicked   Kingd of  the  Turks;  with  the  Revelations  jukI 

of  other  autBon  concemina  the  sa .    93 

\( pariaon  between  the  Syrians  and  the  Turks    ....    06 

Xhe  Prophi  i  i(  oi  Mi  thodiu  ,  Hildegarde,  and  others,  con- 
cerning the  Reign  and  Ruin  of  the  Turks 100 

Ini.  rpretation  of  Prophecy |« 

\  Prayer  again  A  the  Turks '-' 

1500  William  Tylsworth,  Martyr,  burned  at  Amershani     ....  123 

i,,  The  cruel  handling  of  Thoma  iCha  ie,  of  Amersham  ;  wickedly 

i  nd  martyred  in  the  I'.i  hop  i  Pri  ion  af  Woburn, 

ondei  William  Smith,  Bishop  of  Lincoln 134 

Lau Ghe  t,  Martyr .••.-.•  '"'' 

1008  \  notable  Story  «»t'  a  faithful  Woman,  burned  in  Chipping 

Sudbury '"' 

\ , ,  .,-.  upon  Thomas  Wittington,  who  was  slain  by  a  bull      .   129 
1509  John  Blomstone,  and  eighl  others,  persecuted  al  Coventry      ,   133 

The  Name  i  of  the  Archbishops  of  Canterbury  contained  in  the 
Sixth  Book ;    -.    ■  138 

\  Brief  Note,  with  e  Recapitulation  of  Ancient  Ecclesiastical 
Laws,  by  sundry  Kings  of  tHis  realm  ordained,  for  Govern 
ineni  of  the  Church  before  the  Conquest ibid. 

The  pi I  primacy  of  Popes  described  :  in  order  of  their  rising 

up,  by  little  and  little,  from  faithful  Bishops  and  Martyrs, 

to  beci •  Lords  and  Governors  over  Kings  and  Kingdoms, 

exalting  themselves  in  the  Temple  of  God,  above  all  thai  is 
called  God - 130 

The  I'm  I  Ri  ing  oi  thi   Bishops  of  Rome 140 

The  Words  of  St.  Paul  expounded 141 

The  Exaltation  of  Popes  above  Kings  and  Emperors,  out  of 
Mi  i 142 

The  [mage  of  Antichrist  exalting  himself  in  the  Temple  of 
God,  above  all  thai  is  called  God;  out  of  his  own  decrees, 
decretals,  extravagants,  pontificals,  &c,  word  fot  word,  as 
ii  is  mil  of  the  laid  lunik,  here  alleged  and  quoted      .     .     ■   145 

\n  Uphabetical  List  of  the  Authorities  here  alluded  to     .     .  157 

Casus.rapales  LI.  apud  Fratrem  Astesai ,  rive  de  At.  Doc 

torem  solemnera  in  lumma  confessionis.  Item  apud  I  [ostien- 
lem,  de  offlc.  legat.  reperti  el  hi    irersibu  i  comprehensi.      .   161 

(.i  .  i  Papal  t"  the  number  of  one  and  fifty;  wherein  the  Pope 
bath  powei  to  dispense,  and  none  else  besides       ....  l<>2 

BOOK   vil. 

ri.KTAlM'...    ro    HI!    LAS1     i  1 1 1:  i  i     HUNDRED   MARS    PROM    THE    LOOSING    OU1    01 

1509,  Huxi  \  III Hifi 

The  Tenor  of  the  Pope's  Bull,  for  the  Conception  of  the  Virgin 

to  be  without  sin [68 

1509  The  State  and  Succession  of  Princes 17:5 

'"  The  Hi  tor}  of  dii d  Men  and  Women,  persecuted  for 

1518.  Ri  ligion  in  the  city  and  diocese  of  the  Bishop  of  London  : 

U  A  --Hi  of  the  Registi  i    of  Ri<  hard  Pitzjames  ; 

with  Examinations ibid. 

■I '  Baki  r,  and  thirt)  nine  others 17.') 

The  Death  and   Martyrdom  of  William  Sweeting  and  John 


John  Brown    Mart] r  ,  ISJ 


1500  The  Story  of  Richard  Htm,  Martyr;   with  the  Art: 

to  bim 

New  Ai  t  him  after  bk  death    .    .    ,186 

ofFitzjamec  Hun 

beiri£?  dead .      . 

The  Verdict  of  the  Inquest 190 


Allen  Cresswell,  and  Richard  Horsenail J  02 

of  Richard  1  B         of  London, 

to  Cardinal  Wokey 196 

the  Lord*, 

in  the-  Parliament-house 

the  Coronet 
-  in  behalf  of  Kit-hard  Htm        .     .     J  07 
A  \i  •  !:ard  Htm,  i  and 

Alarm*  Copm .199 

Ehzah  and  others 20-j 

rs,  who,  in  ': 

if,  abjure 200 

John  South  wick 

John  Stilman,  an'i  I  him 207 


Ogham,  and  Wjhiam  Sweeting,   alias 

...   214 


.     .     .2)7 
. .  the  Bishop 

of  Lincoln,  in  Kxaminau-s 219 

1518  A  TaUe  deacribinj  the 

..  with 

:  out  of  the 

:j.  \'j2\ 221 

id,  Bishop 
ante  of  Christ,  falsely  then  called 

'. 211 

fhoae   who    were    abjured  in  the  D 
■joined  under  pain  of  rel<-  snd, 

.    .     . '  .     .  ibid. 
The  ' 

J'auls 23', 

rreh  of  Cfcriri 

the  '.  r 250 


described 200 

.     .     . 

f  ardjnal 271 

1021.  r.  at 


A  I). 




Pope  Adrian  VI.  to  the  renowned  Princes  of  Germany,  and  to 
the  Piers  of  the  Roman  Emperors 295 

Instructions  given  by  Pope  Adrian  to  Charegatus,  his  Legate, 
touching  his  Proceedings  in  the  Diet  of  Nuremberg,  how  and 
l»v  what  persuasions  the  Princes  were  to  be  moved  against 
Luther. 29S 

The  Answer  of  the  Noble  and  Reverend  Princes,  and  of  the 
States  of  fads  Sacred  Roman  Empire,  exhibited  to  the  Pope's 
Ambassador •     •     •  30.3 

Certain  Grievances  or  Oppressions  of  Germany,  against  the 
Court  of  Rome,  collected  and  exhibited  by  the  Princes,  at 
the  Council  of  Nuremberg,  to  the  number  of  a  hundred, 
whereof  certain  Specialities  follow 308 

1523,  An  Intimation  given  by  Philip  Melancthon  to  his  Auditory  at 

Wittenberg,  of  the  decease  of  Martin  Luther,  a.d.'1546  .     .  320 

A  Prayer  after  the  manner  of  Luther 321 

Summary  of  Popish  Decrees  made  at  the  Council  of  Ratisbon.  325 
The  History  of  the  Helvetians  or  Switzers  ;  how  they  first  re- 
covered their  liberty,  and  afterwards  were  joined  in  league 

together .  ibid. 

The  Acts  and  Doings  of  Uldricus  Zuinglius  :  and  the  Receiving 

of  the  Gospel  in  Switzerland 327 

Constitutions  decreed  in  the  CouiTcil  of  Bern 329 

Answer  of  the  Tigurines,  or  Men  of  Zurich,  to  the  five  Towns 

of  the  Switzers 

Message  from  the  Council  to  the  City  of  Strasberg    ....  339 
A  Letter  of  Uldricus  Zuinglius  to  N.,  his  brother  in  the  Lord.  34G 
llrh  v  Noes  and  John  Esch,  Friars  Augustine,  burnt  at  Brus- 
sels, A.n.  1523 349 

1524.  Henry  Sutphen,  Monk,  a  Martyr  at  Dithmarsch 350 

Letter  of  Solyman  the  great  Turk,  to  the  Master  of  the  Rhodes,  ibid. 
The    lamentable   Martyrdom  of  John    Clerk,    at   Meaux,    in 

France 361 

\o2~>.  The  History  of  a  good   Pastor,  murdered  for  preaching  of  the 

Gospel:  written  by  John  CEcolampadius 365 

Tlie  like  History  of  the  Death  of  a  certain  Minister,  named 

Master   Peter  Spengler,   who  was  drowned:  collected  by 

GEcolampadius 366 

Another  History  of  a  certain  Man  of  the  Country,  wrongfully 

put  to  death  :  collected  by  John  CEcolampadius  ....  369 
The  Story  and  Martyrdom  of  Woll'gangus  Schuch,  a  German, 

burned  at  Lorraine 371 

1526.  John  Huglein,  Martyr,  burned  at  Mersburg 373 

1527.  George  Carpenter,  of  Emerich,  Martyr,  burned  in  the  town  of 

Munich,  in  Bavaria 374 

The  History  of  Leonard  Keyser,   Martyr,  burned  at  Schar- 

dingham 376 

Wendelmuta,  Widow,  Martyr;  at  the  Hague 377 

Peter  Flisteden   and   Adolphua  Clarebacb,   put  to  death  at 

Cologne 378 

1534  A  Talile  of  tlie  Names  and  Causes  of  such  Martyrs  as  gave  their 

to  lives  for  the  testimony  of  the  Gospel,  ill  Germany,    France, 

Spain,    Italy,   and   other    Foreign   Countries,  since  Luther's 

time  :    in  which   table    are    contained   the  Persecutions,   the 

Martyrs,  and  the  Causes  of  their  Martyrdom: 

The  Martyrs  of  Germany     ....." 379 

Great   Persecution  in   Gaunt,  and  other  parts  of  Flanders,   by 

the  Friars  and  Priests  thereof    .         383 

Another  Table  of  those  that  suffered  in  France,  for  the  like 

to  wit:,  |     .  pel : 

1560.  The  French  Martyrs 396 



1540  A  Table  of  certain  Martyrs,  who,  for  the  cause  of  Religion, 

to  suffered  in  Spain  : 

1560.  The  Spanish  Martyrs 117 

The  Fonn  and  Manner  of  the  Execrable  Inquisition  of  Spain.  451 
Thirty  Christian  Prisoners  brought  before  the  Council  of  the 

Inquisition 453 

1546  A  Table  of  such  Martyrs  as  suffered  for  the  testimony  of  the 

to  Gospel,  in  Italy  : 

1560.  The  Italian  Martyrs 45S 

Eighty-eight  Martyrs  in  one  day,  with  one  butcherly  knife, 

slain  like  sheep.     Sixteen  hundred  others  also  condemned 

at  Calabria 472 

1530  A  Notable  History  of  the  Persecution  and  Destruction  of  the 

to  People  of  Merindol  and  Cabriers,  in  the  Country  of  Pro- 

1547.  vence 474 

An  Oration  of  Catiline,  that  is,  the  Oration  of  the  Bishop  of 

Aix,  seditious  and  bloody 482 

An  Oration  of  Bassinet  in  reply  to  the  Bishop  of  Aix,  followed 

by  another 483 

Supplication  of  the  Inhabitants  of  Cabriers,  and  the  Answer  of 

Cardinal  Sadolet 

The  Words  of  Durand  to  the  Merindolians,  with  their  Answer.  496 
Notes  upon  the  History  of  Merindol,  above  recited    ....  505 
1555  The  History  of  the  Persecutions  and  Wars  against  the  people 

to  called  Waldenses  or  Waldois  ;  in  the  Valleys  of  Angrogne, 

1561.  Lucerne,   St.  Martin,  Perouse  and  others;  in  the  county  of 
Piedmont 507 

Substance  of  the  Articles  and  Confessions  of  the  Angrognians, 
exhibited  to  the  President ;  with  their  Interrogatories  and  the 

Answer  to  them 510 

The  Crafty  Message  of  the  Lord  of  Trinity  to  the  Angrognians, 

with  their  Answer 525 

Conditions  and  Articles  proposed  to  the  Waldois 548 

Conclusions  and  Articles  lastly  agreed  upon  between  the  Right 
Honourable  Lord  of  Ranconis,  on  the  part  of  the  Duke's 
Highness,  and  those  of  the  Valleys  of  Piedmont,  called  the 

Waldois 549 

The  Conclusion  of  the  Story  of  Merindol  and  Cabriers  .  .  .  553 
The  Story  of  a  Christian  Jew  martyred  by  the  Turks  .  .  .  555 
The  Conclusion ibid. 



1519  The  History  of  Seven  Godly  Martvrs  burnt  at  Coventry     .     .  557 

to  Robert  Silkeb,  a.  d.  1521 558 

1527.  Patrick    Hamelton,    martyred  at   St.  Andrew's,  in  Scotland, 

a.  d.  1527 ibid. 

Articles  and  Opinions  objected  against  Master  Patrick  Hamel- 
ton, by  James  Beton,  Bishop  of  St.  Andrew's;  followed  by 
his  Sentence 559 

1527.  The  Copy  of  a  Letter  congratulatory  sent  from  the  Doctors  of 

Louvain  to  the  Archbishop  of  St.  Andrew's  and  Doctors  of 
Scotland,  commending  them  for  the  Death  of  Master  Patrick 
Hamelton 561 

1528.  A  Brief  Treatise  of  Master  Patrick  Hamelton,  called  '  Patrick's 

Places;'  translated  into  English  by  John  Frith,  with  the 
Epistle  of  the  said  Frith  prefixed  before  the  same  ;  treating 
of  the  Doctrine  of  the  Law ;  the  Doctrine  of  Faith  ;  of 
Hope  ;  of  Charity,  etc 563 

I  OK  II  NT-.. 


A    l> 

I  .28 

Certain  Brief  Notes  or  Declarations  upon  the  aforesaid  places 

of  Master  Patrick  Hamelton  .    .     .    •    •    •■    •     ■     ■     ■  JJJ 
Henry  Forest  martyred  at  St. Andrews,  in  Scotland.    .     .     .  o/b 
Fames   Hamelton,  Katherine    Hamelton j   a  wife  of  Leith; 
Stratan,  and  Master  Norman  Gurleyj  the  two  last 



Thomas  Harding,  an  aged  Father,  dwelling  at  Chesham  in 
Buckinghamshire,     a.  d.  1532   •    ••••••••     -580 

Persecution  of  simple  men  in  the  diocese  of  Lincoln      .     .     .582 

A  Tahle  of  all  such  as  were  abjured  in  King  Henry's  days, 
after  the  first  beginning  of  Luther 585 

\  Brief  Discourse  concerning  the  Story  and  Life  of  Thomas 
Wolsej  .  late  Cardinal  ofYoric,  by  way  of  digression  ;  wherein 
ia  t,,  be  seen  and  noted  the  express  image  of  the  proud,  vain- 
glorious Church  of  Rome,  how  far  it  differeth  from  the  true 

(lunch  of  Christ  Jesus •r>87 

I  527             The  Sacking  of  Rome  and  Taking  of  Pope  Clement  ....  592 
',"               The  Copy  of  an  ambitious  Letter  written  by  Thomas  Wolsey, 
1530,                Cardinal   of  York,    unto    Stephen    Gardiner,   one  of  King 
Henry's  Orators  in  the  Court  of  Rome,  for  procuring  of  the 
papal  dignity  to  the  said  Cardinal 600 

Instructions  sent  by  the  King's»Highness  to  his  Trusty  Coun- 
cillors and  Servants,  Master  Stephen  Gardiner,  Doctor  of 
both  Laws;  Sir  Francis  Brian,  Sir  Gregory  de  Cassalis, 
Knights;  and  Mr.  Petre  Vanne,  the  King's  Secretary  for  the 
Italian  tongue;  his  Ambassadors  in  the  Court  of  Rome,  for 
the  Election  of  the  Cardinal  of  York  to  the  Papacy,  if  Pope 
Clement  were  dead 

Grievances  objected  against  the  Clergy  of  England    .     .     .     .611 

Articles  objected  against  Cardinal  Wolsey 614 

1530.  The  Trouble  of  Humphrey  Mummuth,  Alderman  of  London  .  617 

Thomas  Hitten,  burned  at  Maidstone 619 

Thomas  Bilney  ;  also  Thomas  Arthur,  who  abjured  at  Nor- 

wich ibid. 

1531,  Articles  against  Thomas  Arthur 623 

Interrogatories  objected  against  Arthur  and  Bilney    .     .     .     .624 

Bflney's  Answers  to  the  Interrogatories 625 

\  Brief  Summary  or  Collection  of  certain  Depositions,  deposed 

by  the  several  witnesses  aforenamed,  upon  certain  interroga- 
tories  ministered  unto  them  for  the   inquiry  of  Master  Bil- 
nev's  Doctrine  and  Preaching;   with  certain  other  articles   .  627 
A  Dialogue  between  Friar  John   Brusierd  and  Master  Thomas 
Bilney  at  Ipswich,  concerning  Worshipping  of  Images    .     .  628 

The  Submission  of  Master  Thomas  Bilney 631 

A  Letter  of  Master  Thomas  Bilney  to  Cuthbert  Tonstal,  Bishop 

of  London 633 

Another  Letter  from  the  same  to  the  same 636 

\  Letter  of  Master  Bilney,  to  Tonstal,  Bishop  of  London,  fruit- 
ful and  accessary  for  all  Ministers  to  read 639 

M-  ter  Stafford,  of  Cambridge       G56 

The  Story  of  Master  Simon  Fish,  author  of 'The  Supplication 

of  Beggars1 ibid. 

\  ci  rtain  Libel  or  Book  entitled 'The  Supplication  of  Beggars,' 

thrown    and   scattered  at    tile   Procession  ill  Westminster,  oil 
Candlemas-day,  before  King  Henry  VIII.;   for  him  to  read 
and  peruse.       Made  and  compiled  by  Master  Pish         .      .      .    <>.")!> 
The    Names    of  the    Hooks   tbat    were  forbidden  at  this  time, 

ther  with  the  New  Testament 667 

\  compendious  old  Treatise,  showing  how  we  ought  to  have 

tin-  Scriptures  in  English       671 

A  Proclamation  for  the  resisting  and  withstanding  of  most 
damnable  i ! .  i .  -  i  •,  .own  within  this  Realm  by  the  Disciples 



1531.                of  Luther  and  other   Heretics,   perverters  of  Christ's   Re- 
ligion     676 

The  Copy  of  a  Letter  sent  by  Bishop  Nixe,  of  Norwich,  which 
was  taken  out  of  the  Letter  subscribed  with  his  own  hand     .  679 

Richard  Bayfield,  Martyr 680 

Articles  laid  against  Richard  Bayfield,  and  his  Answers  to  them.  G82 

The  Sentence  given  against  him 684 

The  Sentence  of  Degradation  given  against  blessed  Bayfield, 

with  the  Proceedings  thereon 686 

The  Letters  of  Requiry,  directed  to  the  Mayor  and  Sheriffs  of 
the  City  of  London,  that  they  should  be  present  that  day, 
when  the  Sentence  should  be  given,  to  receive  the  Heretic 

(as  they  called  him)  that  was  condemned 687 

John  Tewkesbury,  leatherseller,  of  London,  Martyr      .     .     .  688 
The  Examination  of  John  Tewkesbury,  before  Tonstal,  bishop 

of  London G89 

Articles  extracted  out  of  the  Book  of  'The  Wicked  Mammon.'    690 
Another  Examination  of  John  Tewkesbury,  on  Articles  drawn 

out  of  '  The  Wicked  Mammon  ' 691 

Additional  Articles  objected  against  John  Tewkesbury  .     .     .  692 

The  Sentence  against  him 693 

John  Randall •     •     •  694 

The  Story  and  Apprehension  of  Edward  Freese,  a  Painter      .  ibid. 

James  Bainham,  Lawyer  and  Martyr 697 

Interrogatories  against  James  Bainham 698 

1532.  The  Process  against  James  Bainham,  in  case  of  Relapse     .     .  702 

John  Bent,  Martyr 706 

One  Trapnel,  Martyr &«*• 

Robert  King,  Robert  Dedham,  and  Nicholas  Marsh,  Martyrs,  ibid, 


Ki\f.  Henri  tut.  Eighth  in  Council page    16.5 

Thb  Murder  of  Richard  Hun 

Seven  Godli  Martyrs  burnt  at  Coventry    .     . 
Thomas  Bilnbi  twn  e  plucked  from  the  Pi  lpit 

.  18  i 
.  557 
.  627 


VOL.  IV. 

VOL.   IV. 





OF  SATAN,  i 


When  king  Henry,  by  the  providence  of  God,  had  obtained  this    Henry 
triumphant  victory  and  diadem  of  the  realm,  first  sending  for  Edward     VIL 
Plantagcnet  earl  of  Warwick,  son  to  George  duke  of  Clarence,  and    A.D. 
committing  him  to  safe  custody  within  the  Tower,  from  Leicester  he    1485- 
removed  to  London ;  and  not  long  after,  according  to  his  oath  and 
promise  made  before,  espoused  to  him  the  young  lady  Elizabeth,  heir 
of  the  house  of  York;  whereby  both  \he  houses  of 'York  and  Lan-  The  two 
caster  were  conjoined  together,  to  the  no  little  rejoicing  of  all  English  S*"«£5 
hearts,  and  no  less  quiet  unto  the  realm,  which  was  a.V  1485.  This  t?nc*ste> 
king  reigned  twenty-three  years  and  eight  months,  and  being  a  prince  S". 
of  great  policy,  justice,  and  temperance,  kept  his  realm  in  good 
tolerable  rule  and  order.     And  here,  interrupting  a  little  the  course 
of  our  English  matters,  we  will  now  (the  Lord  willing)  enter  the  story 
above  promised,  of  Maximilian  the  emperor,  and  matters  of  the  empire, 
especially  such  as  pertain  to  the  church. 

Uaajrimtlian  tfje  <£mper.or. 

In  the  year  of  our  Lord  I486,  Frederic  waxing  aged,  and  partly  ad  i486 
also  mistrusting  the  hearts  of  the  Germans,  who  had  complained  before 
of  their  grievances,  and  could  not  be  heard;  and  therefore,  misdoubt- 
ing that  his  house,  after  his  decease,  should  have  the  less  favour  among 
them,  for  that  cause  in  his  lifetime  did  associate  his  son  Maximilian  Beta 
to  be  joined  emperor  with  him ;  with  whom  he  reigned  the  space  of  ;""' 
seven  years,  till  the  death  of  the  said  Frederic  his  father,  who  do-  Br2dl°f 
parted  a.d,  1494,  after  he  had  reigned  over  the  empire  fifty-three 

mPiiSPZ  T*n*  -FnEd-  ]"°'  p-  m-  Ed" 15rc'  p- ro'-  x:d- 1583'  '•• 729-  EJ- 159«.  P-cro. 

ric,  the 

I  il 


yean  lacking  but  three  yean  of  the-  reign  of  Augustus  Caesar,  under 

_  whom  was  the  birth  ..four  Lord  and  Saviour  Christ. 

vi..        This  Maximilian,  as  he  was  a  valiant  emperor,  prudent  and smgu- 

i  's,;-   1  u-lv  learned  bo  was  his  reign  entangled  in  many  unquiet  and  difficult 

wan  •  first  in  the  lower  countries  of  Flanders  and  Brabant,  where  the 

said  '.Maximilian   was  taken   captive,  but  shortly  after  rescued  and 

uua,.  delivered  again  by  his  father,  a.d.  1487.  It  was  signified  before, 
how  this  Maximilian,  bv  the  advice  of  the  Burgundians,  had  to  wife 
Mary  the  only  daughter  of  Charles  duke  of  Burgundy  afore  men- 
tion.'.! ■  by  whom  he  had  two  children, Philip  and  Margaret,  a.d.  1477; 
which  Mary  not  long  after,  about  a.d.  1481,  by  a  fall  from  her  horse, 
f.  11  into  an  ague,  and  departed.  Other  wars,  many  more,  the  same 
Maximilian  also  achieved,  both  in  France,  in  Italy,  in  Hungary,  and 
diven  besides. 

The  So  happy  was  the  education  of  this  emperor  in  good  letters,  so 

expert  he  was  in  tongues  and  sciences,  but  especially  such  was  his 

«»«u«n.     dexterity  and  promptness  in  the  Latin  style,  that  he,  imitating  the 

Writer <rf  example  of  Julius  Caesar,  did  write  and  comprehend  in  Latin  histories 
his  own  acts  and  feats  done,  and  that,  in  such  sort,  that  when  he  had 
given  a  certain  taste  of  his  history  to  one  Picamerus,  a  learned  man, 
asking  his  judgment  how  his  warlike  style  of  Latin  did  like  him,  the 
said  Picamerus  did  affirm  and  report  of  him  to  John  Carion  (the 
witness  and  writer  of  this  story),  that  he  did  never  see  nor  read  in 
anv  German  story,  a  thing  more  exactly  (and  that  in  such  haste)  done, 
as 'this  was  of  Maximilian.  Moreover,  as  he  was  learned  himself,  so 
was  he  a  singular  patron  and  advancer  of  learned  students,  as  may 
i  !1  appear  by  the  erecting  and  setting  up  the  university  of  Witten- 
berg.  By  this  emperor  many  in  those  days  were  excited  to  the  em- 
bracing as  well  of  other  liberal  arts,  as  also,  namely,  to  the  searching 
out  of  old  antiquities  of  histories,  whereby  divers  were  then  by  him 
first  occasioned  in  Germany,  to  set  their  minds,  and  to  exercise  their 
diligence,  in  collecting  and  explicating  matters  pertaining  to  the  know- 
ledge of  history,  as  well  of  ancient  as  also  of  later  times,  as  namely 
Cuspinian,  Nauclerus,  Conrad,  Peutinger,  Manlius,  and  others. 

Here  now  it  began  right  well  to  appear,  what  great  benefit  was 
broached  to  the  world  by  the  art  and  faculty  of  printing,  as  is  before 
mentioned.  Through  the  means  of  which  printing,  the  church  and 
commonwealth  of  Christ  began  ttOW  to  be  replenished  with  learned 
men,  as  both  may  appear  by  this  emperor,  being  so  endued  himself 
with  BUch  excellent  knowledge  of  good  letters,  and  also  by  diven 
oili.r  famous  and  worthy  wits,  who  began  now  in  this  age  exceedingly 

(into      to  increase  and  multiply:    as   Baptista  Mantuanus,  Augustus  Poli- 
tianus,    rlermolaus  Barbaras,  Picus  Mirandula,  and  Franciscus  his 

•1"m-       cousin,  Rodolphus  Agricola,  Pontanus,  Philippus,  Beroaldus,  Mar- 
mImis  Ficinua,  Volateranus,  Georgius  Valla,  with  infinite  others. 

Among  whom  is  also  to  fie  numbered  Weselus  Ghroningensis,  other- 
wise named  Basiliu8,who  was  not  long  after  Johannes  dcW'csalia  above 
recited  ;   Ii,,i|i  much  about  one  time,  and  both  great  friends  together. 

A»"       D        Wi    elus   died    a.  i).   1490.      After   that  Johannes,   doctor  of 
W  ■  alia  aforesaid,  was  condemned,  this  Weselus,  being  familiar  witfi 
him   thought  that  the  inquisitor  would  come  and  examine  him  also, 
Uarj  waanlecc  to  king  Bdw,  IV. 


as  he  himself,  in  a  certain  epistle,  doth  write.  He  was  so  notable  and  »«■» 
worthy  a  man,  that  of  the  people  he  was  called  '  Lux  Mllfidi,1  that  is,  _  '  "' 
4  The' light  of  the  world/  A.  I). 

Concerning  his  doctrine,  first  he  reprehended  the  opinion  of  the  14!i()" 
papists,  as  touching  repentance,  which  they  divided  into  three  parts, 
of  the  which  three  parts,  satisfaction  and  confession  he  did  disallow. 
Likewise  purgatory  and  supererogation  of  works  and  pardons  he  did 
disprove,  both  at  Rome  and  at  Paris.  He  spake  against  the  pope's 
indulgences,  by  the  occasion  whereof  divers  of  the  pope's  court,  per- 
suaded by  him,  began  to  speak  more  freely  against  the  same  matter 
than  he  himself  had  done. 

The  abuses  of  masses,  and  praying  for  the  dead  he  disallowed  ;  The 
and  likewise  the  supremacy  of  the  pope  he  utterly  rejected   (as  g^e! 
appeareth  in  a  book  of  his,  '  De  Sacramento  poenitentije1),  denying  ",^i'tfc.ll 
utterly  that  any  supreme  head  or  governor  ought  to  be  in  the  world  against. 
over  all  others  ;  affirming  also,  and  saying  many  times,  that  the  pope 
had  no  authority  to  do  any  thing  by  commandment,  but  by  truth 
(that  is,  so  far  as  truth  goeth  with  him,  so  far  his  sentence  to  stand) ; 
neither  that  he  ought  to  prevail  by  commanding,  but  only  by  teach- 
ing, so  as  every  true  christian  bishop  may  prevail  over  another.1  Also, 
in  some  place  in  his  writings  he  denieth  not,  but  that  popes  and  their 
spiritual  prelates,  proceeding  against  Christ's  doctrine,  be  plain  anti- 
christs.    Such  as  were  infirm,  and  not  able  to  perform  the  bond  of 
chastity  taken  upon  them,  he  said,  they  might  well  break  their  vow. 

Also  the  said  Weselus  witnesseth,  that  the  forefathers  who  Avere 
before  Albert  and  Thomas,  did  resist  and  withstand  the  pope's  in- 
dulgences, calling  them  in  their  writings  plain  idolatry ;  mere  fraud 
and  error ;  adding  moreover,  that  unless  the  severity  of  some  good 
divines  had  withstood  these  pardons  and  indulgences  of  the  pope, 
innumerable  errors  had  overflowed  the  church. 

Amongst  these  works  of  Weselus,  there  is  a  certain  epistle  of  one 
who  had  written  to  him,  in  which  the  author  of  the  epistle  confesseth, 
that  in  his  time  there  was  a  certain  learned  man  at  Paris,  called 
Master  Thomas  de  Curselis,  a  dean ;  who,  being  in  the  council  of 
Basil,  when  divers  began  to  advance  the  power  of  the  pope  too  far, 
declared  and  affirmed,  to  be  said  to  him  of  Christ,  "  Quicquid  liga-  Christ's 
veris  super  terram,  erit  ligatum  et  in  ccelo,11  &c,  and  not  '*  quicquid  ;'''■,",','' 
dixeris  esse  ligatum ;""  that  is,  "  Whatsoever  thou  shalt  bind  upon  de  cur- 
earth,  shall  be  bound  in  heaven,"1"1  but  not,  "  whatsoever  thou  sayest  touching 
to  be  bound.11     As  who  should  say,  the  pope  cannot  and  doth  not  J^,,, 
bind  therefore,  because  he  so  saith,  except  truth  and  righteousness 'Ou'^ 
go  also  with  him  :  then,  he  doth  so  bind  indeed.2   There  is  a  certain  gaveris.* 
book  of  this  man.,  amongst  divers  others,  which  he  entitled,  '  De  sub- 
ditis  et  superioribus,1  in  which  he  disputeth  greatly  against  the  pope 
and  his  prelates  ;  affirming  that  the  pope,  unless  his  faith  and  doctrine 
be  sound,  ought  not  to  be  obeyed.     He  affirmeth  also  that  the  pope 
may  err,  and  when  he  errcth,  men  ought  by  all  manner  of  means  to  Against 
resist  him.     Item,  That  great  and  superfluous  riches  in  the  clergy  do  ***£ 
not  profit,  but  hurt  the  church.     That  the  pope  doth  wickedly  dis-  church. 

(1)  Ex  lib.  D.  Weseli.     De  sacramento  poenitentis. 

(2)  Not  whatsoever  is  said  to  be  loosed  on  earth,  is  loosed  in  heaven  ;  but  whatsoever  is  loosed 
In  very  deed  in  earth,  that  is  also  looted  indeed  in  heaven. 

I  lull. 


Henry    tribute  the  rents  of  the  church,  and  the  church  itself,  to  unworthy 

rn  _  ministers  by  simonv,  for  his  own  profit  and  gain,  whereby  it  may 

A.U.    appear,   that  he  neither  carcth  for  God,  nor  for  the  health  of  the 

'•    church.     Item,  That  the  precepts  and  commandments  of  the  pope 

me  pre-  and  prelates  be  no  otherwise,  but  as  the  counsels  and  precepts  of 

.   physicians,  binding  no  further  than  they  are  found  to  be  wholesome, 

uteVhTw  ;mi1  ■tandig  with" the  truth  of  the  word.     Item,  That  the  pope  can 

command  no  man  under  pain  of  deadly  sin,  except  God  command 

iTta"       him  before.     He  saith,  that  the  keys  of  the  pope  and  of  the  prelates 

be  Dot  Bach  wherewith  they  open  the  kingdom  of  heaven,  but  rather 

shut  it,  as  the  Pharisees  did.     Concerning  vows,  he  disputeth  that 

such  as  be  foolish  and  impossible  ought  to  be  broken;   that  the 

.    hearers  ought  to  discern  and  judge  of  the  doctrine  of  their  prelates, 

and  not  to  receive  every  thing  that  they  say,  without  due  examination. 

He  showcth,  moreover,  that  the  sentence  of  excommunication  is  of 

*"    more  force,  proceeding  from  a  true,  godly,  honest,  simple,  and  learned 

man,  than  from  the  pope ;  as  in  the  council  of  Constance,  Bernard 

was  more  esteemed  than  Eugene.     Also  if  the  pope  with  his  prelates 

govern  and  rule  naughtily,  that  the  inferiors,  be  they  ever  so  base, 

ought  to  resist  him. 

Writing  moreover  of  two  popes,  Pius  II.  and  Sixtus  IV.,  he 
saith,  that  Pius  II.  did  usurp  unto  himself  all  the  kingdoms  of  the 
whole  world,  and  that  Sixtus  the  pope  did  dispense  with  all  manner 
of  oaths,  in  causes  temporal,  not  only  with  such  oaths  as  have  been 
already,  but  also  with  all  such  as  shall  be  made  hereafter:  which  was 
nothing  else  but  to  give  liberty  and  license  for  men  to  forswear  them- 
selves, and  deceive  one  another. 
a  pro-  This  Wcsclus,  being  a  Phrygian  born,  and  now  aged  in  years,  on  a 

certain  time  when  a  young  man  called  Master  Johannes  Ostendorpius1 
came  to  him,  said  these  words  :  "  Well,  my  child,  thou  shalt  live  to 
that  day,  when  thou  shalt  sec  that  the  doctrine  of  these  new  and  con- 
tentious divines,  as  Thomas  and  Bonaventurc,  with  others  of  the 
same  sort,  shall  be  utterly  rejected  and  exploded  from  all  true  christian 
divines."  And  this,  which  Ostendorpius,  then  being  young,  heard 
W  <  ->lus  to  speak,  he  reported  himself  to  Noviomagus,  who  wrote 
the  Btory,  \.n.  1520,  and  heard  it  at  the  mouth  of  the  said  Weselus 
a.d.  1  fc90,  March  18. 

Philip    Melancthon,  writing    the   life    of  Rodulphus   Agricola, 

saith,   that  Josquinus  Groningensis,  an  ancient  and  a  godly  man, 

reported  thai  when  he  was  young,  he  was  oftentimes  present  at  the 

Rodni-     sermons  of   Rodulphus  and  Weselus,   wherein   they   many   times 

lamented  the  darkness  of  the  church,  and  reprehended  the  abuses  of 

J;;;.'""     the  mass,  and  of  the  single  life  of  priests.2  Item,  That  they  disputed 

!!["u,''.''"  oftentimes  of  the  righteousness  of  faith,  why  St.  Paul  so  oftentimes 

did  inculcate,  that  men  be  justified  by  faith,  and  not  by  works.    The 

same  Josquine  also  reported,  that  they  did  openly  reject  and  disprove 

the  opinion  of  monks,  who  say  that  men  be  justified  by  their  works. 

Item,  Concerning  men's  traditions  their   opinion  was   that  all   such 

m  re  deceived,  whosoever  attributed  unto  those  traditions  any  opinion 

udorpiui  wu  ■  man  wall  learned,  and  oanon  of  the  minster  of  Lubeck.    Ex 

lphu«  Agricola  wa»  of  good  Judgment,  though  the  friars 
after*  " 


of  God's  worship,  or  that  they  might  not  be  broken.   And  thus  much    fiaw* 
for  the  story  of  doctors  Wesalia  and  Weselus.  _ 

By  this  it  may  be  seen  and  noted,  how,  by  the  grace  of  God  and    A.  I). 
gift  of  printing,  first  came  forth  learning ;  by  learning  came  light,  to    14L>0- 
judge  and  discern  the  errors  of  the  pope  from  the  truth  of  God's 
word  ;  as  partly  by  these  above  said  may  appear,  partly  by  others 
that  follow  after  (by  the  grace  of  Christ)  shall  better  be  seen. 

3Cfjc  burning  of  %aan  25ougf)ton,  ana  (©tfjecjS. 

About  the  very  same  time  and  season,  when  the  gospel  began  thus  a  d.h9». 
to  branch  and  spring  in  Germany,  the  host  of  Christ's  church  began 
also  to  muster  and  to  multiply  likewise  here  in  England,  as  by  these 
histories  here  consequent  may  appear.     For  not  long  after  the  death 
of  this  Weselus,  a.d.  1494,  and  in  the  ninth  year  of  the  reign  of 
king  Henry  VII.,  the  28th  of  April,  was  burned  a  very  old  woman 
named  Joan  Boughton,  widow,  and   mother  to  the  lady   Young,  Joan 
which  lady  was  also  suspected  to  be  of  that  opinion  which  her  mother  SSJj8*" 
was.    Her  mother  was  fourscore  years  of  age  or  more,  and  held  eight  j1^1}!"  .,0 
of  Wickliffs  opinions  (which  opinions  my  author  doth  not  show)  for  Young, 
which  she  was  burnt  in   Smithfield  the  day  abovesaid.     My  author  mart>r 
saith,  she  Avas  a  disciple  of  Wickliff,  whom  she  accounted  for  a  saint, 
and  held  so  fast  and  firmly  eight  of  his  ten  opinions,  that  all  the 
doctors  of  London  could  not  turn  her  from  one  of  them ;  and  when 
it  was  told  her  that  she  should  be  burnt  for  her  obstinacy  and  false 
belief,  she  set  nothing  by  their  menacing  words,  but  defied  them  :  for 
she  said,  she  was  so  beloved  of  God,  and  his  holy  angels,  that  she 
passed  not  for  the  fire  ;  and  in  the  midst  thereof  she  cried  to  God  to 
take  her  soul  into  his  holy  hands.     The  night  following  that  she  was 
burnt,  the  most  part  of  her  ashes  were  had  away  by  such  as  had  a 
love  unto  the  doctrine  that  she  died  for. 

Shortly  after  the  martyrdom  of  this  godly  aged  mother,  a.d.  1497,  A.D.1497. 
and  the  17th  of  January,  being  Sunday,  two  men,  the  one  called  wa^nde. 
Richard  Milderale,  and  the  other  James  Sturdy,  bare  faggots  before  g*™sy 
the  procession  of  Paul's,  and  after  stood  before  the  preacher  in  the 
time  of  his  sermon.     And  upon  the  Sunday  following  stood  other 
two  men  at  Paul's  cross  all  the  sermon  time ;  the  one  garnished  with 
painted  and  written  papers,  the  other  having  a  faggot  on  his  neck. 
After  that,  in  Lent  season,  upon  Passion  Sunday,  one  Hugh  Glover  Hugh 
bare  a  faggot  before  the  procession  of  Paul's,  and  after,  with  a  faggot,  £„„,"■ 
stood  before  the  preacher  all  the  sermon,  while  at  Paul's  Cross.   And,  "^"s 
on  the  Sunday  next  following,  four  men  stood,  and  did  their  open  faggots. 
penance  at  Paul's,  as  is  aforesaid,  in  the  sermon  time,  and  many  of 
their  books  were  burnt  before  them,  at  the  cross. 

Furthermore,  the  next  year  following,  which  was  a.d.  1498,  in  the 
beginning  of  May,  the  king  then  being  at  Canterbury,  there  was  a  burnt" 
priest  burnt,  who  was  so  strong  in  his  opinion,  that  all  the  clerks  and 
doctors  then  there  being,  could  not  remove  him  from  his  faith  : 
whereof  the  king  being  informed,  he  caused  the  said  priest  to  be 
brought  before  his  presence,  who,  by  his  persuasion,  caused  him  to 
revoke  ;  and  so  he  was  burnt  immediately. 

In  the  same  year  (a.d.1498),  after  the  beheading  of  Edward  Plan- 

An. .1.1 


r*H  taitenet  earl  of  Warwick,  and  son  to  the  duke  of  Clarence,  the  king 
™L  aS  oneen  being  removed  to  Calais,  a  certain  godly  man  and  a  con- 
v  17  rtant  n  artyr  of  Christ,  named  Babram,  in  Norfolk,  was  burnt  m  the 
WW.  month  0f  July,  as  is  in  Fabian  recorded,  after  the  copy  which  I  have 
written.     Albeit  in  the  Book  Fabian  printed,  his  burning  is  referred 

to  the  next  year  following,  which  is  a.d.  1499.1 

About  which  year  likewise,  or  in  the  year  next  following,  the  20th 

day  of  July,  was  an  old  man  burnt  in  Smithfiehl. 

tycronnmitf  &atoanarola,  toitfj  ttoo  fttotf,  J&artntf. 

In  the  same  year  also  (a.d.  1499),  fell  the  martyrdom  and 
burning  of  HieronymnB  Sayanarola,  a  man  no  less  godly  in  heart 
than  constant  in  hi's  profession;  who,  being  a  monk  in  Italy,  and 
sinzularjy  well  learned,  preached  sore  against  the  evil  life  and  living 
of  the  spiritualty,  and  specially  of  his  own  order;  complaining  sore 
upon  them,  as  the  springs  and  authors  of  all  mischiefs  and  wickedness. 
Whereupon,  by  the  help  of  certain  learned  men,  he  began  to  seek 
reformation  in  his  own  order.  Which  thing  the  pope  perceiving,  and 
fearing  that  the  said  Hierome,  who  was  now  in  great  reputation  amongst 
all  men,  should  diminish  or  overthrow  his  authority,  he  ordained  his 
vicar  ox  provincial  to  see  reformation  of  these  matters;  which  vicar 
with  great  superstition  began  to  reform  things,  but  the  said  Hierome 
did  always  withstand  him ;  whereupon  he  was  complained  of  to  the 
pope,  and,  because  that  contrary  unto  the  pope's  commandment  he 

Prophecy  did  withstand  his  vicar,  he  was  accursed.  But  for  all  that  Hierome 
left  not  off  preaching,  but  threatened  Italy  with  the  wrath  and  indig- 
nation of  God,  and  prophesied  before  unto  them,  that  the  land  should 

Pope"       be  overthrown  for  the  pride  and  wickedness  of  the  people,  and  for 

%%£*'  the  untruth,  hvpocrisf,  and  falsehood  of  the  clergy,  which  God  would 
not  have   unrevenged;  as  afterwards  it  came  to  pass,  when  king 

Araeh     Charles  came  into  Italy  and  to  Rome,  and  so  straightly  beset  pope 

kind.  -  ■*-  -  -  •■•  -i       i       i  • 

t..  appear 

he  was  commanded  to  appear  before  the  pope,  to  give  account  ot  his 
new  learning  (for  so  then  they  called  the  truth  of  the  gospel);  but, 
by  means  of  the  manifold  perils,  he  made  his  excuse  that  he  could 
not  come.  Then  was  he  again  forbidden  by  the  pope  to  preach,  and 
ut'erau.  his  learning  pronounced  and   condemned  as   pernicious,  false,   and 


This  Hierome,  as  a  man  worldly  wise,  foreseeing  the  great  perils 
and  dangers  that  might  come  unto  him,  for  fear,  left  off  preaching, 
liut  when  the  people,  who  sore  hungered  and  longed  for  God's  word, 
were  instant  upon  him  that  he  would  preach  again,  he  began  again 
to  preach  a.d.  1496,  in  the  city  of  Florence  ;  and  albeit  that  many 
counselled  him  that  he  should"  not  so  do  without  the  pope's  com- 
mandment, yet  did  he  not  regard  it,  but  went  forward  freely  of  his 
own  rood  will.  When  the  pope  and  his  shavelings  heard  news  of 
thi  ,  th(  y  were  grievously  incensed  and  inflamed  against  him,  and  now 
again  cursed  him,  as  an  obstinate  and  stitmecked  heretic.  But  for  all 
that,  1 1  ierome  proceeded  in  teaching  and  instructing  the  people,  saying 

( 1 )  I'.x  Fabianio,  ct  alio  scripto  codice. 

..I  Ban 

Alexander,  that  he  was  forced  to  make  composition  with  the  king. 



that  men  ought  not  to  regard  such  curses,  which  are  against  the  Hew 
true  doctrine  and  the  common  profit,  whereby  the  people  should  be  //;' 
learned  and  amended,  Christ's  kingdom  enlarged,  and  the  kingdom  of  A.I), 
the  devil  utterly  overthrown.  ]  '■'•'■ 

In  all  his  preaching  he  desired  to  teach  no  other  thing  than  the 
only  ptire  and  simple  word  of  God,  making  often  protestation  that  all 
men  should  certify  him,  if  they  had  heard  him  teach  or  preach  any 
thing  contrary  thereunto ;  for,  upon  his  own  conscience,  he  knew  not 
that  he  had  taught  any  thing  but  the  pure  word  of  God.  What  his 
doctrine  was,  all  men  may  easily  judge  by  his  books  that  he  hath 

After  this  (a.d.  1498)  he  was  taken  and  brought  out  of  St.  Mark's  Hierom, 
cloister,  and  two  other  friars  with  him,  named  Dominic  and  Silvester,  otherM 

mitttd  to 

godly  meditation  upon  that  most  comfortable  thirty-first  Psalm  :  "  In  prison. 
te  Domine  speravi,  non  confundar  in  seternum,  scd  in  justitia  tua  libera  mentvy 
me  ;"  wherein  he  doth  excellently  describe  and  set  forth  the  continual  p^"m 
strife  between  the  flesh  and  the  spirit.  xx*'- 

After  this  the  pope's  legates  came  to  Florence,  and  called  forth 
these  three  good  men,  threatening  them  marvellously ;  but  they  con- 
tinued still  constant.  Then  came  the  chief  counsellors  of  the  city, 
with  the  pope's  commissioners,  who  had  gathered  out  certain  articles 
against  these  men,  whereupon  they  were  condemned  to  death ;  the 
tenor  of  which  articles  hereafter  ensue. 

Articles  objected  against  Hierome  and  the  two  Friars. 

I.  The  first  article  was  as  touching  our  free  justification  through  faith  in 

II.  That  the  communion  ought  to  he  ministered  under  both  kinds. 

III.  That  the  indulgences  and  pardons  of  the  pope  were  of  no  effect. 

IV.  For  preaching  against  the  filthy  and  wicked  living  of  the  cardinals  and 

V.  For  denying  the  pope's  supremacy. 

VI.  Also,  that  he  had  affirmed  that  the  keys  were  not  given  unto  Peter  alone, 
but  unto  the  universal  church. 

VII.  Also,  that  the  pope  did  neither  follow  the  life  nor  doctrine  of  Christ; 
for  that  he  did  attribute  more  to  his  own  pardons  and  traditions,  than  to  Christ's 
merits ;  and  therefore  he  was  Antichrist. 

VIII.  Also,  that  the  pope's  excommunications  are  not  to  he  feared,  and  that 
he  who  cloth  fear  or  flee  them  is  excommunicate  of  God. 

IX.  Item,  that  auricular  confession  is  not  necessary. 

X.  Item,  that  he  had  moved  the  citizens  to  uproar  and  sedition. 

XI.  Item,  that  he  had  neglected  and  condemned  the  pope's  citation. 

XII.  Item,  that  he  had  shamefully  spoken  against,  and  slandered  the  pope. 

XIII.  Item,  that  he  had  taken  Christ  to  witness  of  bis  naughtiness  and 

XIV.  Also,  that  Italy  must  be  cleansed  through  God's  scourge,  for  the 
manifold  wickedness  of  the  princes  and  clergy. 

These  and  such  other  like  articles  were  laid  unto  them  and  read 
before  them.  Then  they  demanded  of  the  said  Hierome  and  his 
companions,  whether  they  would  recant  and  give  over  their  opinions. 
Whereunto  they  answered,  that  through  God's  help  they  would 
steadfastly  continue  in  the  manifest  truth,  and  not  depart  from  the 


Jiwy    same.     Then  were  they  degraded  one  after  another  by  the  bishop  of 

V.i-ion,  and  BO  delivered  over  to  the  secular  rulers  of  Florence,  with 

\.D.    straight  commandment  to   carry  them  forth,  and  handle  them  as 

obstinate  and  stiflheeked  heretics. 

savana-        Thus  was  the  worthy  witness  of  Christ,  with  the  other  two  afore- 

[.,'1;ir,ltb  said,  first  hanged  up  openly  in  the  market-place,  and  afterward  burnt 

3J2*     to  ashes,  and  the  ashes  gathered  up,  and  cast  into  the  river  Arno,  the 

J4thofMay,  a.d.  1499.' 

A*  the         This  man  foreshowed  many  things  to  come,  as  the  destruction  of 

tTc"'°f    Florence  and  Rome,  and  the  renewing  of  the  church;  which  three 

dings  have  happened  in  these  times  within  our  remembrance.     Also 

e  Foreshowed  that  the  Turks  and  Moors,  in  the  latter  days,  should 

'   be   converted  unto  Christ.     He  also  declared  that  one,  like  unto 

Cyrus,  should  pass  the  Alps  into  Italy,  who  should  subvert  and 

destroy   all  Italy  :  whereupon  Johannes  Franciscus  Picus,   earl  of 

Alirandula,  called   him   a   holy  prophet,   and  defended  him  by  his 

writings  against  the  pope.    Many  other  learned  men  also  defended 

the  innocency  of  the  said  Savanarola.     Masilius  Ficinus  also,  in  a 

certain  epistle,  doth  attribute  unto  him  the  spirit  of  prophecy,  greatly 

commending  and  praising  him.     In  like  manner  Philippus  Comi- 

neas,    a  French    historiographer,    who    had    conference   with   him, 

witnesseth  that  he  was  a  holy  man/and  full  of  the  spirit  of  prophecy, 

forasmuch  as  he  had  foreshowed  unto  him  so  many  things  which  in 

event  had  proved  true.2 

There  were  besides  these,  many  others,  not  to  be  passed  over  or 
forgotten:  as  Philip  Noricc,  an  Irishman,  professor  at  Oxford,  who 
albeit  he  was  not  burned,  yet  (as  it  is  said)  he  was  long  time  vexed 
and  troubled  by  the  religious  rout.  But  would  to  God,  that  such  as 
have  occupied  themselves  in  writing  of  histories,  and  have  so  dili- 
gently committed  unto  memory  all  other  things  done  in  foreign  com- 
monwealths,  had  bestowed  the  like  diligence  and  labour  in  noting  and 
writing  those  things  which  pertain  unto  the  affairs  of  the  church; 
whereby  posterity  might  have  had  fuller  and  more  perfect  under- 
standing and  knowledge  of  them. 

This  Savanarola  above  mentioned,  suffered  under  pope  Alexander 
VI.,  of  which  pope  more  leisure  and  opportunity  shall  serve  hereafter 
(<  inist  willing)  to  treat,  after  we  shall  first  make  a  little  digression, 
to  treat  of  certain  eases  and  complaints  of  the  Germans,  incident  in 
the  mean  time,  which,  as  they  are  not  to  be  overpast  in  silence,  so 
can  they  have  no  place  nor  time  more  convenient  to  be  inferred. 

(II  V.\  e.itil.  Testium  Illyricl. 

following  lines,  inserted  in  some  recent  editions,  have  been  introduced  since  Foxe  s 
death  :  they  arc  BlgO  m  a  Dutch  Martyrology,  published  at  Dort,  in  1057.— Ed. 

"  Antonius  Flaminlus,  an  Italian,  and,  for  piety  and  learning,  famous  in  that  age,  wrote  this 
ma  upon  tin-  death  of  Hieronymus  Savanarola:— 

Hum  fcra  flamma  tuos,  IJiernnymc!  pascitur  artus, 

dllaniata  comas, 
Flevit,  et  '0,'dlxit,  ' crudeles  parcite  flammsc, 
Paiclte,  sunt  isto  viscera  nostra  rogo.' 

Whicli  may  he  thus  Englished. 
Whilst  flames  unjust,  blest  saint  !  thy  body  burn, 

Weeping  Religion,  with  dishevell'd  hairs, 
Cries  oat  and     ...  '  O  spare  his  sacred  urn, 

Spare,  cruel  flames,  that  lire  OUT  soul  impairs.'  " 


What  complaints  of  the  Germans  were  made  and  moved  unto  the    ff«w» 
emperor  Frederic  against   the   pope's   suppressions   and   exactions, 

mention  was  made  before ;  where  also  was  declared,  how  the  said  A.  D. 
Germans  at  that  time  were  twice  put  back  and  forsaken  of  the  empe-  1499 
ror,  whereby  they  continued  in  the  same  yoke  and  bondage  until  the    ,1° 

time  of  Luther.     Wherefore  it  cometh  now  to  hand,  and  we  think  it — 

also  good  here  briefly  to  declare,  how  the  said  Germans,  in  the  time  of  plaint  of 
Maximilian  the  emperor,  renewing  their  complaints  again,  delivered  1^"" 
unto  the  emperor  ten  principal  grievances,  whereby  the  Germans  have  gainst 
been  long  time  oppressed ;  showing  also  the  remedies  against  the  renewed. 
same,  with  certain  advisements  unto  the  emperor's  majesty,  how  he 
might  withstand  and  resist  the  pope's  subtleties  and  crafts :  the  order 
and  tenor  whereof  here  ensueth. 

The  ten  principal  Grievances,  complained  of  by  the  Germans. 

I.  That  the  bishops  of  Rome,  successors  one  unto  another,  do  not  think 
themselves  bound  to  observe  and  keep  the  bulls,  covenants,  privileges,  and 
letters,  granted  by  their  predecessors,  without  all  derogation ;  but  by  often  dis- 
pensation, suspension  and  revocation,  even  at  the  instance  of  every  vile  person, 
they  do  gainsay  and  withstand  the  same. 

II.  That  the  elections  of  prelates  are  oftentimes  put  back. 

III.  That  the  elections  of  presidentships  are  withstood,  which  the  chapter- 
houses of  many  churches  have  obtained  with  great  cost  and  expense,  as  the 
churches  of  Spire  and  Hasselt  do  well  know ;  whose  bull  touching  the  election 
of  their  president,  is  made  frustrate,  he  being  yet  alive  who  granted  the 

IV.  That  benefices,  and  the  greatest  ecclesiastical  dignities,  are  reserved  for 
cardinals  and  head-notaries. 

V.  That  expectative  graces,  called  vowsons,  are  granted  without  number,  and 
many  oftentimes  unto  one  man,  whereupon  continual  contentions  do  arise,  and 
much  money  is  spent,  both  that  which  is  laid  out  for  the  bulls  of  those  vowsons 
which  never  take  effect,  and  also  that  which  is  consumed  in  going  to  law. 
Whereupon  this  proverb  hath  risen,  '  Whosoever  will  get  avowson  from  Rome, 
must  have  one  or  two  hundred  pieces  of  gold  laid  up  in  his  chest,  for  the  obtaining 
of  the  same,  which  he  shall  have  need  of,  to  prosecute  the  law  withal.' 

VI.  That  Annates,  or  yearly  revenues  are  exacted  without  delay  or  mercy, 
even  of  the  bishops  lately  dead,  and  oftentimes  more  extorted  than  ought  to 
be,  through  new  offices  and  new  servants,  as  by  the  examples  of  the  churches 
of  Mentz  and  Strasburg,  may  be  seen. 

VII.  That  the  rule  of  the  churches  is  given  at  Rome  unto  those  that  are  not 
worthy,  who  were  more  fit  to  feed  and  keep  mules,  than  to  have  the  rale  and 
governance  of  men. 

VIII.  That  new  indulgences  and  pardons,  with  the  suspension  and  revoca- 
tion of  the  old,  are  granted  to  gather  and  scrape  money  together. 

IX.  That  tenths  are  exacted,  under  pretence  of  making  war  against  the 
Turk,  when  no  expedition  doth  follow  thereupon. 

X.  That  the  causes  which  might  be  determined  in  Germany,  where  there  are 
both  learned  and  just  judges,  are  indistinctly1  carried  unto  the  court  of  Rome; 
which  thing  St.  Bernard,  writing  to  pope  Eugene,  seemeth  wonderfully  to  re- 

The  remedy  against  the  said  Grievances. 

If  it  shall  seem  good  unto  the  emperor's  majesty,  let  it  be  declared  unto  the 
bishop  of  Rome,  how  grievous  and  intolerable  a  thing  it  is  unto  the  Germans, 

(1)  "Indistinctly,"  without  distinction — Eu. 


~  ,• ,„,,„,  „•.,...,  charees  and  grievances,  to  pay  so  great  annates 

%?     f*Z ma S,    offi  lilhi  and   archbishops,  and   especially  in  sneh 

si,  mic;   where  the  Annates,  by  process  of  time,  are  enhanced,  ard  in  many, 

A1X         i  hi       ull     .     For  the  archbishop's  see  of  Mente,  as  it  is  said,  some- 

:,     "id ,    1 "  10,000  florins;  which  sum,  when  one  who  was  chosen  there 

"•       r      s,  1  to  rive  and  so  continued  even  unto  his  death,  he  who  was  afterwards 

:  u.      b£?  desirous  of   confirmation,  fearing    to  withstand   lie  apostolic 

....   offered  L  old  sum  of   10,000  florins:   but    notwithstandrng    he  could 

Z  llis  confirmation,  except  he  would  pay  the  other  10,000,  which  his 

ar.  h 

predecessor  before  bin  had  not  paid. 
"  '  Bv  this  means  be  was  compelled  to  pay  20,000  florins  ;  which,  being  enrolled 
"","<!,*  in  the  register  of  the  chamber,  hath  been  exacted  of  every  archbishop  smce, 
l"'Ut"  Id  these  our  days  :  and  not  only  20,000,  but  also  25,000,  for  their  new  offices 
and  new  servants."  At  last,  the  sum  drew  to  27,000  florins,  which  James,  the 
archbishop  of  Mente,  was  compelled  to  pay,  as  his  commissary  did  report.  So 
bv  this  means,  in  a  little  time  there  were  seven  times  25,000  florins  paid  out  of 
tfie  archbishopric  of  Mente  unto  Rome,  for  the  confirmation  ot  the  archbishop. 
A  ad  when  the  archbishop  James  had  kept  this  archbishopric  scarcely  four  years, 
tin'  lord  Uriel  was  elected  after  him,  who  was  compelled  to  pay  at  the  least 
2  I  000,  or  25,000  florins;  whereof  a  part  he  borrowed  of  merchants.  But,  to 
gatisfy  and  pay  them  again,  he  was  forced  to  exact  a  subsidy  of  his  poor  sub- 
jects and  husbandmen,  whereof  some  have  not  yet  satisfied  and  paid  the  tribute 
Vui-  the  bishop's  pall,  so  that  by  this  means  our  people  are  not.  only  tormented 
and  brought  to  extreme  poverty,  but  also  are  moved  unto  rebellion,  to  seek 
their  liberty  by  what  means  soever  they  may,  grievously  murmuring  against  the 
cruelty  of  "the  clergy. 

The  pope  also  should  be  admonished,' how  that,  through  divers  and  sundry 
wars  and  battles,  the  lands  of  Germany  lie  desolate   and  waste,  and  through 
many  mortalities,  the  number  of  men  is  diminished,  so  that  for  the  scarceness  of 
husbandmen,  the  fields  for  the  most  part  lie  untilled,  the  tolls  are  by  divers 
means  diminished,  the  mines  consumed,  and  the  profits  daily  decay,  whereby 
the  archbishops  and  bishops  should  pay  their  annates  unto  the  apostolic  see, 
besides  their  other  necessary  and  honest  charges;  insomuch  that,  not  without 
jusl  cause,  .lames,  the  archbishop  of  Mentz,  being  even  at  the  point  of  death, 
Ti,c  ,mh-    said,  Thai  he  did  not  so  much  sorrow  for  his  own  death,  as  for  that  his  poor 
!  subjects  Bhould  be  again  forced  to  pay  a  grievous  exaction  for  the  pall.     Where- 
,';,',',„'!"'      fore  let   the  high  bishop,  as  a  godly  father  and  lover  of  his  children,   and  a 
I'.uY  faithful  and  prudent  pastor,  deal  more  favourably  with  his  children  the  Ger- 

mans, lest  that  persecution  happen  to  rise  against  the  priests  of  Christ,  and 
that  men,  following  the  example  of  the  Bohemians,  do  swerve  from  the  church 
of  Koine. 

At  hast,  let  him  be  more  favourable,  as  often  as  any  archbishop  or  bishop 
may  happen  to  rule  his  church  but  a  few  years  ;  as  it  happened  to  the  bishops 
of  Bamberg,  whereof  three  died  within  a  fewyears.  The  like  also  might  happen 
bj  other  bishoprics,  whereof,  as  ./Eneas  Sylvius  witnesseth,  there  are  in  Ger- 
many  to  the  number  of  fifty,  besides  abbots,  whereof  a  great  number  are  con- 
nuny.       firmed  at  Rome. 

And  admit  that  in  Germany  there  were  greater  profits  and  revenues  arising 
of  the  -round,  mines,  and  tolls;  notwithstanding  the  emperor  and  the  other 
princes  should  lack  treasure  and  munition  of  war  against  their  enemies,  and  espe- 
cially the  infidels,  and  to  preserve  Germany  in  peace  and  quietness,  and  to 
minister  justice  unto  every  man  :  for  which  purpose  the  council  of  the  chamber, 
being  most  holily  instructed,  and  furnished  with  great  cost  and  charges,  doth 
chic  lly  serve.  Besides  that,  the  emperor  hath  need  of  treasure,  to  suppress 
the  rebels  in  the  empire,  to  banish  and  drive  away  thieves  and  murderers, 
■  ■  of  •'  great  number  are  not  ashamed  not  to  spoil  churches  only,  and  to  rob 
them  of  their  goods,  but  also  to  assail  the  clergy  themselves.  Finally,  our 
nation  and  country  of  Germany  hath  need  of  great  riches  and  treasure,  not 
only  tor  the  repairing  of  churches  and  monasteries,  but  also  for  hospitals 
for  children  that  ari'  laid  out  in  the  streets,  for  widows,  for  women  with 
child,  lor  orphans,  for  marriage  of  the  daughters  of  poor  men,  that  they  be 
not  defiled   for  BUch   as   have  need  and  necessity,   for  the  old  and  weak,  for 


the  sick  and  the  sore,  whereof  (the  more  is  the  sorrow)    Germany  is   fully  re-     jiennj 
plenished  and  filled.  l  JI- 


Ail  Advertisement  unto   the   Emperor  Maximilian,   of  the  subtle    1499 
Practices  of  the  Pope  and  Popish  Prelates.  to 


Let  the  emperor's  majesty  foresee  and  provide  that  the  begging  friars  do  not 

preach  against  his  majesty,  who  are  wont  to  complain  gladly  unto  the  apostolic 
see,  fearing  to  lose  their  privileges,  which  I  woidd  to  God  were  as  well  grounded 
upon  Christ,  as  they  are  upon  profit.  Let  the  emperor's  majesty  also  beware, 
that  the  pope  do  not  give  commandment  unto  the  electors,  to  proceed  to  the 
election  of  a  new  king  of  Romans,  as  he  did  against  Frederic  II.,  when  the 
landgrave  of  Thuringia,  and  William  earl  of  Holland,  were  elected  by  the  com- 
mandment of  the  pope.  Let  the  emperor's  majesty  also  fear  and  take  heed  of 
all  the  prelates  of  the  churches,  and  especially  of  the  presidents,  who  by  their 
oath  are  bound  to  advertise  the  pope.  Let  the  emperor's  majesty  also  fear  and 
beware,  that  the  pope  do  not  take  away  from  his  subjects  their  obedience,  and 
provoke  the  people  bordering  upon  him,  to  make  invasion  into  the  emperor's 
dominions  and  archduchy  of  Austria  ;  which  those  men,  under  colour  of  showing 
obedience  unto  the  pope's  commandment,  be  ready  to  do. 

Let  the  emperor's  majesty,  also,  take  heed  of  the  apostolic  censures,  from 
which  the  pope  will  in  no  case  refrain.     Finally,  let  the  emperor's  majesty 
diligently  foresee  and  take  heed,  that  the  pope  do  not  persuade  the  people  with 
most  subtle  arguments,  contrary  to  the  Pragmatical  sanction,  excusing  himself,  The 
and  getting  the  good  will  of  the  simple,  alleging  that  with  great  costs  and  JjJSLJ.- 
charges,  he  will  repair  the  church  of  St.  Peter  in  Rome,  and  build  in  certain  „f  build 
places  against  the  Turks,  and  recover  again  the  lands  and  patrimony  pertaining  '"S  St. 
unto  the  church  of  St.  Peter  ;  as  he  is  bound  by  his  office.     Therefore  let  your  church  in 
majesty  diligently  foresee  and  deliberate,  how,  through  your  most  wise  and  discreet  Rome, 
counsel,  if  need  shall  require,  you  will  answer  to  those  subtleties  of  the  pope. 

A  certain  godly  Exhortation  unto  the  Emperor's  Majesty. 

Your  majesty  can   do  nothing  better,  nothing    more  acceptable,    or  more  A  suppli- 
worthy  eternal  remembrance,  than  to  moderate  the  great  exactions  and  op-  Ma'hni' 
pressions  of  the  Germans;  to  take  away  all  occasion  from  the  laity,  to  persecute  nan  the 
the  clergy  :  also  to  take  away  the  benefices  out  of  the  hands  of  courtesans,  who  emperor 
can  neither  preach,  comfort,  nor  counsel  any  man  (of  which  benefices,  asiEneas  renress 
Sylvius  writeth,  some  are  equal  to  the  bishoprics  of  Italy),  to  increase  God's  of  the 
honour  and  worship ;  and  so  to  bridle  the  avarice  and  ungodliness  of  those  clmrcl1- 
courtesans,  whereby  your  majesty  may  the  better  provide  for  the  children  of 
many  noble  and  famous  men  and  citizens  in  Germany ;  who,  being  brought  up 
from  their  youth  in  the  universities,  learning  both  the   Scriptures,   and  other 
human  letters,  may,  without  unquiet  vexations  and  most  sumptuous  charges 
and  contentions,  aspire  to  the  ecclesiastical  promotions ;  who,  by  their  counsel 
and  prayers,  may  be  helps  unto  the  whole  church :  for  there  is  no  small  occa- 
sion,  why  the  realm  of  France  should  so  flourish,  having  so  many  notable 
learned  men  in  it.    If  the  emperor  would  abolish  this  impiety,  and  restore  Ger- 
many unto  her  ancient  liberty,  which  is  now  oppressed  with  grievous  tributes, 
and  would  make  way  for  learned  and   honest  men  unto  ecclesiastical  pro- 
motions ;  then  might  he  truly  and  perpetually  be  called  of  all  men,  and  in  all 
places,  the  restorer  of  Germany  to  her  ancient  liberty,  and  the  father  of  his 
country ;  and  should  obtain  no  less  glory  thereby  unto  himself,  and  profit  unto 
Germany,  than  if  he  had  by  force  of  anns  subdued  any  province  unto  them. 
And  so  shall  Germany  render  no  less  thanks  unto  the  said  Maximilian,  than 
unto  all  the  rest,  who,  having  translated  the  empire  from  the  Grecians  unto 
Germany,  have  reigned  many  years  before. 

Hereafter  ensueth  the  copy  of  a  certain  letter  of  the  emperor 
Maximilian,  given  out  in  manner  of  a  decree  or  commandment 
against  certain  abuses  of  the  clergy  :  whercunto  we  have  also  annexed 
the  answer  of  Jacobus  Selestadiensis   unto  the   emperors  letters, 

||  AN    edict    ok    TKE    EMPEEOE,    AND    A    REPLY    THERETO. 

■m    wherein  be  seemeth  also  to  have  sought  advice  for  the  remedy  of  the 
''"■    like  abuses,  which  we  thought  good  here  not  to  be  omitted. 


1408  An  Edict  of  Maximilian  the  Emperor. 

1503         We,  according  to  the  example  of  our  dearly  beloved  father,  Frederic  em- 

'-  pert*  of  Rome,  reverencing  the  chief  pastor  of  the  church,  and  all  the  clergy-, 

have  suffered  no  small  revenues  of  the  ecclesiastical  dignities  to  be  carried  out 
of  our  dominion  by  the  prelates  and  clergy  that  are  absent,  whose  faults,  com- 
mitted  by  human  frailty  with  Constantine  our  predecessor,  we  have  not  dis- 
dained to  hide  and  cover.  But  forasmuch  as  through  our  liberality,  the  decay 
of  God's  honour  hath  arisen,  it  is  our  part,  (who  are  elect  unto  the  empire, 
without  any  desert)  to  foresee,  that  among  all  other  affairs  of  peace  and  war, 
the  churches  do  not  decay,  religion  quail  not,  nor  God's  true  worship  be  dimi- 
nished ;  which  we  have  manifestly  experimented,  and  daily  do  perceive  by  the 
insatiable  covetousness  of  some,  who  are  never  satisfied  in  getting  of  benefices, 
through  whose  absence  (being  resident  only  upon  one),  God's  honour  and 
worship  are  diminished,  houses  decay,  churches  decrease,  the  ecclesiastical 
liberty  is  hurt,  learning  and  monuments  are  lost  and  destroyed,  hospitality  and 
alms  diminished,  and,  by  their  insatiable  greediness,  such  of  the  clergy,  as  for 
their  learning  and  virtue,  were  worthy  of  benefices,  and  for  their  wisdpm  profit- 
No  man  able  in  commonwealths,  are  hindered  and  put  back.  Wherefore,  according  to  the 
to  have  0^cc  an(j  (|uty  0f  our  estate,  for  the  love  of  the  increase  of  God's  honour,  we 
i  exhort  and  require,  that  no  man  from  henceforth,  having  any  canonship  or 
w  P»-  vicarage  in  one  city  of  our  empire,  shall  occupy  or  possess  a  prebend  in  another 
once* at  church  of  the  same  city,  except  he  give  over  the  first  within  a  year's  space  unto 
some  person  fit  and  profitable  for  the  church ;  neither  that  he  do,  by  unjust 
quarrels,  vex  or  trouble  any  man  in  getting  of  benefices ;  neither  that  any  man 
do  falsely  feign  himself  to  have  been  of  the  emperor's  household,  who  hath  not 
been  comprehended  within  the  league  and  agreement  made  by  the  princes ; 
neither  that  any  man  attempt  to  take  away  the  patronages  from  any  layman, 
or  aggravate  the  small  prebends  of  curates  of  churches,  with  pensions  ;  neither 
that  they  do  use  in  getting  of  benefices  and  bulls,  any  fraud,  deceit,  false  in- 
struments, corrupt  witnesses,  and  cloaked  simony ;  neither  that  any  man  pre- 
sume to  obtain  any  regress,  or  other  thing  contrary  to  Ihe  sacred  canons,  right, 
honesty,  equity,  and  reason,  upon  pain  of  the  most  grievous  offence  of  treason : 
the  which  we  will,  that  not  only  they  (going  so  contrary  to  God  and  all  ho- 
nesty), but  also  all  their  favourers,  who  do  help,  counsel,  harbour,  or  give  them 
any  tiling,  all  their  messengers  and  writers,  proctors,  sureties,  and  other  their 
friends,  shall  incur,  and  receive  condign  punishment  for  so  great  offence  and 
contempt  of  our  commandment. 
From  Oenopont,  &c. 

Here  ensueth  the  copy  of  a  Letter  written  unto  the  emperor 

A  Letter  of  Jacobus  Selestadiensis,  to  the  Emperor  Maximilian,  in 
answer  to  the  Edict. 

To  our  most  victorious  lord,   Maximilian  the  emperor,   Jacobus  Selestadiensis, 
with  most  humble  commendations  : 

Moat  victorious  emperor !  when  I  had  read  your  majesty's  epistle,  and  re- 
ceived instructions  of  your  secretary,  I  prepared  myself,  with  all  my  whole 
endeavour,  to  satisfy  your  majesty's  desire.  For  even  from  my  youth  hitherto, 
I  have  applied  all  my  care  and  study,  first  for  the  honour  of  your  majesty,  and 
'•quently,  for  the  amplifying  of  the  German  nation,  and  sacred  Roman 
empire.  Albeit  I  know  myself  far  unable  to  satisfy  your  desire  and  purpose, 
and  there  ;uv  many  who  can  fulfil  this  matter  much  better,  who  have  greater 
learning  and  experience  of  these  common  matters.  There  be  also  with  other 
princes,  and  in  the  senates  of  commonwealths,  many  excellent  learned  men, 
who  can  exomsie  and  beautify  Germany,  and  persuade  to  reduce  all  the  clergy 

CEMES,    THE    TURK  S    BROTHER,    POISONED    I!V   THE    POPE.  15 




unto  a  christian  discipline,  and  to  a  unity  and  peace  of  the  universal  church . 
wherein,  not  only  your  majesty,  but  also  your  predecessors,  as  Charles  the  "y'11'- 
Great,  and  his  son  Ludovicus  Pius,  the  Othos,  Conrads,  Frederics,  and  Henrys, 
and  last  of  all,  Sigismund,  have,  with  all  labour  and  diligence,  travailed  ;  being 
stirred  thereunto  undoubtedly  through  the  zeal  and  charity  which  they  bear 
unto  Almighty  God,  and  thankfulness  to  Christ  for  his  benefits  which  he  hath 
bestowed  upon  mankind,  and  especially  for  the  benefit  of  his  most  bitter  — 
passion.  For  Christ  became  not  poor  for  us,  that  we  should  live  in  all  riot  and 
wantonness  upon  his  patrimony,  and  show  forth  our  ambition  and  covetousness ; 
neither  did  he  suffer  hunger,  that  we  should  glut  up  ourselves ;  nor  suffered  la- 
bours, chastity,  and  grievous  torments,  that  we  should  live  in  idleness,  wanton- 
ness, and  all  kind  of  voluptuousness.  Neither  they  who  were  contributors,  and 
benefactors  to  churches,  enduing  the  ministers  thereof  with  their  temporal 
riches,  had  any  such  respect  herein,  that  the  clergy  shoidd  live  only  in  idle- 
ness, having  all  things  at  their  will,  without  labour.  Surely  there  was  another 
cause,  why  they  in  times  past  did  impoverish  themselves  and  theirs,  to  endow 
the  church  :  verily,  that  they  might  the  better  attend  unto  divine  service 
without  care  of  want  of  living  (which  they  might  easily  get  and  gather  out 
of  the  fields,  woods,  meadows,  and  waters),  and  to  the  intent  that  they 
should  liberally  give  alms  unto  the  poor  Christians,  widows,  orphans,  aged  and 
sick  persons.  For,  in  the  institutions  of  the  canonical  profession,  which  we 
suppose  were  written  by  the  commandment  of  Ludovicus  Pius  the  emperor, 
and  allowed  by  the  council  of  the  bishops,  thus  it  is  read;  '  The  goods  of  the 
church,'  as  it  is  alleged  by  the  fathers,  and  contained  in  the  chapters  before, 
'  are  the  vows  of  the  faithful,  and  patrimony  of  the  poor.  For  the  faithful, 
through  the  ferventness  of  their  faith  and  love  of  Christ,  being  inflamed,  having 
an  earnest  desire  of  that  heavenly  kingdom,  have  enriched  the  holy  church 
with  their  own  goods,  that  thereby  the  soldiers  of  Christ  might  be  nourished, 
the  church  adorned,  the  poor  refreshed,  and  captives,  according  to  the  oppor- 
tunity of  time,  redeemed.'  Wherefore  such  as  have  the  administration  of  those 
goods,  ought  diligently  to  be  looked  upon,  that  they  do  not  convert  them  unto 
their  own  proper  use,  but  rather,  according  to  their  substance  and  possibility, 
they  do  not  neglect  them,  in  whom  Christ  is  fed  and  clothed.  Prosper  is  also 
of  the  same  mind,  affirming  that  holy  men  did  not  challenge  the  church  goods 
to  their  own  use,  as  their  own  proper  goods,  but  as  things  commended  unto  the 
poor,  to  be  divided  amongst  them :  for  that  is  to  contemn  that  which  a  man 
possesseth  ;  not  to  possess  a  thing  for  himself,  but  for  others ;  neither  to  covet 
the  church  goods  with  covetousness  to  have  them  himself,  but  to  take  them  with 
a  godly  zeal  to  help  others.  That  which  the  church  hath,  is  common  to  all 
those  who  have  nothing,  neither  ought  they  to  give  any  thing  of  that  unto  them 
(saith  he)  who  have  of  their  own  ;  for  to  give  unto  them  who  have  enough,  is 
but  to  cast  things  away.1 

To  return  now  to  the  order  of  popes,  where  we  left  before,  speak-  The  order 
ing  of  Innocent  VIII.    After  the  said  Innocent,  next  succeeded  pope  of  pope6- 
Alexander  VI. ;  in  which  Alexander,  among  other  horrible  things, 
this  is  one  to  be  noted :  that  when  Gemes  (Peucer  nameth  him  Denies) 
brother  to  Bajazet  the  great  Turk,  was  committed  by  the  Rhodians 
to  the  safe  custody,  first  of  pope  Innocent,  then  of  Alexander  VI.,  for 
whose  keeping,  the  pope  received  every  year  40,000  crowns ;  yet,  The  popP 
notwithstanding,  when  pope  Alexander  afterwards  was  compelled  to  P°is™e"i 
send  the  said  Gemes  to  Charles  VIII.  the  French  king,  for  a  pledge, 
because  the  French  king  should  not  procure  the  great  Turk's  favour 
by  sending  his  brother  Gemes  to  him  to  be  slain,  he  (pope  Alexan- 
der), being  hired  by  the  Turk,  caused  the  said  Gemes  to  be  poisoned, 
who,  in  his  journey  going  toward  the  French  king,  died  at  Terracina.2 

Moreover,   it  appeareth,   that  this  Alexander,  taking  displeasure 
with  the  aforesaid  Charles,  the  French  king,  about  the  winning  01 

(l)  Ex  lllyrico.  '2)  Ex  Paulo  Jovto  lib.  ii.     Ex  Peucero  lib.  iv.     El  Hieronym  Mario. 




](J  EPIGRAMS    OX    I'OPE    JULIUS    II. 

Bam    Naples,  Bent  to  Baiazet,  the  Turk,  to  fight  against  the  aforesaid 

\.H         Munstcrus,2  declaring  the  aforesaid  history  of  G ernes  something 

1 1:':'    otherwise,  first  calleth  him  Zizymus,  and  saith  that  he  was  first  com- 

£,    mitted  by  (In-  Rhodians  to  the'French  king ;  and  when  Johannes  Hu- 

.  aforementioned,  did  labour  to  the  French  king  to  have  him, 

thinking  by  that  means  to  obtain  a  noble  victory  against  the  Turk,  as 

raiLt     i*  was  not  unlike,  this  Alexander  the  pope,  through  his  fraudulent 

flattcrv,  got  him  of  the  French  king  into  his  own  hands,  by  whose 

k<!       means  the  said  Gcmes  afterwards  was  poisoned,  as  is  in  manner  before 


Unto  these  poisoned  acts  of  the  pope,  let  us  also  adjoin  his  mali- 
Mand-     cious  wickedness,  with  like  fury,  exercised  upon  Antonius  Mancinellus ; 
which   Mancinellus,  being  a  man  of  excellent  learning,  because  he 
.   wrote  an  eloquent  oration  against  his  wicked  manners  and  filthy  life, 
*  with   other  vices,  he  therefore  commanded  both  his  hands  and  his 
tongue  to  be  cut  off,  playing  much  like  with  him,  as  Antonius  the 
tyrant  once  did  with  Marcus  Cicero,  for  writing  against  his  horrible 
r.'isnn     litb.     At  length,  as  one  poison  requireth  another,  this  poisoning  pope, 
wi'lh'ted   as  he  was  sitting  with  his  cardinals  and  other  rich  senators  of  Rome 
,,uUon.     at  (imner?  h^  servants  unawares  brought  to  him  a  wrong  bottle,  where- 
with he  was  poisoned,  and  his  cardinals  about  him. 
ThchiRh       In  the  time  of  this  pope  Alexander  also  it  happened  (which  is  not 
iV;;'!',,"'^.  to  be  pretermitted),  how  that  the  Angel,  which  stood  in  the  high  top 
thrown     of  the  pope's  church,  was  beaten  down  with  a  terrible  thunder ;  which 
order  of  thing  seemed  then  to  declare  the  ruin  and  fall  of  the  popedom.  After 
this  pope,  next  succeeded  Pius  III.  about  a.  d.  1503;  after  whom 
came  next  Julius  IT.,  a  man  so  far  passing  all  others  in  iniquity,  that 
Weselus,  and  such  others  of  his  own  friends,  writing  of  him,  are 
(•(impelled  to  say  of  him,  "  Marti   ilium  quam  Christo  deditiorein 
fuissc ;""  that  is,  That  he  was  more  given  to  war  and  battle,  than  to 
Christ.     Concerning  the  madness  of  this  man,  this  is  most  certainly 
known,  that  at  what  time  he  was  going  to  war,  he  cast  the  keys  of  St. 
Peter  into  the  river  Tibur,  saying,  that  forasmuch  as  the  keys  of 
Peter  would  not  serve  him  to  his  purpose,  he  would  take  himself  to 
the  sword  of  Paul.     Whereupon  Philip  Mclancthon,  amongst  many 
others,  writing  upon  the  same,  makcth  this  epigram  : 

"  Cum  contra  Gallos  bellum  papa  Julius  esset 

Gesturus,  sicut  fama  vctusta  docet: 
Ingentes  Martis  turmas  contraxit,  et  urbem 

Egrcssus  esevaa  cdidit  ore  niinas. 
I  rat  usque  sacras  claves  in  rlumina  jecit 

Tibridis,  hie  urbi  ]><ms  ubijunget  aquas. 
fade  manu  strictum  vagina  duipit  ensem, 

Exclamansque  truci  talia  voce  rcfert: 
'  J  lie  gladius  Pauli  noa  nunc  defendet  ab  lioste, 

Quandoquicleni  clavis  nil  juvat  ista  Petri.'  " 

Whereupon  also  Gilbert  Ducherius  makcth  this  epigram. 

"  In  Galium,  ut  fama  est,  helium  gesturus  acerbtini, 
Armatum  cducil  Julius  urbe  manum. 

di  Ei  itii-.onjiu  Mario.  (2)  Lib.  ♦.  ' eusinograph.' 


THE    WAES    AND    BLOODSHED     OF    POPE    JULIUS  11.  17 

Accinctus  gladio,  claves  in  Tibridis  amnem  p  Herny 

Projicit,  et  saevus  talia  verba  facit :  ri1- 

Quum  Petri  nihil  efficiant  ad  praelia  claves,  j^  ry 

Auxilio  Pauli  forsitan  ensis  erit." 


The  sense  of  these  epigrams  in  English,  is  this  : — 

When  Julius  pope  against  the  French 

determined  to  make  war, 
As  fame  reports,  he  gathered  up 
great  troops  of  men  from  far ; 
And  to  the  bridge  of  Tibur  then, 

marching  as  he  were  wood ; 
His  holy  keys  he  took  and  cast 

them  down  into  the  flood. 
And  afterward  into  his  hand 

he  took  a  naked  sword, 
And  shaking  it  brake  forth  into 
this  fierce  and  warlike  word : 
•  This  Sword  of  Paul, '  quoth  he,  '  shall  now 

'  defend  us  from  our  foe  ; 
'  Since  that  this  key  of  Peter  doth 
'  nothing  avail  thereto.' 

Of  this  Julius  it  is  certainly  reported,  that  partly  with,  his  wars,  The  wars 
partly  with  his  cursings,1  within  the  space  of  seven  years,  as  good  as  bloodshed 
200,000  Christians  were    destroyed.     First,    he  besieged    Ravenna  °f  p°Pe 
against  the  Venetians,  then  Servia,  Imola,  Faventia,  Forolivium,2  Bo- 
nonia,  and  other  cities,  which  he  gat  out  of  princes'1  hands,  not  with- 
out much  bloodshed.    The  chronicles  of  John  Sleiden  make  mention, 
that  when  this  Julius  was  made  pope,  he  took  an  oath,  promising  to 
have  a  council  within  two  years.     But  when  he  had  no  leisure  there- 
unto, being  occupied  with  his  wars  in  Italy  among  the  Venetians,  and 
with  the  French  king,  and  in  Ferrara,  and  in  other  countries,  nine  of 
his  cardinals,  departing  from  him,  came  to  Milan,  and  there  appointed 
a  council  at  the  city  of  Pisa ;  amongst  whom,  the  chief  were  Ber- 
nardus,  Cruceius,  Gulielmus  Prenestinus,  Franciscus,  Constantinus, 
with  divers  others  ;  unto  whom  also  were  adjoined  the  procurators  of 
Maximilian  the  emperor,  and  of  Charles  the  French  king.     So  the  a  council 
council  was  appointed  a.d.  1511,  to  begin  in  the  kalends  of  Septem-  jjeposV0 
ber.     The  cause  why  they  did  so  call  this  council,  was  thus  alleged, llim- 
because  the  pope  had  so  broken  his  oath,  and  all  this  while  he  gave  The  pope 
no  hope  to  have  any  council ;  and  also  because  there  were  divers  other  P*rJured- 
crimes,  whereupon  they  had  to  accuse  him.     Their  purpose  was  to 
remove  him  out  of  his  seat,  the  which  he  had  procured  through  bribes 
and  ambition.     Julius,  hearing  this,  giveth  out  contrary  command- 
ment, under  great  pain,  that  no  man  should   obey  them,  and  calleth 
himself  another  council  against  the  next  year,  to  be  begun  the  nine- 
teenth day  of  April.     The  French  king,  understanding  pope  Julius 
to  join  with  the  Venetians,  and  so  to  take  their  part  against  him, 
convented  a  council  at  Turin,  in  the  month  of  September,  in  which 
council  these  questions  were  proposed : 

Whether  it  was  lawful  for  the  pope  to  move  war  against  any  prince 
without  cause. 

(1)  The  pope's  law  eiveth  leave  to  kill  all  that  be  accursed  of  him. 

(2)  "Forolivium,"  Forli.  in  Italy.— Ed. 

VOL.   IV. 

|S  •lill'    BEGINNING    OF    THE    Ti'llKS. 

lunry         Win  ther  any  prince  iii  defending  himself,  might  invade  his  adver- 
.  Barv,  and  deny  his  obedience. 

\   !». 

1503.        (•„,,,  „],;,.],  questions  it  was  answered,  that  the  bishop  ought  not 

to  invade,  a...!  also,  that  it  was  lawful  for  the  king  to  defend  himself. 
.   Moreover,  thai  the  pragmatical  sanction  was  to  be  observed  through 

the  realm   of  France:  neither    that  any  unjust   excommunications 

ought  to  be  feared,  if  they  were  found  to  be  unjust 

No  .in- 




After  this,  the  king  sent  to  Julius  the  answer  of  his  council,  requir- 
ing him  either  to  agree  to  peace,  or  to  appoint  a  general  council  some 
other  where,  where  this  matter  might  be  more  fully  decided.  Julius 
would  neither  of  these,  but  forthwith  accursed  Charles  the  French  king, 
with  all  his  kingdom.  At  length  at  Ravenna,  in  a  great  war,  he  was 
overcome  by  the  French  king;  and  at  last,  after  much  slaughter, 
and  great  bloodshed,  and  mortal  war,  this  pope  died  a.d.  1518,  the 
twenty-first  day  of  February. 

artje  ^tftocp  of  tf)e  teftf. 

If  it  were  not  that  1  fear  to  overlay  this  our  volume  with  heaps  of 
foreign   histories,  who  have  professed  chiefly  to  treat  of  Acts  and 
Monuments  hut-  done  at  home,  I  would  adjoin  after  these  popes 
known     above  rehearsed,  some  discourse  also  of  the  Turks'1  story;  of  their 
StaB*1'*"  rising  and  cruel  persecution  of  the  saints  of  God,  to  the  great  annoy- 
ance and  peril  of  Christendom;   yet,  notwithstanding,  certain  causes 
there  lie,  which  necessarily  require  the  knowledge  of  their  order  and 
doini:-,  ami  of  their  wicked  proceedings,  their  cruel  tyranny  and  bloody 
victories,  the  ruin  and  subversion  of  so  many  christian  churches,  with 
the  horrible  murders  and  captivity  of  infinite  Christians,  to  be  made 
plain  aiul  manifest,  as  well  to  this  our  country  of  England,  as  also  to 
other  nations. 
rir!>t  First,    for   the   better  explaining  of  the  prophesies  of  the  New 

'"'s''  Testament,  as  in  St.  Paul's  Epistle  to  the  Thessalonians,  and  also  in 
the  Revelation  of  St.  John;  which  scriptures  otherwise,  without  the 
opening  of  these  histories,  cannot  so  perfectly  be  understood:  of 
which  scriptures,  we  mind  hereafter  (Christ  granting)  orderly,  as  the 
course  of  matter  shall  lead  us,  to  make  rehearsal. 
s,r,„„i  Another  cause  is,  that  we  may  learn  thereby,  either  with  the  public 

church  to  lament,  with  our  brethren,  such  a  great  defection  and  decay 
of  christian  faith,  through  these  wicked  Turks;  or  else  may  fear 
thereby  our  own  danger. 

The  third  cause,  that  we  may  ponder  more  deeply  with  ourselves 
the  scourge  of  God  for  our  sins,  and  corrupt  doctrine;  which,  in  the 
sequel  hereof,  more  evidently  may  appear  to  our  eyes,  for  our  better 
i..iirih  Fourthlj  :  The  consideration  of  this  horrible  persecution  of  the 
Turks,  rising  chiefly  by  our  discord  ami  dissension  among  ourselves, 
may  reduce  us  again  from  our  domestical  wars,  in  killing  and  burning 
one  another,  to  join  together  in  christian  patience  and  concord. 

Fifthly  :    But  chiefly,  these  great  victories  of  the  Turks,  and  un- 

•  I  of  our  men  fighting  against  them,  may  admonish 

and  teach  us.  following  the  example  of  the  old  Israelites) how  to  seek 


for  greater  Strength  to  encounter  with  these  enemies  of  Christ,  than    ham- 
ln'therto  we  have  done.    First,  we  must  consider  that  the  whole  power  du 

of  Satan,  the  prince  of  this  world,  goeth  with  the  Turks ;  which  to  Jjj^™ 
resist,  no  strength  of  man's  army  is  sufficient,  but  only  the  name,  eemay  to 
spirit,  and  power  of  our  Lord  Jesus  the  Son  of  God,  going  with  us  w1u."outd 
in  our  battles  ;  as  among  the  old  Israelites  the  ark  of  God's  covenant  JJJJ* 
and  promise  went  with  them  also  fighting  against  the  enemies  of  God.  aptfnst 
For  so  are  we  taught  in  the  Scripture,  that  we  christian  men  have  no  Turks, 
strength  but  in  Christ  only.  Whether  we  war  against  the  devil,  or 
against  the  Turk,  it  is  true  that  the  Scripture  saith,  "Sine  me  nihil 
potcstis  facere,"  that  is,  "  Without  me  you  can  do  nothing."  Other- 
wise there  is  no  puissance  to  stand  against  the  devil,  or  to  conquer  the 
world,  "  nisi  fides  nostra,11  that  is,  "our  faith  only,"  to  which  all  the  pro- 
mises of  God  touching  salvation  be  annexed ;  beyond  which  promises 
we  must  not  go,  for  the  word  must  be  our  rule.  He  that  prcsumeth 
beyond  the  promises  in  the  word  expressed,  goeth  not,  but  wandereth 
he  cannot  tell  whither :  neither  must  we  appoint  God  how  to  save 
the  world,  but  must  take  that  way  which  he  hath  appointed.  Let  us 
not  set  our  God  to  school,  nor  comprehend  his  Holy  Spirit  within  our 
skulls.  He  that  made  us  without  our  council,  did  also  redeem  us  as 
pleased  him.  If  he  be  merciful,  let  us  be  thankful.  And  if  his 
mercies  surmount  our  capacity,  let  us  therefore  not  resist  but  search 
his  Word,  and  thereunto  apply  our  will ;  which  if  we  will  do,  all  our 
contentions  wrill  be  soon  at  a  point.  Let  us  therefore  search  the  will 
of  our  God  in  his  Word,  and  if  he  will  his  salvation  to  stand  free  to 
all  nations,  why  do  we  make  merchandise  thereof?1  If  he  have 
graciously  offered  his  waters  to  us,  without  money  or  money-worth, 
let  us  not  hedge  in  the  plenteous  springs  of  his  grace  given  us.2  And 
finally,  if  God  have  determined  his  own  Son  only  to  stand  alone,  let 
not  us  presume  to  admix  with  his  majesty  any  of  our  trumpery.  He 
that  bringeth  St.  George  or  St.  Denis,  as  patrons,  to  the  field,  to 
fight  against  the  Turk,  leaveth  Christ,  no  doubt,  at  home. 

Now  how  we  have  fought  these  many  years  against  the  Turk,  though 
stories  keep  silence,  yet  the  success  declareth.  We  fight  against  a 
persecutor,  being  no  less  persecutors  ourselves.  We  wrestle  against 
a  bloody  tyrant,  and  our  hands  be  as  full  of  blood  as  his.  He  killeth 
Christ's  people  with  the  sword,  and  we  burn  them  with  fire.  He, 
observing  the  works  of  the  law,  seeketh  his  justice  by  the  same  :  the 
like  also  do  we.  But  neither  doth  he,  nor  do  we,  seek  our  justifica- 
tion as  we  should,  that  is,  by  faith  only  in  the  Son  of  God. 

And  what  marvel  then,  our  doctrine  being  as  corrupt  almost  as  his,  Rcfnrma- 
and  our  conversation  worse,  if  Christ  fight  not  with  us,  fighting  against  JeTi'Jon 
the  Turk  ?    The  Turk  hath  prevailed  so  mightily,  not  because  Christ  jj^1* 
is  weak,  but  because  Christians  be  wicked,  and  their  doctrine  impure,  fight  the 
Our  temples  with  images,  our  hearts  with  idolatry  arc  polluted.    Our  Turks' 
priests  stink  before  God  for  adultery,  being  restrained  from  lawful 
matrimony.     The  name  of  God  is  in  our  mouths,  but  his  fear  is  not 
in  our  hearts.      We  war  against  the  Turk  with   our  works,  masses, 
traditions,  and  ceremonies:   but  we  fight  not  against  him  with  Christ, 
and  with  the  power  of  his  glory  ;   which  if  we  did,  the  field  were  won. 

(1J  Gratis  venumdati  eslis,  t;ratU  rcrlimimini.     Esay  Hi. 

(2)  Omnes  sitiertes  venite  ad  aquas;  emite  absque  argento  et  commutation*.     Buy  lv. 


turn  ne- 

20  THE    HISTORY    OF    THE    TURKS. 

i»ir.,.  Wherefore,  briefly  to  conclude,  saying  my  judgment  in  this  behalf, 
d'"'""'  what  I  suppose.  Tins  hope  1  have,  and  do  believe,  that  when  the 
Ma  ehmch  of  Christ,  with  the  sacraments  thereof,  shall  be  so  reformed, 
that  Christ  alone  shall  be  received  to  be  our  justifier,  all  other  re- 
ligions, merits,  traditions,  images,  patrons,  and  advocates  set  apart,  the 
■word  of  the  Christians,  with  the  strength  of  Christ,  shall  soon  vanquish 
the  Turks1  pride  and  fury.  But  of  this  more  largely  in  the  process 
of  this  story. 

The  sixth  and  last  cause,  why  I  think  the  knowledge  of  the  Turks1 
history  requisite  to  be  considered,  is  this:  because  that  many  there 
be,  who,  for  that  they  be  further  from  the  Turks,  and  think  therefore 
themselves  to  be  out  of  danger,  take  little  care  and  study  what  hap- 
Kame»t  peneth  to  their  other  brethren.  Wherefore,  to  the  intent  to  excite 
their  zeal  and  prayer  to  Almighty  God,  in  this  so  lamentable  ruin  of 
Christ's  church,  I  thought  it  requisite,  by  order  of  history,  to  give 
'.,'uch  this  our  nation  also  something  to  understand,  what  hath  been  done  in 
other  nations  by  these  cruel  Turks,  and  what  detriment  hath  been, 
and  is  like  more  to  happen  by  them  to  the  church  of  Christ,  except 
vc  make  our  earnest  invocation  to  Almighty  God,  in  the  name  of  his 
Son,  to  stop  the  course  of  the  devil  by  these  Turks,  and  to  stay  this 
defection  of  Christians  falling  daily  unto  them,  and  to  reduce  them 
■gain  to  his  faith,  who  are  fallen  from  him:  which  the  Lord  Jesus  of 
ce  grant  with  speed !     Amen. 

Before  we  enter  into  this  story  of  the  Turks  and  Saracens,  first  let 
us  call  to  remembrance  the  prophecy  and  forewarning  of  St.  Paul 
writing  to  the Thessalonians  [2Thess.  ii.],  in  these  words:  "  Be  not 
moved  or  troubled  in  your  minds,  either  by  preaching  or  by  writing, 
or  l.y  letter  from  us,  as  though  the  day  of  the  Lord  were  at  hand  ;  for 
the  Lord  will  not  come,  except  there  come  a  defection  first,  and  the 
wicked  person  be  revealed,'11  &c.  Of  this  defection,  sundry  minds 
there  be  of  sundry  expositors  ;  some  thinking  this  defection  to  mean  a 

T^rhc,  fidling-away  from  the  empire  of  Rome:  some,  from  the  obedience  of 
the  pope.  But,  as  St.  Paul  little  passed  upon  the  outward  glory  of 
the  Roman  empire;  so  less  he  passed  upon  the  proud  obedience 
the  pope.  What  St.  Paul  meant  by  this  defection,  the  reading  of 
these  Turkish  stories,  and  the  miserable  falling-away  of  these  churches 
by  him  before  planted,  will  soon  declare. 

Another  mystery  there  is  in  the  Revelation  [Apocal.  xiii.],  where 
the  number  of  the  beasl  is  counted  six  hundred  and  sixty-six.  Whereby 
may  seem,  by  all  evidences,  to  be  signified  the  first  origin  and  spring- 
ing of  these  beastly  Saracens,  as  by  the  sequel  hereof  may  appear,  by 
the  first  rising  of  this  devilish  sect  of  Mahomet. 

•  a  "-T-       Moreover,  anotl 

tint    I 

-     •   ■ 

ter  place  there  is  [Apocal.  xvi.],  where  we  read, 
•y  pouring  out  of  the  vial  of  God's  wrath  by  the  sixth  angel,  the 

P*1  ,I",m|  Euphrates  was  dried  up,  to  let  in  the  kings  of  the  east; 

■  opening  of  which  prophecy  may  also  more  evidently  appear,  in 
considcnng  the  order  and  manner  of  the  coming  in  of  "these  Turks 
into  Europe. 

Borne  also  apply  to  the  Turks  certain  prophecies  of  Daniel,  Ezekiel 
and  other  p]  ices  of  the  ( Md  Testament,  which  here  I  omit,  forasmuch 
M  the  prophecies  of  th<  Old  Testament,  if  they  be  taken  in  their 

THE    HISTORY    OP    THE    TUUKS.  21 

proper  and  native  sense,  after  my  judgment,  do  extend  no  further    Intro- 
than  to  the  death  of  our  Saviour,  and  to  the  end  of  the  Jews1  king-  ducl'""- 
dom.     Albeit  herein  I  do  not  prejudicate  to  any  man's  opinion,  but 
that  every  man  may  abound  in  his  own  sense. 

As  touching  the  year  and  time  when  this  pestiferous  sect  of  Ma-  The  time 
hornet  first  began,  histories  do  not  fully  consent,  some  affirming  that  ^JJ^JJ" 
it  began  a.  d.  621,  and  in  the  tenth  year  of  Heraclius,  the  emperor  false 
of  Constantinople;  in  which  mind  is  Johannes  Lucidus.     As  Mun-  expounu- 
sterus  counteth,  it  was  a.d.  622.     Martin  Luther  and  John  Carion  ed' 
refer  it  to  the  eighteenth  year  of  the  reign  of  Heraclius,  which  is  a.d. 
630,  unto  which  number  the  computation  of  the   Beast,  signified  in 
the  Apocalypse,  doth  not  far  disagree,  which  numbereth  the  name  of 
the  beast,  with  three  Greek  letters  ^,  £,  <r ;  which  Greek  letters,  after 
the  supputation  of  the  Grecians,  make  the  number  of  666. 

In  this  all  writers  agree,  that  this  damnable  Mahomet  was  born  in  Maho- 
the  country  of  Arabia,  bordering  on  the  east  part  of  Jewry.     His  Xe'stock 
father  was  a  Syrian,  or  a  Persian  ;  his  mother  was  an  lshmaelite,  which  ?',the  . 

r  i  i-  i     ■  i         p   a      i  •  ii  i  tt  Ishmael- 

lshmaeiitcs,  being  a  people  of  Arabia,  were  called  then  Ha«arenes  :  ites,  of 

-  \  Arabia. 
gious lies 

how  he,  making  himself  the  highest  prophet  of  all  others,  yet  denieth  pigmies 
not  Christ  to  be  a  holy  prophet,  and  next  to  him,  and  Moses  also  to  Alcoran, 
be  another.     Moreover,  he  denieth  not  Mary,  the  mother  of  Christ, 
to  be  a  virgin,  and  to  have  conceived  Christ  by  the  Holy  Ghost : 
affirming  further,  that  Christ  in  his  own  person  was  not  crucified,  but 
another  called  Judas  for  him.     He  greatly  commendeth  also  John, 
the  son  of  Zachary,  for  a  virgin,  when  he  himself  permitteth  a  man  to 
have  four  wives,  and  as  many  concubines  as  he  is  able  to  find  ;  and  Maho- 
saith,  that  whereas  Christ  and  other  prophets  had  the  gift  given  them  A^oraii 
to  work  miracles,  he  was  sent  by  force  of  sword,  to  compel  men  to  ^Jjfled 
his  religion.    The  prodigious  vanities,  lies,  and  blasphemies  contained  divers 
in  this  law  called  Alcoran,  are  rather  to  be  laughed  at,  than  recited. 

It  is  thought  that  Sergius,  a  Nestorian,  was  a  great  doer  with  Ma- 
homet, in  contriving  of  this  lying  Alcoran ;  and  so  it  doth  well 
appear  by  the  scope  and  pretence  thereof,  which  especially  tendeth  to 
this  end,  to  take  the  divinity  from  the  person  of  Christ,  whom  he 
granteth  notwithstanding  to  be  a  most  holy  man,  and  also  that  he  is 
received  up  to  God,  and  shall  come  again  to  kill  Antichrist,  &c. 

Moreover,  this  ridiculous  Alcoran  is  so  blanched  and  powdered  with 
such  divers  mixtures  of  the  Christians,  Jews,  and  the  Gentiles'1  laws, 
giving  such  liberty  to  all  wantonness  of  flesh,  setting  up  circumcision, 
abstaining  from  swines1  flesh,  and  judaical  lotions,  and  so  much 
standeth  upon  father  Abraham,  that  this  filthy  Alcoran  is  supposed  of 
some,  not  to  be  set  out  in  the  days  of  Mahomet,  but  that  certain  Jews 
had  some  handling  also  in  this  matter,  and  put  it  out  after  his  death ; 
and  so  it  seemeth  first  to  take  its  force  about  the  number  of  years 
limited  in  the  Apocalypse,  as  is  aforesaid,  where  thus  it  is  written : 
"  He  that  hath  intelligence,  let  him  count  the  number  of  the  beast; 
for  it  is  the  number  of  a  man,  and  his  number  is  six  hundred 
and  sixty-six.v' 

After  this  devilish  Mahomet  had  thus  seduced  the  people,  teaching 
them  that  he  came  not  by  miracles,   but  by  force  of  sword  to  give 

cus sub- 
dued by 

..i  Persia 

HISTORY    OF    Tl!i'.    TURKS, 

:ai(1  to*  tlK.v  who  Mill  not  obey  it  must  cither  be  put  to 
death,  or  else  pay  tribute  (for  so  be  the  words  of  the  Alcoran) ;  and 
after  that  1,.-  had  gathered  strength  about  him  of  the  Arabians  which 
Arabians  had  then  occasion  to  rebel  against  the  emperor,  because 
their  stipends  were  not  paid  them  by  the  officers  ot  the  emperor 
Heraclius,  he  began  to  range  with  force  and  violence  m  the  parts  ot 
Syria  bordering  near  unto  him,  and  first  subdued  Mecca,  then  Da- 
mascus ;  and  further,  increasing  in  power,  he  entered  into  Egypt,  and 

idued  the  same.  From  thence  he  turned  his  power  against  the 
Persians  with  whom  Cosroes,  the  king  of  Persia,  encountered  with  a 
puissant  army,  overthrew  the  Saracens,  and  put  Mahomet  to  flight. 
i,  these  Persians  came  the  Turks,  who,  afterwards  joining  with  the 
Saracens,  maintained  them  against  the  Christians.1 

A  Iter  the  death  of  this  beast,  who,  as  some  say,  was  poisoned  in 
hi.  house,  succeeded  Ebocara,  or  Ebubccer,  his  father-in-law,  or,  as 
Bibliander  ailirmcth,  his  son-in-law,  who  took  upon  him  the  govern- 
in,  mi  of  the  Saracens,  and  got  the  city  Gaza,  and  besieged  also 
Jerusalem  two  years.  He  reigned  two  years,  having  for  his  chief 
city  Damascus. 

After  him  followed  Omar  or  Ahumcr,  who  conquered  a  great  part 
of  Syria,  and  got  Egypt. 

The  fourth  king  of  the  Saracens,  after  Mahomet,  was  Othman  ; 
■•,11  followed  Hali,  and  after  him  Muhania :  who,  after  a  siege  of 
Beven  years,  obtained  and  got  the  christian  city  of  Caesarea;  also 
overcame  the  Persians,  with  their  king  Orimasda,  and  subdued  that 

Thus  the  wicked  Saracens,  in  the  space  of  thirty  years,  subdued 
Arabia,  <,fot  Palestine,  Phoenicia,  Syria,  Egypt,  and  Persia,  which 
«.i!ne  directly  to  the  (i(ib*  years  prophesied  of  in  the  Revelation  of 
St.  John,  as  is  aforesaid.  And  not  long  after  they  proceeded  further, 
and  n"t  Africa,  and  then  Asia,  as  in  the  process  of  their  story  shall 
appear,  the  Lord  willing. 

Not  long  after  Heraclius,  emperor  of  Constantinople,  succeeded 
Constans,  his  nephew,  who,  in  the  thirteenth  year  of  his  empire, 
lighting  unluckily  against  the  Saracens  in  Lycia,  was  overthrown  of 
Muhanias  aforesaid,  a.  d.  655;  which  Constans,  if  he  were  not 
prospered  by  the  Lord  in  his  wars,  it  was  no  great  marvel,  consider- 
ing that  he  had  slain  his  brother  Theodosius  before  at  home  ;  more- 
over, that  hi'  lived  in  incestuous  matrimony  :  also  that,  being  inclined 
to  certain  new  sects,  he  could  not  abide  the  contrary  teachers,  but 
.  .-lew  those  who  admonished  him  thereof.  The  said  Constans,  going 
afterwards  to  Italy,  was  also  overcome  by  the  Lombards,2  &c.  The 
ens,  after  this  victory,  spoiled  also  Rhodes. 

Although  these  cursed  Saracens,  in  these  their  great  victories  and 

' [UestS,  were  not  without  domestical  sedition  and  divisions  among 

■<  -.  yel  the  princes  of  the  Saracens,  being  called  then  sultans, 

had  m  their  possession  the  government  of  Syria,  Egypt,  Africa,  and  a 
pari  oj  Via,  about  the  term  of  four  hundred  years;  till  at 
length  the  Saracen  king  who  ruled  ill  Persia,  lighting  against  the 
-  racen  of  Babylon,  sought  aid  of  the  Turks,  to  fight  with  him 
■gainst  the  sultan   of  Babylon:  which  Turks,  by  little  and  little, 

I.1)  M  in  iK  i  i .  .iimn  His  proipuelh  not  with  the  Lurd. 

l.)  them. 

THE    HISTORY    OF    THE    TURKS.  23 

surprised  upon  the  sultan  of  Persia,  and,  not  long  after,  putting  him    Mro. 
out  of  place,  usurped  the  kingdom  of  Persia;  who  afterwards  went  '/'"'"""' 
further,  as   ye  shall   hear,  the    Lord  willing.     And  this  is  the  first 
beginning  of  the  Turks'  dominion. 

These  Turks,  after  they  had  thus  overcome  many  countries  and  The  first 
provinces,  and  made  their  power  large  and  mighty  both  in  Asia  and  [iiT* ot 
Europe,  began  to  divide  their  kingdoms  and  countries  amongst  them-  Tmks- 
selves.     But  when  they  could  not  agree,  but  with  deadly  war  con- 
tended for  the  bounds  of  those  kingdoms  and  dominions,  in  the  mean 
time  four  of  the  principal  families,  conquering  and  subduing  all  the 
rest,  parted  the  whole  empire  amongst  themselves.     And  yet  they  The 
also,  not  so  contented,  fell  to  such  cruel  hatred,  contention,  war,  and  J^s 
slaughter  (no  doubt  by  the  just  judgment  of  God  against  his  bias-  nion* 
phemous  enemies),  that  there  was  no  end  thereof,  until  the  remnant  Pntofour 
of  the  ancient  Turks  was  utterly  rooted  out.     For  it  is  evident  that lamilies- 
there  are  few  now  remaining,  who  are   Turks  indeed  by  birth  and 
blood,  and  that  the  state  of  that  great  empire  is  not  upholden,  but 
by  the  strength  and  power  of   soldiers,   who  have   been  Christians, 
and  now  are  turned  to   Mahomet's  religion  ;  so  that  even  their  own 
natural  language  is  now  out  of  use  amongst  them,  saving  in  certain 
families  of  their  nobility  and  gentry. 

These  four  families  above-mentioned,  with  their  captains  and 
armies,  about  a.  d.  1330,  went  raging  throughout  all  Asia  and 
Europe,  and  every  one  of  them  conquered  some  part  of  the  countries 
where  they  passed. 

The  causes  of  these  great  invasions  and  victories,  were  the  dissen-  Dissen- 
sion and  discord,  falsehood,  idleness,  inconstancy,  greedy  avarice,  lack  ^^ 
of  truth  and  fidelity,  among  christian  men  of  all  states  and  degrees,  tians 
both  high  and  low.  For,  by  the  wilful  defection  and  backsliding  of  TariL 
the  Christians,  the  Turkish  power  did  exceedingly  increase,  in  that  stro,1t»'- 
many,  desiring  the  licentious  life  and  liberty  of  war,  and  allured  with 
the  prosperous  success  of  things,  forsook  the  church  of  God,  and 
made  themselves  bondslaves  to  Mahomet,  and  his  devilish  sect ;  both 
because  fleshly  liberty  is  delighting  to  all  men,  and  partly  also  be- 
cause as  fortune  favoureth,  so  commonly  the  wills  of  men  incline. 
And  again,  such  as  be  profane  and  without  the  fear  of  God  (whereof 
there  is  an  infinite  number  in  the  church  in  all  ages),  arc  wont  com- 
monly to  judge  of  religion,  according  to  the  success  of  realms  and 
kingdoms.  For  many,  not  only  for  the  variety  of  opinions,  but  also 
for  the  diversity  of  events  and  fortune  amongst  men,  have  inquired 
and  do  inquire,  whether  there  be  any  church  of  God  distinct  from 
other  nations  ;  what  it  is,  and  where  it  is  :  especially,  forasmuch  as 
the  greatest  part  of  men,  both  in  the  old  time  (when  the  four  monar- 
chies flourished  in  order)  were  ignorant  of  this  doctrine,  which  is 
peculiar  to  the  church  alone,  and  now  also  the  barbarity  of  Mahomet 
prevaileth  and  reigneth  in  the  most  part  of  the  world.  And  how 
standeth  this  with  mans  reason,  that  a  small  number,  both  miserable 
and  also  enfeebled  and  broken  with  many  battles,  should  be  regarded 
and  loved  of  God ;  and  the  others,  flourishing  in  all  wealth,  pro- 
sperity, victories,  authority,  and  power,  should  be  rejected  and 
despised  of  God,  seeing  there  is  no  power  and  authority,  but  by  the 
ordinance  of  God  ?  Albeit  therefore  the   power  of  the  Turks  hath 





yi  HHTOKY    OF    THE    TURKS.       THEIR    RISING. 

M»»    been,  for  these  two  hundred  years,  of  greater  force  than  any  other 

1  monarchy  of  the  world  besides,  vet  is  there  no  imperial  dignity  to  be 

.  iteemed  in  that  Turkish  tyranny,  but  amongst  those  nations  only, 

5£w    where  the  heavenly  doctrine  of  the  gospel  is  preached,  and  other  d.s- 

t  ^"h"  eiriines  necessary  for  the  church  of  God,  and  the  common  hie  ot  man 

'    mStained  and  regarded  ;  where  the  laws  of  God,  and  other  honest 

""""       nd  civil  ordinances   agreeable  to  the  same,  do  flourish  and  reign  ;. 

where  lawful  judgment  is  exercised;  where  virtue  is  honoured  and 

rewarded;    where  sin   and  wickedness  is   punished;    where   honest 

families  are  maintained  and  defended. 

These  things  are  not  regarded  amongst  the  Turks,  the  enemies  of 

the  Son  of  Gad,  and  all  lawful  empires,  because  they  dissolve  and 

reject  all  godly  societies,  honest  discipline,  good  laws,  policies,  right- 

eoufl    judgment,  the  ordinance  of  matrimony,  and  godly  families. 

F,,r  what  hath  the  empire  of  the  Turks  been  hitherto,  but  most 

deadly,  cruel,  and  perpetual  war,  to  work  all  mischief,  destruction,  and 

desolation?  to  subvert  good  laws,  cities,  kingdoms,  policies,  and  to 

enlarge  their  cruel  power   and  dominion  ?    the  stay  and  strength 

«  hereof  is  not  love  and  favour,  proceeding  of  virtue  and  justice,  as  in 

lawful  and  well  governed  empires;    but  fear,  violence,   oppression, 

swarms  and  infinite  thousands  of  barbarous  and  most  wicked  people, 

ministers  of  Satan's  malice  and  fury':   which  kind  of  dominion  and 

tyranny  hath  been  condemned  by  the  voice  of  God  many  years  ago  ; 

the  testimonies  whereof  the  Lord  would  have  to  remain  in  the  church, 

lest  the  godly,  being  moved  with  the  power  and  success  thereof, 

should  fall  away  and  forsake  the  Son  of  God.1 

christian       Wherefore,  let  us  not  seek  for  any  imperial  state  in  that  barbarity; 

tauand  mit  h'1  M  1n'  thankful,  and  acknowledge  the  great  benefit  of  God,  for 

mniiis  [hat  he  hath  reserved  to  us  certain  remnants  of  the  Roman  empire  : 

b"'h°>ed  and  let  us  call  upon  him  daily,  with  hearty  petitions  and  groans,  and 

iel!*'      with  zeal  and  love  to  the  house  of  God,  that  this  Turkish  power, 

fb?™,ng  j"'m'd  with  the  malice  of  Satan  against  the  Son  of  God,  prevail  not 

whom      against  the  poor  congregations  and  little  remnant  of  his  church,  as  it 

,S    '"'  hath  hitherto  done  against  those  strong  and  noble  christian  kingdoms 

»p«red.     anj  ghujcheg,  where  now  we  see  the  Turkish  tyranny  to  reign,  and 

Satan  to  have  taken  full  possession  ;  whose  state  was  once  far  better 

than  ours  is  now,  and  more  like  to  continue  without  such  horrible 

overthrows  and  desolation.     Oh  that  we  might  foresee  a  little  the 

great  danger  that  hangcth  over  our  heads  !     For  though  the  Turk 

meth  to  be  far  off,  yet  do  we  nourish  within  our  breasts  at  home, 

that  which  may  soon  cause  us  to  feel  his  cruel  hand  and  worse,  if 

Worse  may  be:   to  overrun  us;  to  lay  our  land  waste;   to  scatter  us 

amongst  the  infidels,  the  enemies  and  blasphemers  of  the  Son  of 

Qod  ! 

Now,  although  these  four  families  above-mentioned  long  continued 
together  in  bloody  wars  and  deadly  hatred,  yet  one  of  them  passed 
the  rest  in  all  cruelty  and  tyranny,  and  subduing  the  other  three 
families,  took  iii)i)i)  him  the  government  alone,  and  so  became  the 
lir^t  monarch  or  emperor  that  reigned  amongst  them,  called  Ottoman  ; 
<>t  whom  all  that  reigned  after  him  were  called  Ottomans:  who, 
ling  orderly  of  his  line,  have  occupied  the  same  dominion  and 

(1)  Ezck    xxx.  ■;.:  Apoc   \t/ 

THE    HISTORY    OF    THE    TURKS.  25 

seat  of  the  Turks,  from  the  year  of  our  Lord  1300,  unto  this  present  ottoman 
time,  who  have  been  the  number  of  twelve;  of  the  which  twelve,  in  o?"/hm. 
such  order  as  they  lived  and  reigned,  I  intend  (Christ  so  permitting)  ~~ 
severally  and  compendiously  something  to  treat,  briefly  abstracting, 
out  of  prolix  and  tedious  writers,  such  specialties,  as  for  us  Christians 
shall  be  briefly  requisite  to  be  known. 

OTTOMAN,    THE     FIRST     GREAT     EMPEROR,    OR     TYRANT,    OF     THE 
TURKS.       A.  D.  1300. 

This  Ottoman  was  at  first  of  poor  estate,  and  obscure  amongst  the 
common  sort  of  men,  coming  of  a  base  progeny,  and  of  rustical 
parents  ;  but  through  his  valiantness  and  activity  in  war,  he  got  him 
a  great  name  amongst  the  Turks.     For  he,  being  a  man  of  fierce 
courage,  refusing  no  labour,  and   delighting  in  war,  and  gathering 
together  by  great  subtlety  a  multitude  of  common  soldiers,  began  to 
make  war,  and  bv  conquest  and  victories  to  advance  himself  and  his 
family.    First,  lie  began  to  rob  and  spoil  with  a  great  band  of  rovers, 
and  afterwards  he  attempted  to  set  upon  all  men.     Neither  did  he 
vex  and  destroy  the  Christians  only,  but  set  upon  his  own  nation 
also,  and  sought  all  occasion  to  subdue  them  wholly  unto  him  ;  for 
now  the  princes  and  captains  of  the  Turks,  inflamed  with  ambition  inward 
and  desire  of  rule,  began  to  fall  out  and  contend  among  themselves,  among 
insomuch  that  they  fell  to  domestical  and  inward  war,  with  all  the  ^huerks 
power  they  could. 

Ottoman,  having  this  occasion  very  fit  and  meet  to  accomplish  that  The 
which  he  long  had  sought  for,  gathering  unto  him  all  such  as  he  Up™'fns 
thought  to  be  given  to  robbing  and  spoiling,  and  set  all  upon  mis-  0ttom<">- 
chief,  in  a  short  time  began  to  grow  in  authority,  and  first  set  upon 
certain  towns,  as  he  saw  opportunity  to  serve  him  ;  of  which  towns 
some  he  took  by  force,  some  by  yielding ;  others  he  spoiled  and  over- 
threw, to  terrify  the  rest ;  thus  laying  the  first  foundation  of  his 
rising.  In  the  mean  time,  the  discord  which  was  amongst  the  Chris- 
tians was  no  small  advantage  to  this  Ottoman,  by  occasion  whereof, 
he,  within  ten  years1  space,  subdued  Bithynia,  and  all  the  provinces 
about  Pontus  :  also  Natolia,  which  comprehendeth  all  the  dominion 
of  the  Greeks  within  Asia ;  Ancyra,  a  city  in  Phrygia  ;  Synope,  a 
city  in  Galatia ;  and  Sabastia,  a  city  in  Cappadocia.  And  thus  still 
prevailing,  he  increased  in  short  time  to  a  mighty  power,  either 
through  the  secret  judgment  of  God  against  that  nation,  or  else 
because  God  would  have  them  so  far  and  so  cruelly  to  prevail,  for 
the  punishment  of  the  sins  of  other  nations,  like  as  it  was  prophesied 
before,  that  such  a  kingdom  there  should  be,  of  Gog  and  Magog.1 

This  Ottoman,  after  he  had  reigned  twenty-eight  years,  died  a.d. 
1327,  and  departed  to  his  Mahomet;  leaving  behind  him  three  sons, 
of  whom  Orchan,  being  the  youngest,  killed  his  two  brethren,  whilst 
they  were  at  variance  between  themselves. 


Orchan,  the  youngest  of  the  sons  of  Ottoman,  after  he  had  slain 
his  two  brethren,  took  the  regiment  of  the  Turks  after  his  father ; 

(I)  Ezek.  xxxv iii. 

T11K    HISTORY    OF    THE    TURKS. 

Orckm    who,  after  he  had  drawn  to  Lim  the  hearts  of  the  multitude,  such  us 

a.  had  their  dispositions  set  upon  the  licentious  life  of  war,  converted 
lis  power  further  to  enlarge  his  father's  dominion,  winning  and  sub- 
limit My.sia,  Lydia,  Lycaonia,  Phrygia,  and  Caria:  all  which  coun- 
tries, being  within  the  compass  of  Asia,  unto  the  sea-side  of  the 



Tur'ks  Hellespont,  and  the  sea  Euxinc,  he  added  to  the  Turkish  empire. 
Also  he  won  Prusia,  which  was  the  metropolitan  city  of  Bithynia, 
which  then  he  made  the  chief  seat  of  the  Turks1  empire.  Besides 
these,  moreover,  he  conquered  Nicea,  and  got  Nicomedia  :  all  which 

civil  wm  were  before,  christian  cities  and  regions.  And  yet  all  this  could  not 
make  the  christian  princes  in  Greece  to  cease  their  civil  wars,  and  to 

Gradam.  j()ju  ;iI1(]  accord  among  themselves:  such  debate  and  variance  was 
then  between  Cantaguzen,  on  the  Greeks1  part,  and  Paleologus,  the 

r>  (he  emperor  of  Constantinople.  By  reason  of  this,  the  Turks'1  aid  was 
:    .nt  for  out  of  Asia,  to  help  our  Christians  one  to  kill  another,  and 

'_  "^  tl,c  at  length  to  get  all  those  parts  of  Europe  from  them  both ;  who,  if 

Increaie.  tliev  had,  according  to  their  profession,  so  well  joined  in  brotherly 
unity,  as  thev  did  in  cruel  hostility  dissent,  neither  had  Orchan  so 
prevailed  in  getting  Prusia  from  the  Greeks,  nor  had  the  Turks  so 
soon  presumed  into  Europe  as  afterwards  they  did.  Orchan,  after 
these  victories,  when  he  had  reigned  two-and-twenty  years,  was 
stricken,  some  say,  with  a  dart  in  the  shoulder,  at  the  siege  of  Prusia. 
The  opinion  of  others  is,  that  he,  fighting  against  the  Tartarians, 
where  lie  lost  a  great  part  of  his  arrnv,  was  there  also  slain  himself, 
a.u.  1349. 



The  Greek  writers  do  hold  that  Orchan  had  two  sons,  Soliman  and 
Amurath,  of  which  two,  first  Soliman  reigned,  albeit  not  long.  After 
1,10  him  followed  Amurath,  who,  after  that  Asia  now  was  subdued  by  his 
predecessors,  sought  by  all  means  and  ways  how  to  proceed  further, 
and  to  invade  Europe:  to  whose  ambitious  purpose  the  domestical 
wars  of  the  Christians  gave  unprosperous  occasion,  which  occasion  is 
nnt  thus  declared.  Certain  discord  fell  between  the  princes  of  Greece 
ih?Turk«  (whose  captain  was  Cantaguzen),  and  Paleologus,  emperor  of  Con- 
stantinople :  whereupon  Paleologus,  for  that  he  was  not  able  to  make 
Ins  party  good  with  the  Grecians,  most  unwisely  sent  for  Amurath, 
to  help  him,  who,  being  glad  to  have  such  an  occasion  offered,  which 
he  so  lone  had  sought,  sent  to  aid  him  12,000  Turks  into  Thrace  : 
but  first  he  used  all  delays  lie  could  of  crafty  policy,  to  the  intent 
that  the  Greeks  Erst  should  waste  their  strength  and  power  upon 
themselves,  whereby  he  might  be  more  able  afterwards  to  set  upon 
them,  and  to  accomplish  his  conceived  desire. 

The  Turks  thus  being  called  into  Europe  by  the  Christians,  whether 
they,  tasting  the  sweetness  of  the  soil,  incensed  Amurath,  (heir  em- 
)"  I'M,  to  make  invasion,  or  whether  Amurath,  of  his  own  head,  thought 
8*  "l| .'"  "-'  the  time,  in  the  year  of  our  Lord  1363,  he  came  himself 
ov(  r  into  Europe  with  60,000  Turks,  railing  upon  the  Greeks,  being 
pasted  and  spenl  with  their  long  ware  and  battles  before.  The  pretence 

•  <    thedeviligh  Turk  was   to  aid   and  assist  the  emperor    Paleologus, 

,tl"  &« '  bi  would  "i  no,  and  to  subdue  such  as  had  fallen  from  him. 

THE    HISTORY    OV    THE    TURKS.  27 

The  christian  ships  of  the  Ligurians,  for  money  were  hired  to  conduct  Aumeih 
them  over,  taking  for  every  soldier  a  piece  of  gold.1  js','j"[,-t. 

Thus  the  Turks1  army,  being  conveyed  over  by  the  Grecian  sea  * 

called  the  Hellespont,  first  got  Callipolis,  with  other  towns  and  cities 
bordering  about  the  sea;  and  there  planting  themselves,  and  pre- 
paring ships  of  their  own  for  transporting  their  munitions  out  of  Asia, 
advanced  their  power  further  into  Thrace,  and  there  won  Philipopolis ;  Thrace 
then  got  Adrianople,  which  was  not  far  from  Constantinople ;  and  there  gJJjuiS 
Amurath  made  his  chief  seat.    Then  began  Paleologus,  the  emperor, 
at  length  to  bewail  his  offer  and  covenant  made  with  Amurath. 
When  the  Turks  had  expugned  thus  a  great  part  of  Thrace,  they 
extended  forth  their  army  unto  Mysia,  which  they  soon  subdued  :  The 
from  thence  proceeding  and  conquering  the  Bessi  and  Triballi,  they  ]^ts 
entered  into  Servia  and  Bulgaria,  where,  joining  battle  with  Lazarus  j£to. 
Despota,  prince  of  Servia,  and  with  other  dukes  of  Dalmatia  and 
Epyrus,  they  won  of  them  the  field,  and  put  them  to  the  worse  ; 
where  Lazarus  Despota,  being  taken  and  committed  to  prison,  ended 
his  life.     This  Lazarus  had  a  certain  faithful  client  or  servant,  who,  ^X'tu- 
to  revenge  his  master's  death,  with  a  bold  courage,  although  seeing  ™*er 
death  before  his  eyes,  yet  ventured  his  life  so  far,  that  he  came  to  Duath  of 
the  tyrant,  and  thrust  him  through  with  his  dagger.     This  Amurath  Amurath. 
reigned  twenty-three  years,  and  was  slain  a.d.  1372. 


The  power  of  the  Turks  began  to  increase  in  Europe,  what  time 
Bajazet,  the  first  of  that  name,  after  the  death  of  his  father,  entered 
the  possession  of  the  Turks1   kingdom.      This    Bajazet   had   two 
brethren,  Soliman  and  Sauces ;  which  Sauces  had  his  eyes  put  out  by 
his  father,  for  striving  for  the  kingdom.     Soliman  was  slain  by  his 
brother.     Thus  Bajazet,  beginning  his  kingdom  with  the  murder  of 
his  brother,  reduced  his  imperial  seat  from  Prusia,  a  city  of  Bithynia, 
unto  Adrianople,  intending  with  himself  to  subdue  both  Asia  and 
Europe  to  his  own  power.     First  he  set  upon  the  Servians  and  Bui 
garians,  thinking  to  revenge  his  father's  death  ;   where  he  gave  the 
overthrow  to  Marcus  Despota,  with  all  the  nobility  of  the  Servians  Marcus 
and  Bulgarians,  and  put  all  those  parts  under  his  subjection,  unto  the  siaiTby 
confines  and  borders  of  the  Illyrians.     All  Thrace,  moreover,  he  {}'tl;Jrul'k- 
brought  likewise   under   his   yoke,    only  Constantinople  and   Peru  christian 
excepted.     That  done,  he  invaded  the  residue  of  Greece,  prevailing  con-' 
against  the  countries  of  Thessalia,  Macedonia,  Phocis,  and  Attica,  qui;red- 
spoiling  and  burning  as  he  passed  without  any  resistance ;  and  so, 
returning  with  innumerable  spoil  of  the  Christians  unto  Adrianople, 
lie  laid  siege  to  Constantinople  the  space  of  eight  years,  and  had  corwtan 
expugned  the  same,  but  that  Paleologus,  being  brought  to  extremity,  S^,, 
was  driven  to  crave  aid  of  the  Frenchmen,  and  of  Sigismnnd   tin-  eight 
emperor,  who,  being  accompanied  with  a  sufficient  power  of  French- 
men and  Germans,  came  down  to  Hungary,  and  toward  Servia,  against 
the  Turk.     Bajazet,  hearing  of  their  coming,   raised  his  siege  from 
Constantinople,   and  with    60,000    horsemen,    came    to  Nicopolis, 
where  he,  encountering  with  them,  overthrew  all  the  christian  army, 

(I)   E.\  PeUMI  ft  alii.;. 

TT1K    IMs'IOUY    OK    THE    TURKS. 

ami  took  John,  the  captain  of  the  French  power,  prisoner.  Sigismund, 
^         who  before,  in  the  council  of  Constance,  had  burned  John  Huss  and 
"•Jerome  of  Prague,   hardly  escaped  by  flying.     Bajazet,  after  the 
thrown     victory  got,  carried  away  duke  John,  with  five  others,  in  bands,  into 
ToAm.      I'rusia,   where,    before   his  face,    he   caused  all    the  other  christian 
prisoners  to  be  cut  in  pieces.     Afterwards  the  said  John,  being  ran- 
somed with  200,000  crowns,  was  delivered.     Some  authors  refer  this 
-ton  to  the  time  of  Calepine,  as  followeth  hereafter  to  be  seen. 

Bajazet,  the  cruel  tyrant,  after  this  victory  won,  and  tyranny  showed 

upon  the  Christians,   returned  again  to  his  siege  of  Constantinople, 

fully  bending  himself  to  conquer  and  subdue  the  same ;  which  thing 

no  doubt  he  had  accomplished,  but  that  the  providence  of  God  had 

Tinwr-     found  such  a  means,  that  Tamerlane,  king  of  Parthia,  with  a  hundred 

itirred  up  thousand  horsemen,  and  swarms  of  footmen,  like  a  violent  flood 

1  overrunning  Asia,  and  pressing  upon  Syria  and  Sebastia,  had  taken 

uieChrJs-.Ortliobules,  the  son  of  Bajazet,  prisoner,  and  afterwards  slew  him, 

exercising  the  like  cruelty  upon  his  prisoners  as  Bajazet  had  done 

before  upon  the  Christians,  insomuch  that  he  spared  neither  sex  nor 

age  of  the  Turkish  multitude  ;  of  whom  he  caused  twelve  thousand, 

at  one  time,  to  be  overridden  and  trodden  down  under  his  horses1 

Bqjuet     feet.     By  reason  of  this,  Bajazet  the  tyrant  was  enforced  to  raise  his 

■iegefrom  siege  from  Constantinople,  and  to" return  his  power  into  Asia;  where 

SnoSS"   ,H>*  near  tl,c  m11  ca]1(xl  Stella>   pitched  his  tents  there  to  encounter 

with  Tamerlane. 

The  fight  between  these  two  was  long  and  great  on  both  sides, 
which  was  a. d.  1397,  and  the  second  year  after  the  slaughter  of 
.!'  '.-rr '.',„•  °UI  (-^r'st'ans  at  Nicopolis  in  Pannonia.     But  the  victory  of  this 
'i';'t.'1'""'  battle  fell  to  Tamerlane  at  length,  in  which,  as  Munsterus  writeth, 
nerijue,   were  s|am  £00,000  Turks  ;  among  whom  Bajazet  the  tyrant,  having 
his  horse  slain  under  him,  was  taken  prisoner,  and,  to  make  a  spec- 
a'cnui"   taele  of  his  wretched  fortune,  he  was  bound  in  golden  fetters,  and  so, 
paawa.    being  enclosed  in  an  iron  grate  (whom,  before,  all  Greece  could  not 
hold),  was  led  about  and  showed  through  all  Asia,  to  be  scorned  and 
laughed  at ;  and,  moreover,  was  used  instead  of  a  footstool  to  Tamer- 
lane, or  a  block,  as  often  as  he  mounted  upon  his  horse.     Some  add 
also,  that  he  was  made  like  a  dog  to  feed  under  Tamerlane's  table. 
The  tyranny  of  this  Bajazet  against  the  Christians,  as  it  was  not  much 
unlike  to  the  cruelty  of  Valerian  the  Roman  emperor  above  men- 
tioned, so  neither  was  the  example  of  his  punishment  much  discrepant ; 
for,  as  Sapor,  king  of  the  Persians,  did  then  with  Valerian,  in  the 
tuned  the  eighth  persecution  of  the  primitive  church,  so  likewise 
was  Bajazet,  tins  persecutor,  worthily  handled  by  Tamerlane,  king  of 
the  Parthians,  as  in  manner  above-said. 
'.;•  >>  ^       Tamerlane,  after  this  conquest,  passed  with  his  army  into  Mesopo- 
tamia, Egypt,  and  all  Syria,  where  he,  victoriously  subduing  the  cities 
jnd  .Munitions  of  the  Turks,  at  length  also  conquered  Damascus.     In 
Ins  sieges  Ins  manner  was.  the  firet  day  to  go  all  in  white  attire,  the 
second  -lav  ,„  ,cd.  the  third  day  in  black,  signifying  thereby  mercy 
the  tirsl  day,  to  them  that  yielded;   the  second  day  the  sword;   the 
Hurt   day   lire   and    ashes.      At   last,  alter  great  victories,  and  spoils 
gotten  ot  the  Turks,  he  returned  into  his  country  aeain,  and  there 

died,    A.I..    I   |<)  J.  '       & 

THE    HISTORY    OK    THE    TURKS  2i) 

Sebastianus  Munsterns,  writing  of  this  Tamerlane,  recordeth  that  8<$avt. 
lie  had  in  his  army  200,000  men  :  and  that  he  overcame  the  Parthians,  c„""?,„: 

Scythians,  Iberians,  Albanians,  Persians,  Medes,   and  conquered   all 

Mesopotamia  :  and  after  he  had  also  subdued  Armenia,  passing  over 
the  river  Euphrates  with  600,000  footmen,  and  400,000  horsemen, 
he  invaded  all  Asia  Minor,  conquering  and  subduing  from  the  flood 
Tanais1  unto  the  Nile  in  Egypt,  and  was  called  '  terror  orbis,1  the 
'  terror  of  the  world.1'2  He  left  behind  him  two  sons,  who,  falling 
in  discord  for  their  possessions,  lost  all  again  that  their  father  got. 

In  the  mean  time  Bajazet,  in  the  second  year  of  his  captivity,  died,  a  genera- 
leaving  behind  him  divers  sons,  Jesus  or  Joshua  the  eldest,  Mul-ti.onuf 
suman,  Moses,  Celebine  or  Calepinc,  Jesus  the  younger,  Mustapha, 
and  Hali,  of  whom,  first  Jesus  the  eldest  was  overcome  and  slain  of 
Mulsuman,  which  Mulsuman  afterward  was  delivered  to  Moses  his 
brother,  and  by  him  was  slain  likewise  ;  which  Moses  had  also  the 
like  end  by  his  brother  Calepine,  having  his  neck  broken  with  a  bow- 
string, which  was  then  the  usual  manner  among  the  Turks  in  killing 
their  brethren.  The  same  Calepine,  sparing  only  the  life  of  Mustapha 
his  brother,  condemned  him  to  perpetual  prison.  Jesus  the  younger 
was  baptized,  and  shortly  after  departed  at  Constantinople.  In  these 
such  discords  and  divisions  among  the  Turks,  what  occasions  were 
given  to  the  Christians  to  have  recovered  again  of  the  Turks,  what 
they  had  lost,  if  they  had  not  been  either  negligent,  or  in  their  own 
private  wars  otherwise  occupied  with  themselves  ! 


Calepine  or  Celebine,  was  the  son  of  Bajazet,  and  of  four  brethren 
the  eldest ;  who  being  all  taken  captives  by  the  Parthians,  he  only 
escaped  and  obtained  his  father's   kingdom.      This  Calepine,   en- 
couraged by  the  sloth  and  negligence  of  the  princes  of  Europe,  and 
by  the  discord  of  the  Greeks  among  themselves  and  other  nations 
near  about  them,  long  troubled  and  vexed  the  Bulgarians,  Servians, 
and  Macedonians,  even  to  the  time  of  Sigismund.     This  Sigisnmnd, 
seeing  now  Bajazet  to  be  overcome  and  taken  by  Tamerlane,  and  the 
power  of  the  Turks  weakened  in  Europe,  and  having  such  occasion 
ofFered  him,  as  it  were  from  heaven,  to  destroy  and  utterly  to  root 
out,  not  only  out  of  Asia,  but  also  all  Europe,  that  barbarous  nation, 
and  cruel  enemies  to  the  name  and  religion  of  Christ:  and  also  to 
revenge  the  great  slaughter  and  discomfiture   of  his  army  fighting 
before  with  Bajazet  at  Nicopolis,  a  city  in  Mysia ;  with  great  power 
made  war  against  Calepine,  at  Columbatium,  a  town  in  Servia,  as  is 
also  before-mentioned ;  but  as  unluckily,  and  with  as  little  success, 
as  he  did  before  against  Bajazet  his  father :    for  in  that  battle  were 
slain  of  the  Christians  to  the  number  of  twenty  thousand,  and  the  rest  over- 
utterly  discomfited,  the.  king  himself  escaping  so  hardly,  that  he  entered  ^"*  of 
not  again  into  his  kingdom  for  the  space  of  eighteen  months  after.  "»imI- 
Some  write  that  this  was  done  under  Bajazet ;  others  refer  this  battle  to  against 
Amurath  ;  but,  howsoever  it  was,  most  pernicious  was  it  to  the  Chris*  ^lk 
tians.3  He  reigned  but  six  years,  and  died  very  young,  a.  n.  1404. 

(1)  Tanais  is  the  uttermost  flood  in  the  north  side,  and  the  Nile  the  uttermost  Hood  on  the  south 
6icie  of  Asia. 

(2)  Ex  Seb.  Munstero  Cosmograph  ,  lib.  iv. 

l«)  Some  stories  record  this  conflict  to  he  aftei  the  time  of  this  Turk. 






lltj  in 

After  the  captivity  of  Bajazet  above-mentioned,  histories  diversely 
do  dissent.  The  Greek  writers,  making  no  mention  at  all  of  Cale- 
pine ;  only  make  mention  of  the  sons  of  Bajazet,  and  of  the  contention 
among  them,  until  the  time  of  Mahomet.  The  Latin  stories,  writing  of 
the  children  of  Bajazet,  and  of  their  succession,  do  not  therein  agree  ; 
•  nine  affirming,  that  Bajazet  had  two  sons,  Orchan,  surnamed  Cale- 
pine,  and  Mahomet  his  brother,  who  within  two  years  slew  the  said 
Calepine,  and  entered  his  dominion.  Others  attribute  to  Bajazet 
more  sons ;  as  is  above-rehearsed.  Some  again  do  give  to  Bajazet 
only  these  two  sons,  Celebine  and  Mustapha ;  and  hold  that  Cale- 
pine or  Celebine  had  two  sons;  to  wit,  Orchan  and  Mahomet:  and 
add.   moreover,   that  the  said  Orchan,  being  somewhat  young,  was 

Murder  slain  by  his  uncle  Moses,  who  governed  but  two  years  :  for  Mahomet, 
1  to  revenge  his  brother's  death,  slew  Moses,  and  invaded  his  dominion. 

murder.    The  Greek  stories  make  no  mention  at  all  of  Orchan. 


b]  Ma 



al  Ailrl 



This  Mahomet,  whether  he  was  the  son  of  Bajazet,  or  else  of 
Calepine,  converted  to  himself  alone  the  kingdom,  or  tyranny  rather, 
of  the  murdering  Turks,  who  afflicted  the  Christians  with  sore  wars 
within  Europe,  especially  the  country  called  WaJlachia,  lying  not  far 
from  the  flood  Danube,  between  Hungary  and  Thrace.  From  thence 
he  removed  into  Asia,  where  he  recovered  divers  parts  in  Galatia, 
l'ontus.  ( 'appadocia,  and  Cilicia,  which  before  Tamerlane  had  alienated 
from  the  Turks.  This  Mahomet  planted  his  chief  imperial  seat 
in  Adrianople,  not  far  from  Constantinople,  within  the  country  of 
Thrace.  In  some  writers  the  conflict  between  Sigismund  and'the 
great  Turk,  wherein  the  Christians  were  so  discomfited,  is  referred 
rather  to  this  Mahomet,  than  to  Calepine;  of  which  conflict  mention 
is  above  made  in  the  story  of  Sigismund.  This  Mahomet  reigned, 
as  some  say,  fourteen  years,  and  died  a.  d.  1419:  others  affirm 
•seventeen  years. 



Amurath,  as  Philelphus  saith,  was  the  son  of  Celebine :  as  Laoni- 
cus  Chalcondilea  testifieth,  of  Mahomet.  Whose  son  soever  he  was, 
a  wretched  tyrant  he  was,  and  permitted  as  a  scourge  of  Cod,  to  correct 
the  sins  of  the  Christians.  In  the  story  of  Bajazet  mention'was  made 
before  of  Mustapha,  his  son.  who  was  condemned  to  perpetual  prison 
by  ( 'al.pine,  his  brother.  This  Mustapha,  escaping  out  of  his  brother's 
prison,  was  conveyed  to  the  Greeks,  where  he  remained  long  in 
custody,  till  at  length  they,  understanding  the  purpose  of  Amurathj 
s  t.  him  op  with  Bufficient  habiliments  and  furniture  of  war,  to  6ght 
a..amsi  the  said  Aiuuiath,  his  nephew.  But,  in  conclusion,  he  being 
not  able  to  make  his  party  good,  came  into  the  hands  of  his  enemy, 
and  had  his  neck  broke  with  a  bow-string,  after  the  manner  of  the 


The  Greeks  then  terrified  with  this  sinister  adversity',  required  truce  Anamtk 
of  the  Turk;   but,  when  that  would  not  lie  "ranted,  they  procured  ti^ 
unto  them  Mustapha,  the  other  brother  to  Amurath,  being  of  the  ^^dcT 
age  of  thirteen  years  ;   who  likewise,  being  armed  of  the  Greeks,  got  etii  his 
the  city  of  Nice  in  Bithynia,  from  Amurath,  his  brother.    Albeit  it  was  Amu'""' 
not  long  but  he  was  circumvented  in  the  same  city,  and  brought  to  ^.^ 
Amurath  ;   who  caused  him  likewise  to  taste  of  the  same  whip,  as  the  *• 
other  Mustapha  had  done  before.     Amurath,  being  now  out  of  all  Thrace 
fear  and  doubt  of  brethren  and  kinsfolk  to  rise  against  him,  converted  ^the 
all  his  power  against  the  Greeks :  and  first  ranging  throughout  Thrace,  Turt 
where  divers  cities  yielded  unto  him,  which  before  belonged  to  the 
emperor  of  Constantinople,  from  thence  he  set  forward  to  the  noble 
and  famous  city  Thcssalonica,  being  then  under  the  league  and  pro- 
tection  of  the  Venetians.     This  Thessaloniea  is  a  city  in  Greece, 
bordering  upon  Macedonia,  to  the  citizens  whereof  St.  Paul  writeth, 
foreshowing  unto  them,  in  his  second  epistle,  of  a  defection  to  come 
before  the  coming  of  the  day  of  the  Lord  [2  Thess.  ii.],  of  which  The  de- 
apostasy  or  defection  what  the  holy  apostle  doth  mean,  this  story  of  ™^" 
the  Turks  may  easily  declare.     After  Thessaloniea  was  subdued,  jf^?*- 
Phocis,  with  all  the  country  about  Athens,  Boeotia  likewise,  iEtolia,  ciared. 
Acarnania,  with  all  the  region  beyond  Peloponnesus,  unto  the  coast 
of  Corinth  (to  which  St.  Paul  also  wrote  two  other  epistles),  were 
brought  in  bondage  and  slavery  unto  the  Turk. 

In  Epyrus,  and  in  that  quarter  that  adjoineth  to  Macedonia  named  croia 
Albania,  reigned  then  one  Johannes  Castriotus;  who,  perceiving  him-  theTurk. 
self  too  weak  to  match  with  the  Turk's  power,  made  with  the  Turk  ^'o™' 
this  convention,  that,  he  should  have  Croia,  a  famous  city  in  Greece,  Cast™ 
and  also  gave  to  him  his  three  sons  for  hostages :  to  wit,  Constantino,  ^  with 
Reposius,  and  George. 

In  this  George  such  towardness  of  noble  courage,  such  vigour  of 
mind  and  strength  of  body  singularly  did  appear,  that  the  Turk  caused 
him  more  freely  to  be  instructed  after  the  Turkish  religion  and  manner 
in  his  own  court;  where  he,  being  traded  up,  did  so  shoot  up  as  well 
in  feats  of  activity,  as  in  strength  of  body,  that  he  excelled  all  his 
equals  ;  insomuch  that  he  was  named  '  Scanderbeius,-1  which  soundeth 
as  much  as  '  Alexander  Magnus.'1 

After  this  Alexander  was  grown  up  to  mature  ripeness  of  age,  and  valiant 
was  well  trained  up  in  feats  of  war,  he  was  sent  out  by  the  Turk,  to  scander- 
war  against  Caraman   of  Cilicia,  the  Turk's   enemy.     In  that  ex-  be,us- 
pedition  he  sped  himself  most  manfully,  fighting  hand  to  hand,  first 
with  a  footman  of  Scythia,  then  with  a  horseman  of  Persia,  being 
challenged  by  them  both  to  encounter,  first  with  the  one,  after  with 
the  other ;   whom  he  so  valiantly  overthrew,  that  he  won  great  renown 
with  the  Turk  :  insomuch  that  he,  trusting  to  the  Turk's  favour,  when 
he  heard  of  the  decease  of  his  father,  durst  ask  of  the  Turk  the  grant 
of   his   father's    dominion   to    be   given   unto   him  ;    which   request  scande*. 
although  Amurath  the  Turk  did  not  deny  him,  yet  notwithstanding,  ^eth 
perceiving  the  matter  to  be  dallied  out  with  fair  words,  he  by  subtle™*^ 
means  and  policy  slipped  out  of  the  Turk's  court,  and  came  to  Eyprus  Turk,  hu 
his  own  inheritance,  where  first  by  forged  letters  he  recovered  Croia.  lul 
The  other  cities,  of  their  voluntary  mind,  yielded  themselves  unto 
him  ;   who  then,  gathering  unto  him  the  people  of  Epyrus  and  Mace- 

THE    HIST0KV    OF    THE    TURKS. 



donia  (who  were  not  bo  many  in  number,  as  with  good  willing  minds 
they  stuck  unto  him),  so  manfully  and  valiantly  behaved  himself,  that 
against  all  the  puissance  both  of  Amurath,  and  also  of  Mahomet,  he 
■"■  maintained  his  own,  repulsed  their  violence,  and  put  to  flight  their 
armies  many  years  together.  But,  to  return  again  to  the  course  of 
Amurath's  victories  :  after  he  had  thus  prevailed  (as  is  before  signified) 
against  the  east  parts  of  Europe  and  Greece,  and  had  convented  thus 
for  the  dominion  of  Epyrus,  he  invaded  Illyricum  (otherwise  called 
now  Sclavonia),  containing  in  it  Dalmatia,  Croatia,  Istria,  and  Li- 
bumia  :  which  countries  after  he  had  spoiled  and  wasted,  he  continued 
his  course  to  Albania  and  Bosnia;  of  which  regions,  when  he  had 
subdued  a  great  part,  and  had  led  away  an  innumerable  multitude  of 
captives,  be  moved  further  to  Wallachia  and  Servia,  upon  hope  to 
conquer  all  Pannonia. 

There  reigned  at  the  same  time  in  Servia  a  certain  prince,  named 

An  un 

«o«y      Georgius  Despota,  who  made  great  suit  to  the  Turk  for  truce  and 
Miu  peace,  promising  to  give  his  daughter  to  marriage  ;  for  by  the  Turk's 
num1  til's  law  they  marry  as  many  wives  as  they  list.     It  was  not  long  after 
totto*  Amurath  had  "married  the  daughter  of  Despota,  but  he,  contrary  to 
Turk.      ),is  league  and  promise,  made  war  upon  Despota  his  father-in-law,  and 
expelled  him  out  of  his  kingdom,  taking  from  him  divers  cities,  as 
Scopia,  Novomonte,  Sophia,  and  all-Mysia.    George  himself  fled  into 
Hungary,  leaving  behind  him  his  son,  to  defend  the  town  of  Sin- 
deronia.  Amurath,  understanding  of  the  flight  of  Despota,  his  father- 
in-law,    compassed   the   city   of    Sinderonia   with    a   strong    siege, 
Cradtj     which  when  he  in  few  days  had  expugned,  he  took  his  wife's  brother, 
Tu'i'lf.      the  son  of  Despota,  and  without  all  regard  of  mercy  and  affinity,  after 
the  barbarous  tyranny  of  the  Turks,  put  out  his  eyes  with  a  bason 
red  hot  before  them;  and,  after  that,  led  him  about  with  him  in 
derision,  in  spite  of  his  cowardly  father.1 

Servia  heing  thus  won  and  gotten,  Amurath,  thinking  to  go  further 
bj*t2i      into  Hungary,  besieged  the  city  called  Belgrade,  and  no  doubt  had 
1  "rk-      also  suppressed  the  same,  had  not  the  providence  of  God  found  means, 
that   partly  through  slaughter  of  his  men,  partly  for  lack  of  victual 
and  other  forage,  he  was  compelled  to  raise  his  siege  and  retire. 
johinnei       In  the  mean  time  Johannes  Huniades  (of  whom  mention  was  made 
VaiToda.  before)  had  got  great  victories  against  the  Turkish  power,  and  had  re- 
covered part  of  Servia,  and  all  Moldavia  ;  against  whom  Amurath  the 
Turk,  with  a  mighty  army,  moved  into  Pannonia.   But  Huniades,  with 
the  power  and  aid  of  Ladislaus,  king. of  Poland  (but  especially  by  the 
power  of  the  Lord),  did  soon  infringe  the  puissance  of  the  Turk,  and 
gave  him  the  overthrow,  recovering  unto  the  Christians  the  greatest 
part  of  Servia  and  Bulgaria. 

1  n  this  battle,  Huniades  had  five  sundry  conflicts  with  the  Turks  on 

,  one  day,  and  with  five  victories  put  them  to  the  worse,  and  toward  night 

did  BO  discomfit  and  overthrow  the  great  captain  of  Amurath,  called 

the  Baasa,  duke  of  Anatolia  (which  is  otherwise  named  Asia  Minor), 

/    that  be  slew  of  the  Turks  that  day  to  the  number  of  thirty  thousand. 

•I;;;;i'"'k'  Amurath,  although  he  was  not  a' little  thereat  discouraged,  yet  dis- 

Uuown.     m  niblmg  his  Tear  with   stout  countenance,   sent  for  Carambeius,  his 

principal  staj  and  captain,  with  a  new  power  brought  out  of  Asia  to 

I     I      ' Ebriltoph.  ltichfr'.n  (i;illo,  et  Gasp.  Pcuc.  et  aliic 

THE    HISTORY    OK    THE    TUKKS.  iY.i 

assist  him  in  his  wars.     This  Carembeius,  in  the  Downs  of  Tran-  Amurath. 
sylvania,  Ladislans  the  aforesaid  king  of  Poland  (the  Lord  so  working)  Another 
through  the  industry  of  Johannes   lluniades,  so  received   and  with  ™h£ 
such    celerity    oppressed    him   unprovided,    that    all    his   stout    and  "i;uks- 
sturdy  army   either   was  slain  downright,  or   else   put  to  flight  and 
disparkled,  Carambeius  the  captain  being  himself  taken  prisoner  in 
the  same  field. 

These  victories  of  Huniades  struck  no  little  terror  to  Amurath,  The  great 
insomuch  that  for  distress   of  mind  be  was  ready  to  destroy  himself,  bought 
as  some  do  write;    but,  being  confirmed  by  Hclibcus    Bassa,    his  ,.'.' &* !at 
counsellor,  he  kept  himself  within   the  straits  of  mount  Khodope, 
who  then,  hearing  that  Caraman  invaded  the  same  time  the  country 
of  Bithynia,  and  Pontus  in  Asia,  was  glad  to  take  truce  with  Ladis-  He  seek- 
laus  and   Huniades  upon  such  conditions  as  they  listed  to  make  of  the"8 
themselves  :  which  conditions  were  these,  that  Amurath  should  depart  {j^" 
clearly  from  all  the  region  of  Servia,  and  should  remove  from  thence 
all  his  garrisons,  which  were  placed  in  the  castles  and  forts   of  the 
same  ;  also  he  should  restore  George  Despota  (which  is  to  say,  prince 
of  Servia),  unto  his  possession,  and  set  his  children  free,  whom  he 
had  in   captivity,  and  restore  them  to  their  inheritance.     Item,  that 
he  should  make  no  more  claim  nor  title  to  the  country  of  Moldavia 
above  mentioned,  nor  to  that  part  of  Bulgaria  which  he  had  lost ; 
and    that  he  should  desist  hereafter  from  all  wrongs  and  injuries  Truce 
against  the  Christians.      Upon  these   conditions  the  Turks   being  between 
agreed,  so  was  a  truce  concluded  on   both  parts  tor  ten  years,  and  ten  years, 
with  solemn  oath  between  them  confirmed. 

This  done,  Amurath  the  tyrant  addresseth  himself  toward  Asia,  Amurath 
to  resist  the  invasion  of  Caraman  aforesaid ;    at  which  time  pope  into  Asia. 
Eugene,  so  soon  as  he  heard  the  Turk  to  be  returned  into  Asia,  The 
sendeth  Julianus    Caesarianus,  his  cardinal   (whose  storv  is  before  v°ve's 
touched),  unto  Ladislaus  the  aforesaid  king,  with  full  dispensation  tion  ana 
and  absolution  to  break  his  oath  and  league  with  the  Turk ;  pro-  uon" 
raising,  moreover,  great  hope  and  aid,  if  he  would  go  in  arms  stoutly  abused- 
against  the  tyrant. 

Here  by  the  way  is  to  be  noted,  that  as  there  is  no  truth  of  pro-  His  rash 
mise  in  that  pestilent  see  of  Rome,  neither  was  there  ever  any  war  pemi- 
prospered,  which  was  taken  in  hand  by  the  pope's  council :  so  was  christen. 
there  never  any  council   of  the  pope  that  brought  with  it  more  detri-  do1"- 
ment  to  Christianity  than  this.     But  the  pope  belike  thought,  that 
as  he  might  lawfully  break  promise  with  John  Huss,  and  with  other 
Christians,  so  also  he  needed  not  to  observe  any  league  or  truce 
taken  with  the  Turk  ;  but  it  turned  much  otherwise  than  the  pope's 
blind  brains   imagined,  as  by  the  sequel  is  to  be  seen.1     For  Ladis-  ^itc.,h 
laus,  being  thus  excited   by  the   unadvised   and  sinister  instigation  truce 
of  pope   Eugene,  contrary  to   the   truce  established  a  little  before,  tween  the 
set  out  with  his  army  from  Seledinus,  and  so  proceeding  to  Walla-  ^"- \U1(1 
chia  and  Bulgaria,  came  to  Varna,  a  town  of  Bulgaria,  where  he  fell  l»u  'l'urk 

It  was  not  long  but  the  Turk,  having  thereof  intelligence,  left  his 
wars  begun  with  Caraman   in  Asia,   and  with  great  journeys  made 

(1)  Nothing  prospereth  that  is  taken  in  hand  by  the  pope's  setting  on. 
VOI,.  IV.  D 


,  Europe,  passing  over  by  the  straits  neat  to  Callipolis, 
_  where  all  the  Italian  navy  still  looking  on,  and  whether  of  purpose, 
oi  whether  tor  cowardliness,  would  not  stir  one  oar  to  stop  the  passage 
of  the  Turkish  army.  When  Amurath  was  come  to  Adrianople  in 
Thrace,  using  such  celerity  as  no  man  looked  for,  within  eight  days 
lie  was  in  Bulgaria,  and  there  encamped  himself  against Ladislaus. 
The  day  of  battle  being  set,  the  armies  joined  on  both  sides.  Hu- 
niades Teas  himself  there  present,  but  all  the  matter  was  ruled  by 
Julian  the  cardinal,  and  the  pope's  clergy.  The  fight  continued  three 
and  three  nights  together,  with  great  courage  and  much  blood- 

Amnmth.  ^  ^  ^  ^ .  ^g^^  t]iat  t}ie  fie](i  did  stand  with  lakes  of 
blood.     It  seemed  at  first  to  incline  to  the  Christians,  by  breaking 

ThePo-    the  first  ranks  of  the  Turks  ;  but  the  priests  and  prelates  who  were 

at  the  field   (who  had  been  more  fit  to  have  been  in  the  church), 

:  ig  the  Turks  to  begin  to  fly,  unskilfully  left  their  array  to  pur- 

tSeiSeid.  sue  the  enemy,  so  that  they,  leaving  the  other  standings  of  the. 
Christians  naked,  gave  great  advantage  to  the  Turks,  with  their  darts 
and  shot  to  disturb  the  Christian  ranks,  by  which  occasion  Amurath, 
enclosing  the  Christians  with  his  army  round  about,  obtained  the 
victory  ;  in  which  field,  Ladislaus,  the  young  king  of  Poland,  having 
his  horse  first  killed  under  him,  was   stricken  down  and  slain.     The 

AiuUh-    P()PCS  bishops,  flying  to  save  themselves,  fell  into  the  marshes,  and 

meat  were  there  destroyed,  sustaining  a  dirty  death,  condign  to  their  filthy 
falsehood  and  untruth.     Julian  the  cardinal,  who  with  the  pope  was 

,"ltan  the  chief  doer  in  breaking  the  league,  in  the  way  was  found  dead, 
being  full  of  wounds,  and  spoiled  to  his  naked  skin.     Of  the  rest  of 

thL-'war.  the  army  that  escaped  by  flying,  part  were  drowned  in  the  marshes, 
some  perished  miserably  for  hunger,  some  for  cold;  watching  and 

HuniadM  wandering  in  the  woods.     Huniades  hardly  escaped  the  danger,  by  the 

Mcapeth.  nim.j|ui  providence  of  God  being  reserved  to  the  further  profit  and 
commodity  of  Christendom. 

Hlawor-       This  John   Huniades,  the  worthy  warrior,  Avas  born  in  Wallachia, 

menST"  being  earl  of  Bistrice,  of  all  captains  that  ever  went  against  the 

tion.  Turks  most  famous  and  singular;  prudent  in  wit,  discreet  in  council, 
expert  and  politic  in  war,  prompt  of  hand,  circumspect  before  he  at- 
tempted, quick  in  expedition  :  in  whom  wanted  almost  no  good  pro- 
perty requisite  in  a  warlike  captain.  Against  two  most  mighty  and 
fierce  tyrants,  Amurath  and  Mahomet,  through  the  Lord's  might,  he 
defended  all  Pannonia,  and  therefore  was  called  the  thunderbolt,  and 
the  terror  of  the  Turks.  Like  as  Achilles  was  unto  the  Grecians,  so 
was  he  set  up  of  God  to  be  as  a  wall  or  bulwark  of  all  Europe  against 
the  cruel  Turks  and  enemies  of  Christ  and  of  his  Christians;  nei- 
ther Mas  there  any  king  or  prince  that  ever  achieved  such  noble 
victories,  either  so  many  in  number,  or  so  profitable  for  the  public 
utility  of  all  Europe,  as  did  he;  and  that  not  only  in  the  days  of 
this  Amurath,  but  also  of  Mahomet  his  successor,  as  hereafter  remain- 
ed) further  to  be  seen.    This  battle  of  Amurath  against  the  Christians, 

M.1'"'      :il  ^arna  m  Bulgaria,  was  fought  a.d.  1404. 

^  Amurath.    by   reason    of    this    victorious   overthrow  against   the 

Christians,  surprised  with  no  small  pride,   directed  his  journey  in- 

1     continent  toward  the  Grecians,  where  Castriotus  was,  otherwise  called 

QderbehiB.      And  first,  coming  to  Peloponnesus,  and  breaking 

THE    HIST0B1'    OF    THK    T(  RKS.  89 

down  the  wall  about  the  straits  of  Corinth,  he  encountered  with  the  Amvraih. 
brother  of  the  emperor  of  Constantinople,  whom  with  his  sudden  coming 
he  oppressed,  with  all  the  Greeks1  army,   ere  they  were   provided. 
Paleologus  the  emperor,  after  that,  did  build  up  the  Mall  again,  but, 
at  the  Turks1  bidding,   he  was  compelled   to   undo  it  again  ;   which 
wall  afterwards  the  Venetians   did  repair.     After  the  demolition  ofsw 
the  wall,  Amurath,  entering  into  Peloponnesus,  took  divers  towns  and  ^ulr'^' 
cities,  as  Sycio,  and  Patris ;    and   moreover  made  all  the  parts  of 
Thessalia  and  Achaia  tributaries  unto  thern. 

The  next  year  after  this  battle  of  Amurath,  fought  against  the  Memo- 
Christians  at  Varna,  the  Turk,  being  now  about  the  parts  of  Greece,  ofsl-.u" ' 
purposed  to  bend  all  his  force  and  main  against  the  country  of  Epyrus  derb^"" 
belonging  to  Georgius  Castriotus  Scanderbeius.     Of  this  Scander-  Amurath. 
beius  mention  was  made  before,  how  he  was  brought  up  in  the  Turk's 
court,  from  whence  we  declared  also  how  subtilely  he  conveyed  him- 
self, and  came  to  the  possession  of  his  own  patrimony  of  Epyrus ; 
which  Epyrus,1   this  noble  and  victorious  Scanderbeius   (whom  the 
Lord  also  had  raised  up  the  same  time  with  Huniades,  to  bridle  the 
fury  of  the  Turks)  valiantly  defended  against  all  the  power  of  Amu- 
rath ;    insomuch  that  he  discomfited  and  vanquished  seven  of  the  Seven 
most  expert  bassas  or  dukes  of  the  Ottoman  emperor,  one  after  o'hIh"18 
another,  with  all  their  armies  of  most  picked  and  chosen  soldiers,  dis-  Tu,rks 
lodged  them  from   their  tents,  and  expulsed  them  utterly  out  of  all  by  Scan- 
Epyrus.     Also  when  Amurath  himself,  with   his  whole  puissance, 
had  environed  about  the  city  of  Croia  with  cruel  siege  and  ordnance 
out  of  measure,  yet,  notwithstanding,  the  said  Scanderbeius  (through 
the  power  and  blessing  of  the  Lord)  beat  him  out  of  the  field,  and 
repulsed  him  from  the  siege. 

After  this  discomfiture,  the  saying  is,  that  Amurath,  to  keep  his  Amurath 
vow  made  before,  after  his  victory  at  Varna,  gave  himself  unto  a  re-  hYs°uoRCS 
ligious  order,  living  a  contemplative  life  with  certain  other  priests  l^1™011' 
joined  unto  him,  in  the  forest  of  Bithynia,  renouncing  the  govern-  m.aksc'h 
ment  of  his   realm  to  the  hands  of  Hali,  one  of  the  princes ;  for  aTurW* 
thou  must  understand,  good  reader,  that  the  Turks  also  be  not  without  ^10"k• 
their  sundry  sects  of  religion,  no  more  than  we  Christians  arc  without 
our  friars  and  monks. 

In  the  mean  time,  while  Amurath,  this  Turkish  tyrant,  was  clois-  Two 
tercd  up  in  his  monkish  religion,  Johannes  Huniades,  in  the  kingdom  warrior" 
of  Hungary,  and  Georgius  Castriotus,  in  Greece,  kept  a  great  stir  ^"d^ 
against  the  Turks.     By  reason  whereof,  Amurath  was  taken  again  J^J3^ 
from  his  monkish  vow  and  profession,  and  brought  again  into  the  the 
field  :  for  first  Huniades2  had  rescued  the  whole  country  of  Hungary,  'lurks' 
and  had  propulsed   moreover  all   the  might  of  the  Turks  far  from 
Servia.     And  although  the  peevish  practice   of  George,  prince   of 
Servia,  had  oftentimes  disclosed  his  councils  unto  the  Turks,  whereby 
twice  he  was  brought  into  danger,  yet,  notwithstanding,  through  the 
Lord's  gracious  protection,  he  was  preserved  and  delivered  by  the  said 
George  unto  the  Hungarians  again,  and,  after  that,  manfully  van- 
quished the  Turks  ;  so  that  they  had  no  resting-place  about  those  parts 
of  Servia  and  Bulgaria,  so  long  as  he  lived. 

(1)  This  Epynis  is  a  country  in  Orcein,  bordering  near  to  the  part';  of  Macedonia. 

(2)  This  John  Huniades  is  reported,  of  twenty  battles  with  the  Turk,  to  lose  hut  two. 

D    fc 


.inwmih       On  the  other  wde,  m  Greece,  Castriotus  Scanderbcius  so  foiled  the 

vX'Lt  Turk  in  defence  of  his  country,  Epyrus  and  Macedonia,  and  kept 

'  "'/■*     Amurath  bo  Bhort,  that  not  only  he  was  not  able  to  win  any  great 

Kpyrus     town  in  all  Epyrus ;  but  also  coming  from  Epyrus,  in  the  straits  he 

was  bo  entangled  by  Castriotus,  that  he  was  forced  to  give  battle  :  in 

which  battle  ne  was  so  vanquished,  and  most  part  of  his  army  slain, 

that,  for  grief  and  sorrow  conceived,  he,  falling  into  a  raving  sickness, 

Amurath  vv.,^  transported  out  of  his  pavilion  unto  Adrianople,  and  there   in 

fury  and  madness  died,  after  he  had  reigned  thirty-four  years,  which 

was  about  a.d.  1450. 

Tins  Amurath  first  ordained  the  order  of  the  Janizaries,  who  were 
the  men-children  of  such  Christians  as  he  conquered  and  took  captive ; 
whom  he  forced  to  renounce  the  faith  of  Christ,  wherein  they  were 
baptized,  and  brought  them  up  in  Mahomet's  law,  and  exercised  them 
in  the  same  feats  of  war  as  he  did  his  own  people  ;  and  after  that  they 
came  to  man's  estate,  he  named  them  Janizaries,  that  is  to  say,  soldiers 
of  a  strange  country,  and  made  them  to  guard  his  person.  They 
wear  on  their  head,  instead  of  a  helmet,  a  white  attire  made  of  the 
grossest  sort  of  wool,  and  in  so  many  folds  about  their  head,  that  it 
cannot  be  pierced  with  a  sword.  It  hangeth  down  on  the  back  with 
a  tail,  and  before,  on  the  forehead,  it  is  garnished  with  gold  and  silver. 
They  were  wont  to  use  bows  and  lances  in  the  field,  but  now  they 
use  dags,  as  our  horsemen  do. 

At  the  first  institution  there  were  but  eight  thousand  in  their  gar- 
rison, but  now  there  be  twice  so  many.     This,  of  all  bondage  and 
servitude  that  the  Christians  suffer  under  the  Turks,  is  most  intolera- 
ble, and  greatly  to  be  of  all  true  Christians  lamented.    For  what  can 
godly  minds  behold  more  to  their  grief,  than  to  see  their  children 
pulled  from  the  faith  of  Christ,  wherein  they  were  baptized,  and  by 
whose  blood  they  should  eternally  be  saved  ;  and  to  be  instructed  and 
nourished  with  the  blasphemous  doctrine  of  Mahomet,  and  to  be  pro- 
fessed  enemies  of  Christ,  and  his  church,  to  make  war  against  Heaven, 
Lament*  and  to  perish  everlastingly  ?    And  finally,  what  a  lamentable  thing  is 
it,  to  see  and  behold  our  own  children,  born  of  our  own  bodies,  to  be- 
men*8ian  come  our  ni01'tal  and  cruel  enemies,  and  to  cut  our  throats  with  their 
chdd'u    mvn  nan<k  •     r^ms  servitude  of  mind  is  far  greater  than  death  itself; 
Turk.  "~  which  if  our  princes  would  well  consider,  it  would  cause  them  the 
rather  to  agree,  and  bend  their  whole  force  and  power  against  this 
cruel  enemy. 


Amurath  left  behind  him  three  sons,  Mahomet,  born  of  the  daugh- 
ter of  Despota,  prince  ofServia,  being  twenty  years  of  age,  the  second 
son  called  Tuxcmes,  the  third  named  Calepine.    This  Turcines  being 
an  infant,  and  but  eighteen  months  old,  was  strangled  at  the  com- 
mandment of  the  Turk  by  his  servant  Moses,  himself  being  there 
present,  and  beholding  the  horrible  murder.     And  when  Moses,  the 
m§        executor  of  the  murder,  had  desired  him  not  to  pollute  his  hands  with 
ruDjin    the  blood  of  his  brother,  he  answered,  that  it  was  the   manner  of  all 
the  Ottoman  Turks,  that  all  the  other  brethren  being  destroyed,  none 
brethren.  Bhould  be  left  alive  but  one,  to  govern  &e  empire :  wherefore  Moses 

the  ninth 


THE    HISTORY    OB    THE    TURKS.  37 

was  commanded  by  the  tyrant,  there  presently,  and  in  his  sight,  to  Mahomet 

kill  the  infant.  This  horrible  fact  when  the  mother  of  the  child  an-  u' 
derstood,  she  cried  out,  and  almost  mad  for  sorrow,  cursed  the  tyrant 
to  his  face.  But  he,  to  mitigate  the  rage  of  the  mother,  at  her  request, 
being  desirous  to  be  revenged  upon  the  executor  of  her  son's  death, 
delivered  the  said  Moses  bound  into  her  hands ;  she  then,  in  the 
presence  of  the  tyrant,  thrust  him  to  the  heart  with  a  knife,  and 
opening  his  side,  took  out  his  liver,  and  threw  it  to  the  dogs  to  be 

The  third  son,  called  Calepine,  who  was  but  six  months  old,  the  iiai.bassa 
aforesaid  Amurath,his  father, commended  to  the  custody  of  Hali  Bassa,  ta0u^tor 
one  of  his  nobles,  who,  to  gratify  and  please  the  tyrant,  betrayed  the  »»aster. 
infant,  and  brought  him  unto  him,  and  thereupon  he,  at  the  tyrant's  pL°rTL-uu- 
commandment,  was  strangled.    Some  affirm,  that  instead  of  Calepine,  y|'tl"-'. 

l-ii  rr>  i  i  i     i  ^  i       ■  abomma- 

another  child  was  ottered  unto  the  tyrant,  and  that  Calepine  was  con-  Me  Turk. 
veyed  to  Constantinople,  and  after  the  taking  of  Constantinople  was 
carried  to  Venice,  and  then  to  Rome  to  pope  Calixtus,  where  he  was 
baptized,  and  afterwards  came  into  Germany,  to  Frederic  the  emperor, 
and  there  was  honourably  entertained,  and  kept  in  Austria  during  his 
life :  where  note  how  the  merciful  providence  of  God,  whom  he  list  God's 
to  save,  can  fetch  out  of  the  devil's  mouth.     And  note,  moreover,  Senceto 
the  aforesaid  Hali  Bassa,  the  betrayer  of  the  infant,  how  he  escaped  JJjJJ^  )o 
not  unrevenged.1     For  Mahomet,  understanding  him  to  be  a  man  of  Usteth  to 
great  substance  and  riches,  through  forging  of  false  crimes,  with  great sav 
torments  put  him  to  death  to  have  his  riches :  for  this   tyrant  was 
given  to  insatiable  avarice.     Thus   this  bloody  Mahomet  began  his 
regiment  with  horrible  murder,  after  the  example  of  other  cursed 
tyrants,  his  predecessors. 

Although  this  Mahomet,  notwithstanding  that  he  came  of  a  chris- 
tian mother,  being  the  daughter  of  Despota  prince  of  Servia,  and  by 
her  was  brought  up  and  instructed  from  his  childhood  in  the  precepts 
of  christian  religion  and  manners,  yet  he,  soon  forgetting  all,  gave 
himself  to  Mahomet's  religion  ;  and  yet  so,  that  he,  being  addicted  to 
neither  religion,  became  an  atheist,  believing  and  worshipping  no  God 
at  all,  but  only  the  goddess  of  good  fortune,  irriding  and  mocking  the 
minds  and  judgments  of  men,  who  believe  that  God,  by  his  provi- 
dence, governeth  and  regardeth  the  state  of  human  things  on  earth. 

After  this  Mahomet  had  heard  of  the  victories  and  conquests  of 
others  his  predecessors,  and  had  understanding  how  Bajazet  lay  eight 
years  about  Constantinople,  and  could  not  win  it ;   he,  dispraising  Ba- 
jazet, and  disdaining  that  so  long  time   should  be   spent  about   the 
siege  thereof,  and  yet  no  victory  gotten,  bent  all  his  study  and  device 
how  to   subdue  the  same.     But,  first,  having  a  privy  hatred  against 
the  city  of  Athens,  and   having  his   hands  lately    imbrued  with  the  Mahomet 
blood  of  his  brethren,  this  murdering  Mahomet,  first  of  all.  takethhis  ^"hupon 
viage  to  subvert   and  destroy  the   city  aforesaid;    being   a  famous  Athens. 
school  of  all  good  learning  and  discipline:   against  which  city  he  did  fliefury 
so  furiously  rage,  for  the  hatred  of  good  letters,  that  he  thought   he  J£""ity 
ought  not  to  suffer  the  foundation  thereof  to  stand,  because  that  city  »"d 
Was  a  good  nurse,  and  fosterer  of  good  arts  and  sciences.    Wnerefbre  Athene, 
he  commanded  the  city  to  be  rased  and  utterly  subverted;  and  where- 

(1)  Note  here  God's  punishment  upon  the  betrayer  of  innocent  blood. 


soever  any  monuments  or  books  eould  be  found,  he  caused  them  to 
into  dirty  sinks,  and  the  filthiest  places  of  the  city,  or  put  to 
the  most  vile  uses  that  could  be  devised,  for  extirpating  and  abolish- 
ing of  all  good  literature:  and  if  he  understood  any  to  lament  the 
and  ruin  of  that  noble  place,  those  he  grievously  punished  and 
put  to  death. 
i      Thus  the  famous  and  ancient  school  of  Athens  being  destroyed  and 
rverthrown,  he  returned  his  army  and  power  into  Thrace,  Avherc,  in 
all  haste,  he,  gathering  his  power  together  both  by  sea  and  land, 
with  a  mighty  multitude  compassed  the  city  of  Constantinople  about, 
and  began  to  lay  his  siege  against  it,  a.d.  1453  ;  and  in  the  four  and 
fiftieth  dav  of  the  said  siege  it  was  taken,  sacked,  and  the  emperor 
Constantino  slain.     As  touching  the  cruelty  and  fierceness  of  the 
Tnilcs  in  getting  of  this  city,  and  what  slaughter  there  was  of  men, 
women,  and  children,   what  calamity  and  misery  were  there  to  be 
seen,  forasmuch  as  sufficient  relation,  with  a  full  description  thereof, 
hath  been  made  before,  it  shall   be  superfluous  now  to  repeat  the 

Three       same.1  This  only  is  not  to  be  omitted,  touching  three  principal  causes 
'  of  the  overthrow  of  this  city;  whereof  the  first  was  the  filthy  avarice 

iiinu'of  of  those  citizens,  who,  hiding  their  treasures  in  the  ground,  would  not 
employ  the  same  to  the  necessary  defence  of  their  city.  For  so  I 
find  it  in  story  expressed,  that  when  fche  Turk,  after  the  taking  of  the 
city,  had  found  not  so  much  treasure  as  he  looked  for,  suspecting  with 
himself  (as  the  truth  was)  the  treasures  and  riches  to  be  hidden  under 
the  ground,  he  commanded  the  earth  to  be  digged  up,  and  the  foun- 
dations of  the  houses  to  be  searched:  where,  when  he  had  found 
treasures  incredible,  "  What,"  quoth  he,  "how  could  it  be  that  this 
place  eould  ever  lack  munition  and  fortification,  which  did  flow  and 
abound  with  such  great  riches  as  here  are,  and  plenty  of  all  things?1''2 
The  second  cause  was  the  absence  of  the  navy  of  the  Venetians, 
which,  if  they  had  been  ready  in  time,  might  have  been  a  safeguard 
inst  the  invasion  of  the  enemies.  A  third  cause  also  may  be  ga- 
thered upon  occasion  incident  in  stories,  either  for  that  the  city  of 
Constantinople,  fifteen  years  before,  did  yield  to  the  bishop  of  Rome, 
as  is  before  to  he  seen ;  or  else,  because,  as  in  some  writers  it  is  evi- 
dent, the  images  were  there  received  and  maintained  in  their  churches, 
and  by  the  Turks  the  same  time  destroyed. 

Johannes  Ramus,  writing  of  the  destruction  of  this  city,  amongst 

Itueiax  other  matters  maketh  relation  of  the  image  of  the  crucifix,  being  there 
in  the  high  temple  of  Sophia;  which  image  the  Turk  took,  and  wri- 
ting this  superscription  upon  the  head  of  it,  "Hie  est  christianorum 
Dens,"  i.e.  "This  is  the  God  of  the  Christians,"  gave  it  to  his  soldiers 
to  be  Bcorned  ;  .and  commanding  the  said  image  with  a  trumpet  to  be 
'•airie.l  through  all  his  army,  made  every  man  to  spit  at  it  most  con- 
tumeliously.  Wherein  thou  hast,  good  reader!  by  the  way  to  note, 
whal  occasion  of  slander  and  offence  we  Christians  give  unto  the  bar- 
,  baroua  infidels  by  this  our  ungodly  superstition,  in  having  images  in 
*  our  temples,  contrary  to  the  express  commandment  of  God  in  his 
Word  I'm-  if  Si.  Paul,  writing  to  the  Corinthians,  saith,  "  We  know 
Christ  now  no  more  after  the  flesh  ;"  how  much  less  then  is  Christ  to 
lie  known  of  us  in  blind   stocks  and  images  set  up  in   our  temples, 

i     Rarao.lib      rerum  Turcicarum. 

THE    HISTORY    OV    THE    TURKS.  ,'>'.) 

serving  for  no  other  purpose,  but  for  the  infidels  to  laugh  both  us  and  * 

our  God  to  scorn,  and  to  provoke  God's  vengeance  ?  which  by  the _L_ 

like  example,  I  fear,  may  also  fall  upon  other  cities,  where  such  images 
and  idolatrous  superstition  are  maintained  ;  whereof  God  grant  Vienna  Vienna 
to  take  heed  betimes,  which  hath  been  so  long,  and  yet  is,  in  such  ,.' 
great  danger  of  the  Turk,  and  polluted  with  so  many  images,  and  plain 
idolatry  ! 

In  summa,  to  make  the  story  short,  such  was  the  cruelty  of  these  cruel 
Turks  in  winning  the  city,  that  when  Mahomet  had  given  license  to  ™y  th V 
the  soldiers  three  days  together,  to  spoil,  to  kill,  and  to  do  whatso-  J"^" 
ever  they  listed,  there  was  no  corner  in  all  Constantinople  which  did  faopie. 
not  either  flow  with  christian  blood,   or  else  was  not  polluted  with 
abominable  abusing  of  maids,  wives,  and  matrons,  without  all  reve- 
rence of  nature.     Of  the  citizens,  some  they  murdered  ;  some  they  its  la- 
roasted  upon  spits  ;   of  some  they  flayed  off  their  skin,  hanging  them  SsSmS* 
up  to  consume  with  famine ;  into  the  wounds  of  others  they  put  salt,  tio»- 
the  more  terribly  to  torment  them  ;  insomuch  that  one  of  them  con- 
tended with  another,  who  could  devise  most  strange  kinds  of  new 
torments  and  punishments,  exercising  such  cruelty  upon  them,  that 
the  place  where  the  city  was  before,  seemed  now  to  be  no  city,  but 
a  slaughter-house  or  shambles  of  christian  men's  bodies.    Among  the 
dead  bodies,  the  body  also  of  Constantino  the  emperor  was  found  ; 
whose  head  being  brought  to  Mahomet,  he  commanded  it  to  be  car- 
ried upon  a  spear  through  the  Avhole  city,  for  a  public  spectacle  and 
derision  to  all  the  Turkish  army.    And  because  he  would  diminish  the  Bloody 
number  of  the  captives,  which  seemed  to  him  to  be  very  great,  he  never  the  Turk 
rose  from  his  table,  but  he  put  every  day  some  of  the  nobles  to  death,  {^$^5- 
no  less  to  fill  his  cruel  mind  with  blood,  than  his  body  was  filled  with  &"»• 
v.ine  ;  which  he  used  to  do  so  long  as  any  of  the  nobles  of  that  city 
were  left  alive.    And  of  the  other  sort  also,  as  the  stories  do  credibly 
report,  there  passed  no  day  in  which  he  did  not  orderly  slay  more 
than  three  hundred  persons ;  the  residue  he  gave  to  his  rascal  soldiers 
to  kill,  and  to  do  with  them  what  they  would :  where  is  to  be  noted, 
that  as  Constantino  the  son  of  Helena  was  the  first  emperor  of  Con- 
stantinople, so  Constantine  the  son  also  of  Helena  was   the  last 
emperor  thereof. 

Not  far  from  the  said  city  of  Constantinople  there  was  another  The  city 
little  city  called  Pera,  and  once  called  Galatia,  situated  by  the  sea-  yLuuTth, 
side  ;  which,  hearing  of  the  miserable  destruction  of  Constantinople,  for  fear- 
and  seeing  the  city  flaming  with  fire,  sent  certain  of  their  chief  men 
with  speed  to  Mahomet,  declaring  unto  him,  that  they  neither  had 
sent  any  help  to  the  city  of  Constantinople,  nor  yet  wrought  any  de- 
triment to  any  of  his  army :  wherefore  they  desired  and  prayed  him, 
that  as  they  would  gladly  yield  unto  him,  so  he  would  be  favourable 
unto  them  and  spare  them,  and  not  punish  the  guiltless  with  the 
guilty.  Mahomet,  although  he  was  not  ignorant  that  for  fear,  rather 
than  of  any  good  will,  they  submitted  themselves,  and  that  they  would 
rather  resist  him,  if  they  had  been  aide,  yet  he  received  for  that  time 
the  submission  of  the  messengers :  but,  sending  with  them  his  am- 
bassador into  the  city,  he  commanded  also  his  army  to  follow  withal, 
and  to  enter  with  him  into  the  city,  which  although  it  was  greatly 
suspected  and  misliked  of  the  citizens,  yet  they  durst  nut  otherwise 

40  Till      HISTORY    OV    THE    TURKS. 

MM  ,1,,,  but  suffer  tlu  in  to  enter.     This  being  done,  the  ambassador  gave 

"■      a  ngn  bo  the  soldiers,  every  man  to  do  whatsoever  he  was  bidden; 

The  city   of  whom  some  ran  to  the  walls,  some  to  the  temples  and  churches, 

:     some  to  the  streets  and  houses  of  the  city,  plucking  all  things  down 

to  the  ground,  Backing  and  ranging  with  no  less  fury  and  abominable 

filthiness,  than  they  had  done  at  Constantinople  before,  saving  only 

Dnmken  that  thev  abstained  from  murder:    but  the  same  day  letters  came 

uur'T'  from   Mahomet  to  the  ambassador,  that  he  would  spare  none,  but 

i'ru,lliM'  destroy  and  murder  all  that  ever  were  in  the  city:    which  message, 

because  it  seemed  to  the  ambassador  to  be  too  cruel,  forasmuch  as 

they  had  yiejded  themselves,  he  stayed  his  hand  a  little,  until  night 

came,      hi  the  mean  time,  drunken  Mahomet,  coming  something  to 

himself  (whom  drunkenness  had  before  overcome),  sent  his  second 

i  letters  to  revoke  the  first.     Where  again  is  to  be  noted  the  merciful 

^''alnc'""  providence  of  God  towards  his  people  in  their  deserved  plagues,  by 

;  staying  the  hands,  and  bridling  the  fury,  many  times  of  their  enemies, 

people.  *  when  otherwise  the  case  seemeth  to  be  past  all  remedy. 

cnnstan-       Mahomet  thus,  being  in  himself  not  a  little  advanced  and  elevated 

madethe  °.v  ^'c  winning  of  Constantinople,  where  he  had  now  made  the  impe- 

imperjai    rjal  aeat  ,.f  the  Turkish  dominion,  the  third  year  next  following,  to 

the  Turk,  adventure  move  masteries,  set  out  to  the  siege  of  Belgrade,  a  city  of 

ofBei-ege  Hungary,  lying  near  to  the  banks  of  the  Danube,  thinking  to  have 

grade.       the  like  success  there,  as  he  had  in  the  winning  of  Constantinople, 

albeit,   through  the  Lord's   disposing,  it  fell   out  much   otherwise. 

Within  the  city  of  Belgrade,  the  same  time  of  the  siege  thereof,  was 

Johannes  Huuiades,  the  valiant  captain,  of  whom  in  divers  places 

mention  hath  been  made  before;   who  with  a  sufficient  strength  of 

picked  soldiers,  albeit  in  number  nothing  equal  to  the  Turks'1  army, 

valiantly  defended  the  city  with  great  courage,  and  no  less  success. 

In  this  siege  great  diligence  was  bestowed,  and  many  of  the  Turks 

slain  ;    among  whom   also  Mahomet  himself,  being  stricken  with  a 

pellet  under  the  left  arm,  was  fain  to  be  carried  out  of  the  field  for 

hall'  dead,  and  the  rest  so  put  to  flight,  that  of  the  Turks  the  same 

Portj       time  were  destroyed  to  the  number,  or  not  much  under  the  number, 

gjjjjy*  of  forty  thousand,  besides  the  loss  of  all  their  ordnance,  which  the 

•lata.       Turks,  in  haste  of  their  flight,  were  forced  to  leave  behind  them. 

I  I  nron  vnius  Zieglerus,  writing  of  the  siege  of  this  Belgrade,  addeth 
moreover,  that  when  Mahomet  was  at  the  siege  thereof,  seeing  the 
tow,,  to  be  so  small  and  weak  of  itself,  that  it  could  not  be  won  with 
all  his  great  multitude;  he,  staring  and  faring  like  a  madman,  com- 
manded all  his  brazen  pieces  to  lie  laid,  to  batter  down  the  walls  and 
towers  of  the  town;  so  that  the  Christians  within  the  Avails  were 
Vehemently  distressed,  for  the  siege  continued  both  night  and  day 
without  intermission.1  Among  the  rest  of  the  Christians  who  de- 
•d  the  town,  llieronvmus  Zieglerus  maketh  mention  of  a  certain 
[Bohemian,  much  worthy  of  his  condign  commendation;  who,  being 
upon  the  walls,  and  seeing  a  Turk  with  a  banner  or  ensign  of  the 
J;,,ry-  ','"rl--  to  be  gotten  up,  by  the  sight  whereof  the  whole  town  was  in 
danger  to  be  conquered  and  taken,  runneth  unto  the  Turk,  and 
clasping  him  about  the  middle,  speaking  to  John  Capistranus,  stand* 
mg   below,  a  ked  him,  whether  it  were' any  danger  of  damnation  to 

Ulustrll    mil  Qexma.  rai>.  98, 


him,  if  he,  of  his  voluntary  mind,  did  cast  himself  with  that  dog  (so  Mahomet 

he  termed  him)  down  headlong  from  the  wall  to  be  slain  with  him  :  L_ 

what  should  become  of  his  soid,  and  whether  he  might  be  saved,  or 
not  ?     To  whom  when  the  other  had  answered,  that  he  should  be  neifrrade 
saved  without  doubt,  he  eftsoons  tumblcth  himself  with  the  Turk  defended 
down  off  the  wall ;  where,  by  his  death,  he  saved  the  same  time  the  jJJJl018 
life  of  all  the  city.     Mahomet,  being  so  wounded,  and  in  despair  of 
winning  the  city,  was  carried  (as  ye  heard)  out  of  the  field,  who  at 
length  coming  again  to  himself,  partly  for  fear,  and  partly  for  shame, 
was  ready  to  kill  himself.    And  thus  was  the  town  of  Belgrade  at  that 
time  rescued,  through  God's  providence,  by  the  means  of  Johannes 
Huniades  and  this  good  Bohemian. 

This  siege  of  Belgrade  began  a.d.  1456,  and  endured  six-and- 
forty  days,  at  which  siege  were  numbered  of  the  Turks  two  hundred 
thousand,  of  whom  more  than  forty  thousand  (as  is  aforesaid)  were 
slain  ;  where  the  victory  fell  to  the  Christians,  through  the  prosperous 
success  given  of  God  to  Johannes  Huniades,  and  Capistranus.     This 
Huniades,  not  long  after  the  said  victory,  through  the  importune  Decease 
labour  and  travail  in  defending  of  the  said  town,  was  taken  with  a  of  johan- 
sore  sickness,  and  thereof  departed ;   to  whose  valiant  prowess  and  nLW.' 
singular  courage,  stories  do  give  great  laud  and  commendation. 

Mahomet  the   Turk,   after   this  done  in   Europe,  returned  into  The 
Asia  to  war  with  Usumcassan  a  Persian,  one  of  the  Turks1  stock,  w™ks 
with  whom  he  had  three  battles.     The  first  was  about  the  river  Eu-  JgjJUJf 
phrates,  where  the  Turk  lost  ten  thousand  men,  and  was  put  to  the  san. 
worse.    In  the  second  field,  likewise,  he  was  discomfited.    The  third 
battle  was  at  Arsenga,  where,  through  the  terrible  noise  of  the  brazen 
pieces,  the  Persian  horses  disturbed  the  camp,  and  so  was  Usumcassan 

From  thence  the  Turk  reduced  again  his  power  against  the  Chris-  The  Turk 
tians,  and  first  subdued  unto  him  Synope  and  all  Paphlagonia :  also  um'.etiT 
the  kingdom  of  Trebisond,  which  he,  besieging  both  by  land  and  ^cSri»- 
water,  won  from  the  Christians,  and  sent  David  the  king  of  the  same,  tians. 
with  his  two  sons,  and  Calus  his  uncle,  unto  Constantinople,  where 
they  were  miserably  and  cruelly  put  to  death,  and  all  the  stock  of  the 
Conneni,  who  were  of  the  king's  stock,  by  the  Turk  were  destroyed. 
This  was  about  a.d.  1459,  at  which  time  this  mischievous  Mahomet 
was  first  saluted  emperor. 

Not  long  after,  he  got,  from  the  Greeks,  Corinth  and  Mitylene,  dm- 
not   without  great   slaughter   of  christian   men ;   insomuch  that  the  §£? Turk. 
whole   city  of  Mitylene  was  utterly  to  the  ground  almost  destroyed. 
The  isles  also  of  Lemnos  and  Lesbos  he  won  from  the  Venetians ; 
in  which  island  of  Lesbos  is  the  city  of  Mitylene  aforesaid. 

Not  far  from  this  isle  of  Lesbos  and  Mitylene,  there  is  a  country  Faisc- 
in  Asia,  toward  the  sea-side  bordering  next  to  Europe,  called  Mysia,  \[\'"\  ^k 
or  of  some  called  Moesia,  wherein  stood  the  city   of  Troy.     This  spins' 
country   Mahomet,  coveting  to  win   rather   by  policy  anil  falsehood,  of  Mysia. 
than  by  doubtful  danger  of  war,  secretly  sent  for  the  prince  thereof,  ^netty" 
to  come  to  speak  with  him  for  certain  causes  (as  he  pretended),  that 
would  concern  the  profit  and   commodity  of  them  both.     Which 
when  the  king  of  Mysia  either  lor  shame  would  not,  or  for  fear  durst 
not  deny,  he  came  to  him,  as  if  to  confer  upon  necessary  affairs  in 



tukamd  common   US  them  appertaining.     Mahomet,  when  he  had  brought 

"■      that  to  pass  which  he  would,  caused  the  king  to  be  .apprehended,  and 

cruelly  to   be  .slain,  or  rather  torn  in   pieces;  and  so,  invading  the 

laud  of  Mysia,  he  exercised  the  like  tyranny  upon  his  kindred  and 


This  Mysia  by  fraud  being  taken  and  lost,  Mahomet  flieth  again 

?r<z£a'  towards  Europe,  where  he  assailed  the  island  of  Euboea,  otherwise 
called  Nigropbnte,  making  a  bridge  of  a  marvellous  frame  over  the 
sea  Kuripus,  to  convey  over  his  army  out  of  Greece,  and  there  laid 
his  Biege  to  the  city  Chalcis,  which,  at  length,  in  thirty  days  he  over- 

crud  came,  not  without  a  great  slaughter  of  his  army  ;  who,  in  the  siege 
thereof,  is  said  to  have  lost  forty  thousand  of  the  Turks.     But  the 

T»rk  slaughter  of  the  Christians  was  greater  ;  for  when  the  city  was  won, 
the  tyrant  commanded,  most  cruelly,  none  to  be  spared  within  the 
whole  city,  but  to  be  put  to  the  sword,  whosoever  was  above  the  age 
of  twenty  years.1  This  cruelty  was  showed  by  the  barbarous  tyrant 
for  anger  and  fury,  because  such  a  number  of  his  Turks  were  slain  at 
the  siege  thereof,"  being  reckoned  (as  is  said)  to  be  forty  thousand. 
I,i  the  fierce  siege  of  this  city  it  is  memorable  what  is  in  stories  re- 
corded, how  that  the  women  of  that  city,  seeing  the  men  begin  to 

women,    fajnti  .dlu\  the  city  to  lie  in  present  danger,  took  the  matter  them- 

rending  selves  in  hand,  and  playing  the  raen,  went  to  the  walls,  and  there 
! '"•  defended  the  city  with  no  less  trouble  to  the  enemy,  than  the  men 
had  before  done ;  and  so  for  a  space  continued,  as  long  as  any  man's 
strength  and  diligence  could  do  any  good.  A  great  cause  of  the  loss 
of  this  city  and  island,  is  imputed  to  the  cowardly  timidity  of  the 
Venetians1  navy ;  who,  being  there  present,  and  having  prosperous 
wind,  yet  durst  not,  or  would  not  adventure  upon  the  Turks1  bridge, 
which  if  they  had  done,  the  island  of  Eubcea,  and  Chalcis,  had  not 
so  soon  been  overmatched  by  the  Turks. 

Thus  all  the  east  parts  of  Greece  being  subdued  to  the  Turkish 

cant,  with  all  Achaia,  Attica,  Acarnania,  and  Eubcea,  shortly  after 

1    followed  also  Peloponnesus,  brought  into  like  subjection  to  the  Turk. 

Turk.  'Within  Peloponnesus  were  these  provinces  contained,  Achaia,  Mes- 
senia,  Laconia,  Argolica,  and  Arcadia,  &c.  The  Venetians,  in  this 
Peloponnesus,  had  great  possessions,  and  had  made  up  the  wall  again 
towards  the  sea-side,  near  to  the  straits  of  Corinth  before-mentioned, 
where,  for  the  more  speed  of  the  work,  they  had  thirty  thousand 
workmen  to  the  building  thereof:  which  when  it  came  to  the  know- 
ledge of  the  Turk,  he  burst  into  the  country  of  Peloponnesus  with 
an  army  of  eighty  thousand,  and  first  wasted  the  regions  of  the 
Coroneans,  and  Methoneans,  and  making  a  great  slaughter  of  the 
\  i  netians,  in  short  time  brought  the  whole  dominion  of  Pelopon- 
ii'^us  under  his  yoke  and  tribute. 

Long  it  is,  and  more  lamentable  to  recite  all  the  victories  of  this 
Mahomet,  gotten  against  the  Christians  both  by  land  and  sea;  who, 
alter  he  had  overcome  the  isle  of  Lesbos,  above  mentioned,  and  had 
cruelly  slain  Nicholas  Catalusius  the  prince  thereof,  turning  his  army 
towards  the  sea  Pontus  Euxinus,  got  the  country  of  Capha  from 
«  the  Genoese.  Before  was  declared  how  truce  was  taken  between 
Qcorgius  Scanderbeius  and  the  Turk,  for  ten  years;  which  truce 
>D  Ex  Johanm 

THE    HISTORY    OF    THE    TURKS.  43 

being  expired,  Mahomet  leavcth  no  time  unspent,  no  diligence  un-  MOumut 

sought,  but  maketh  all  his  power  to  Epyrus  and  Albania,  -which  lie, ! — 

after  long  fatigation  of  siege,  at   length  overcame  and  subdued ;  in 
the  which  tract  also  he  Avon  from  the  Venetians,  Scodra,  Lysson,  anil 
Dinastrum.     Notwithstanding,  when  Scanderbeius,  the  valiant  cap- 
tain, had  done  against  the  Turk  what  in  man's  strength  did  lie,  yet, 
being  overmatched  with  power  and  multitude,  seeing  no  possibility 
to  make  his  party  good,  he  was  forced  to  depart  his  country  as  an 
exile,  and  went  to  Italy ;  and  there,  being  sent  for  by  the  pope's 
letters,  he  openly  declared  that  it  was  not  possible  otherwise  to  resist  Thecoun- 
thc  furious  rage  of  the  barbarous  Turks  by  the  strength  of  any  one  Icander- 
king  or  prince,  unless  all  Europe,  with  one  consent,  should  join  their  J*?™' to 
power  and  force  together.     And  thus  Georgius  Scanderbeius,  a  man  against 
of  puissant  courage,  being  driven  out  of  his  country,  continued  his 
age  in  exile  ;  whose  courage  and  vehemency  are  reported  to  have  been 
such,  that  in  fighting  against  the  barbarous  enemy,  for  very  eager- 
ness of  spirit,  his  blood  was  seen  to  burst  out  of  his  lips.    It  is  testi-  a  notable 
fled  also  of  him  that  being  provoked,  he  neither  denied  to  fight,  nor  ofdngu- 
in  his  fighting  ever  turned  his  back,  neither  yet  was  ever  wounded,  ^ruragt;. 
but  only  once  with  a  light  shaft  in  his  foot,  neither  ever  set  against 
the  Turk  with  more  than  six  thousand  horsemen,  and  three  thousand 
footmen  ;  who  is  said,  with  his  own  hand  to  have  slain  above  2,000 
Turks,  whom  with  such  violence  he  did  strike,  that  many  of  them  he 
did  cleave  asunder  from  the  head  to  the  middle. 

Neither  yet  was  the  insatiable  greediness  of  that  Turkish  hell- 
hound with  all  this  satisfied,  but  still  he  conceived  greater  things  in  bis 
mind,  thinking  to  conquer  the  whole  world;  and  so,  passing  forward 
towards  Europe,  he  subdued  all  Illyria,  slaying  Stephen,  the  king  of* 
Bosnia,  about  a.d.  1468.  But  afterwards  Matthias  Corvinus,  the 
son  of  Huniades  aforementioned,  recovered  again  the  said  kingdom 
of  Bosnia,  with  many  other  cities  near  unto  Croatia  and  Dalmatia, 
and  moreover  repulsed  Mahomet  the  Turk,  in  his  second  siege  of 
Jaitza,  taking  his  tents  and  munitions  left  behind  him. 

Moreover,  the  said  Mahomet,  passing  unto  Wallachia,  set  upon 
Dracula,  the  prince  thereof;  which  Dracula,  although  he  had  no 
greater  power  of  soldiers,  yet  he  so  enclosed  and  environed  the 
Turk,  that  he  had  almost  lost  his  whole  army,  of  whom  a  great  part, 
notwithstanding,  was  destroyed,  and  many  of  his  ensigns  taken.  Into 
Dalmatia  were  sent  two  captains  of  the  Turk,  who,  fighting  against 
the  provinces  of  the  Venetians,  made  great  spoil  and  waste  about  the 
regions  of  Stiria  and  Carinthia  ;    where  also  the  Venetian  power  was  stiriannd 
discomfited,  and  Hieronynms  Novel,  their  captain,  slain.    At  length  SEenby* 
truce  was  taken  between  the  Turk  and  the  Venetians  upon  this  con-  t!"-'  Tuj*- 
dition,  that   Scodra,  Tenants,  and   Lemnos  should  be  yielded  unto 
him,  and  that  they  should  pay  to  him   yearly,  eight  thousand  ducats, 
for  the  free  passage  of  their  merchants. 

After  this  peace  concluded  with  the  Venetians,  Mahomet  himself 
saileth   over   into  Asia,  sending  two  of  his   great  captains  abroad  to 
sundry  places  ;   of  whom,  Mesithcs  was  sent  against  Rhodes  with  a 
mighty  navy:   the  other,  called  Acoinates  Bassa,  was  sent  into  Italy  i; 
to  tike  Rome,  and  all  the  west  empire.     Concerning  the  viage  of bMlege 
which  two  captains,  this  was  the  event,  that  Masithes,  after  his  great 

a  i 


44,  THE    HISTORY    OF    THE    TURKS. 

travail,  and  bloodv  siege  against  the  Rhodians,  was  fain  to  retire  at 

length,  with  great  "shame  and  loss.     The  other  captain,  Acomates  (as 

_  is  mid),  was  sent  into  Italy  with  a  navy  of  a  hundred  ships,  and  fif- 

con-        teen  thousand  men,  who,  by  the  way  in  his  sailing,  got  Leucadia 

ulTiarw.  (which  now  they  call  St.  Maure),  Cephalonia,  and  Zacynthus,  and, 
sailing  by  Favclona,  arrived  in  Apulia ;  and  so,  passing  along  by  the 
Bea-side,  spoiled  and  wasted  divers  parts  by  the  coast,  till  at  length 
he  came  to  Hydruntum,  a  city  of  Calabria  in  Italy,  which,  after  long 
siege,  he  overcame  and  subdued,  and  brought  such  a  terror  into  all 

The  pope  Italy,  that  the  pope,  forgetting  all  other  things,  yet  mindful  of  him- 
lf,"  with  all  haste  fled  out  of  Rome.     After  the  city  of  Hydrun 

"'l'  lurk-  turn  was  taken,  and  the  Turks  placed  in  the  same,  which  was  a.d. 
I  481,  Matthias  Corvinus,  Huniades1  son,  was  sent  for  by  the  Italians, 
to  Bet  upon  the  said  city  ;  unto  the  rescue  whereof,  when  Acomates 
was  about  to  make  his  return  with  five  and  twenty  thousand  Turks, 
in  the  mean  time  news  came,  that  Mahomet,  the  great  Turk,  was 
(had  ;  by  reason  whereof,  the  siege  brake  up,  and  the  city  was 
delivered  to  the  Italians  again,  and  so  was  Italy  delivered  at  that 
time  out  of  that  present  peril  and  danger.  This  Mahomet  won  from 
the  Christians  two  hundred  cities,  and  twelve  kingdoms,  and  two  em- 
pires,1 which  he  joined  both  together.  He  died  in  the  year  above- 
said,  a.d.  14S1. 


Mahomet  aforesaid  had  three  sons;  of  whom  Mustapha  the  eldest, 
through  voluptuousness  and  carnal  lust,  died  before  his  father.  The 
other  two  were  Bajazet  and  Denies,  otherwise  called  Zizimus  ;  about 
whom  great  controversy  arose  amongst  the  Turks,  which  of  them 
should  succeed  in  their  father's  kingdom:  for  neither  of  them  was 
present  at  Constantinople  when  Mahomet  died  ;  Bajazet  being  in 
Cappadocia,  and  Denies,  in  Lycaonia.  Wherefore,  when  great  dis- 
sension was  among  the  nobles  for  the  succession,  and  great  strife  and 
bloodshed  for  the  matter,  the  Janizaries,  who  Avere  the  Turk's  guard, 
did  proclaim  Bajazet  emperor:  others,  in  the  absence  of  Bajazet  the 
lather,  did  choose  Corchuthus  his  son.  Bajazet  the  father,  coining  at 
length  from  Cappadocia,  partly  through  yielding,  partly  by  corrupting 
with  money,  got  the  wills  of  the  Janizaries,  and  was  made  emperor. 
Denies,  tin-  other  brother,  being  in  Lycaonia,  more  near,  although  he 
made  no  less  speed  in  his  coming,  yet  was  prevented  by  Bajazet,  and 
B  daui  excluded  out  of  Constantinople.  Wherefore  he,  being  put  back  from 
thVmo  ;i"  hope  of  his  kingdom,  incited  by  some  of  his  friends,  moved  war 
gainst  his  brother;  who,  being  overcome  in  three  battles  by  Aco- 
mates,  Bajazet's  captain,  who  had  got  Hydruntum  before,  did  fly  to 
our  the  great  master  of  the  Rhodes,  leaving,  in  a  place  called  Came,  his 
mother  ami  two  young  children,  whom  Bajazet  slew. 

'I  his  1  femes,  being  with  the  master  of  the  Rhodes,  was  desired  first 
of  pope  [nnpcenl  IV.,  then  of  Ludovic  II.  the  French  king,  but  espe- 
cially of  Matthias  Corvinus,  king  of  Hungary,  intending  by  him  to 
obtain  great  victory  against  Bajazet.  But,  in  conclusion,  the  knights 
"!  tli'    Rhodes  sent  him  to  the  bishop  of  Home,  where  he  being  kept, 

1)  Those  two  empire.,  were  Constantinople  anil  Trapez&nde. 

THE    HISTORY    OV    THE    TURKS.  45 

and  afterwards  sent  to  Charles  VIII.,  tlic  French  king,  for  a  hostage  &4>«i 

of  pope  Alexander  VI.,  was  poisoned  by  the  way  of  Terracina,  by __ 

the  said  pope  Alexander,  as    is  before  declared.     After  his  death,  fr^seon 
Bajazet,  to  requite  the  aforesaid  Acomatcs  for  his  good  service,  put  worthily 
him  to  the  halter,  partly  misdoubting  his  power,  partly  for  lucre-sake  peased. 
to  have  his  treasure  :  whose  death  redounded  to  the  great  profit  of 
the  Christians,  forasmuch  as  he  was  ever  an  utter  enemy  to  the  reli- 
gion and  name  of  Christ. 

Bajazet,  thus  being  confirmed  in  his  tyranny,  made  his  first  expedi-  chris- 
tion  against  Wallachia,  where  he  subdued  two  great  forts,  one  called  guMued* 
Lithostomus,  the  other  called  Moncastrum.     From  thence  he 
his  power,  taking  his  viage  into  Asia,  thinking  to  be  revenged  of  the 
sultan  of  Egypt,  who  had  succoured  and  entertained  before  his  bro- 
ther Denies  against  him  :  where  he  lost  two  great  battles,  the  one 
fought  at  Adena,  the  other  at  Tarsus;  but  especially  at  the  field  at  The  Turk 
Tarsus,  the  army  of  the  Turk  took  such  a  wound,  that  of  a  hundred  thrown 
thousand  brought  into  the  field,  scarce  the  third  part  remained  un-  atTarsua. 
slain.    But  as  touching  the  Rhodians,  although  they  were  succourers  of 
Denies  aforesaid,  yet  Bajazet  (whether  for  fear,  or  for  subtlety,)  ab- 
stained to  provoke  them  with  war,  but  rather  entreated  with  them  the 
league  of  peace  ;  requiring  the  master  of  the  Rhodes  to  keep  his  bro- 
ther safe  under  his  custody,  promising,  for  his  yearly  salary,  to  be 
paid  unto  him  every  year  in  the  month  of  August,  45,000  ducats. 

Thus  Bajazet,  being  overthrown  and  terrified  with  evil  luck,  fight-  Dyra- 
ing  against  the  sultan  of  Egypt,  removed  from  Asia,  and  directed  his  take™  by 
army  into  Europe,  where  he  got  Dyrachium  near  unto  Velona,  andtheTurk- 
had  a  great  victory  over  the  christian  army  in  the  country  of  Croatia, 
where  the  Illyrians,  Pannonians,  and  Croatians,  joining  their  powers 
together,  encountered  with  the  Turk,  and  lost  the  field,  about  a.  d. 

From  thence  the  Turk,  leading  his  army  against  the  Venetians,  The  Turk 
had  with  them  divers  and  doubtful  conflicts,  where  the  Turk,  some-  *°",lst 
times  put  to  the  worse,  and  sometimes  again  prevailing,  out  of  Jadra  ^'jj'-'"6" 
and  divers  other  cities  about  Dalmatia,  earned  away  great  multitudes 
of  Christians  into  captivity  ;  which  was  about  a.  d.  1498. 

Two  years  after  this  (a.  d.  1500),  Bajazet,  with  150,000  armed  Peiopon- 
men,  entered  into  Peloponnesus ;  which  although  Mahomet  had  ex-  2£3£ 
pugned  before,  yet  the  Venetians  had  defended  Methonc,  otherwise  g™^ 
called  Modon,  all  this  while  against  the  Turks.      This  Methone,  Turk. 
the   Turk  besieged  with  three  armies,  having  about  the  Avails  five 
hundred  great  brazen  cannons,  whereof  twenty-two  were  most  violent 
and  hurtful ;  wherewith  he  battered  the  city  both  day  and  night. 
But  the  citizens  who  were  within  the  city,  committing  themselves 
to  God,  defended  their  city  as  well  as  they  could,  rather  choosing  to 
die,  than  to  yield  to  the  Turk's  tyranny.     But  the  Turk  prevailing, 
and  they  not  able  to  withstand  the  siege,  the  Christians  con  vented 
together  into  a  certain  house  prepared  for  the  purpose,  both  men, 
women,  and  children  ;  where  they,  setting  the  house  on  fire,  gave 
themselves  rather  to  be  burned,  than  to  come  into  the  tyrant's  hands. 
Certain  women  also,  with  their  children,  cast  themselves  headlong  into  &&£§ 
the  sea,  by  that  means  to  avoid  the  Turkish  captivity.     Some  writers  *«*£*• 
there  be,  who  affirm  that  the  Methoncans,  seeing  five  great  ships  of  stroyed. 


HISTORY    01    -J11K    TUKKS. 

bm  the  Venetians  coming  with  men  and  victuals  toward  them,  issued 

_Jl_ jown  from  the  walls  to  the  sea-side,  to  receive  them,  who  were  all 

taken  captives,  being  above  the  number  of  a  thousand :  who  all,  being 
tied  with  long  ropes,  were  brought  before  the  tyrant,  and  in  his  sight 
,    cruellv  slain,  except  certain  nobles,  whom  Chcrseogles,  son-in- 
law  to  Bajazet,  got  to  be  pardoned,  amongst  whom  was  Andreas  Gritto. 
The  city  of  Coron,  and  also  PHus,  cities  in  Greece,  being  terrified 
ople  of  the  Methonians,  yielded  themselves  to  the  power 
of  the  Turks.      Crissrcum,  otherwise  called  Caput  Sancti  Galli,  was 
expugned  by  Cherscogles,  by  force  of  guns. 
latapdi         These  things  thus  achieved,  although  Bajazet  went  away  victor 
ato<  lonstantinople,  yet,  notwithstanding,  the  Venetians,  through  the 
Turk  by   ],,.],,  0f  the  kings  of  France  and  Spain,  had  won  from  the  Turk,  Ce- 
phalonia,  an  island  very  commodious  for  their  traffic.     Also  they  had 
ten  other  two  islands,  Lcucas  and  Nericus,  otherwise  called  Sancta 
Maura,  slaving  all  the  garrison  of  the  Turks.     But  afterwards,  peace 
,  Ik  in-  taken  between  the  Venetians  and  the  Turks,  by  the  counsel  of 

.  mi ieas  Gritto  aforesaid,  the  Turks  so  agreed,  that  Leucas  and  Ncri- 
eiis.  the  islands  abovesaid,  should  be  rendered  unto  the  Turk,  and 
the  Venetians  should  keep  still  the  possession  of  Cephalonia. 
w«r »>»■        Unto  this  league  the  Turk  did  the  rather  condescend,  for  that  he 
had  to  maintain  war  against  Ismaet  Sophus  in  Asia,  king  of  Persia  ; 


1  lMIS 

Bajoset  which  Sophus  was  stirred  up,  by  God's  providence,  to  war  with  this 
Bajazet,  whereby  the  christian  churches  in  Europe  might  have  some 
breathing-time,  and  freedom  from  the  Turks1  cruel  tyranny  and  blood- 
shed. This  Sophus  was  a  valiant  Turk,  who,  with  great  power  and 
victories,  had  overrun  a  great  compass  of  the  east  parts  of  Asia  ;  then 
passing  from  Assyria  into  Media,  and  returning  again  into  Armenia, 
lie  made  war  against  the  Albanians,  Iberians,  and  Scythians,  and 
from  thence,  coming  into  Asia  Minor,  encountered  with  Corchuthus, 
Bajazet's  son,  and  afterward  coming  to  Bithynia,  fought  with  Cara- 
gius  Bassa,  Bajazets  captain,  whom  he  overcame  and  put  to  flight, 
and  afterwards  took  him  alive,  and  his  wife,  prisoners.  Afterwards  he 
was  encountered  by  Hali  Bassa,  another  captain  of  the  Turks,  whom 
Techelles,  one  of  the  said  Sophus1  captains,  meeting  in  the  plain  of 
•ih,  Galatia,  did  withstand,  and  so  by  the  way  slew  Caragius  the  captain, 
captain  ;tm'  n:11  W(l  n'ni  U1)0U  a  P°le  m  the  sight  of  Hali  Bassa ;  which  Hali 
-:<»■•       Bassa  short  I  v  alter  was  slain  in  war,  and  his  army  scattered,  and  put 

to  flight. 

Thus,  through  the  admirable  examplcof  God's  justiceandprovidence, 
were  these  Turks  kept  occupied,  and  so  came  it  to  pass,  that  these 
barbarians,  being  blasphemous  against  the  Son  of  God,  should  thus 
horribly  run  on  to  the  destruction  one  of  another,  being  worthily 
punished  with  mutual  slaughter  and  bloodshed,  for  their  impiety  and 
blasphemy  against  Christ  and  his  religion,  whereby,  in  the  mean  time, 
some  rest  was  given  to  the  Christians. 

Bajazet,  partly  by  these  victories  discouraged,  partly  diseased  and 
languishing  of  the  gout,  and  partly  also  broken  with  age,  finding 
himself  unwieldy  to  the  regiment  of  that  tumultuous  kingdom,  began 
to  have  talk  with  his  nobles  about  the  choosing  of  one  to  succeed  him. 
'  ',l  *" '' '•''  ion  whereof  ministered  much  matter  of  inward  wars  amongst 
tnr  '  inks-     This   Bajazet  had  in  all  six  sons,  whereof  three  died 

THE    HISTORY    OF    THE    TURKS.  47 

before  him,  and  three  yet  were  left  alive :  to  wit,  Acomates,  Cor-  ftfcud 

eliuthus,  and  Selim.     Bajazet  himself  had  most  mind  to  Acomates.  _. 

but  the  chiefest  of  his  nobles  did  favour  rather  Selim  >  who,  through 
their  traitorous  incitation,  provoked  him  to  stir  war  against  his  father: 
and,  notwithstanding  that  he  was  overcome  in  war,  yet,  through  inter- 
cession,  he  was  reconciled  again  to  his  father,  and  afterward  pro-  made 
claimed  again  emperor  against  his  father's  will,  through  the  help  and  1™$"™ 
favour  of  the  soldiers,  entering  the  first  be<jinnin<r  of  his  kingdom  !?'?,    . 

o  ~  <j  o  lather  s 

with  the  murdering  of  his   own  father :  the  story  whereof  in  some  win. 
authors  is  thus  declared. 

After  the  Janizaries  had  persuaded  with  Bajazet,  for  that  he  him- 
self was  unwieldy,  therefore  he  should  do  well  to  constitute  some 
successor,  and  that  he  had  assigned  Acomates  to  succeed  him,  the 
Janizaries  being  offended  with  the  said  Acomates,  because  he  would 
not  enlarge  their  stipends,  and  bribe  them,  compassing  about  the 
king's  palace  with  their  privy  swords,  which  they  had  under  their 
garments,  with  a  mighty  cry  required  Selim  to  be  appointed  for  their 
emperor.  Unto  whom  when  Bajazet  had  answered,  that  he  had 
assigned  Acomates,  they  refused  him,  because  he  was  fat,  gross,  and 
unable  thereunto ;  but  needs  would  have  Selim,  who  was  stout  and 
warlike,  to  be  made  emperor  :  and  withal,  they  drew  out  their  swords, 
crying  '  Selim,-1  '  Selim.''  Then  Bajazet,  giving  place  to  their 
fury,  showed  himself  content  to  give  them  Selim ;  whom  the  Jani- 
zaries receiving,  brought  him  unto  the  palace  :  unto  whom  Bajazet 
his  father,  giving  place,  willed  him  not  to  be  so  hasty  and  furious  in  Counsi  i 
his  doings,  but  to  be  modest,  and  take  heed  what  he  did,  and  not  to  "0  his  sou. 
follow  his  fury,  but  to  give  place  unto  time,  which  revealeth  all  things, 
and  think  himself  to  be  a  man  subject  to  dangers  and  jeopardies  as 
other  men  are.  And  thus  speaking,  he  resigned  his  imperial  throne 
and  seat  unto  him,  and  went  away  all  heavy,  entering  into  a  certain 
order  of  their  religion.  Whereupon  followed  great  exclamations  (if 
the  people,  saluting  Selim  as  emperor:  who  then,  taking  the  rule 
upon  him,  began  with  great  cruelty  to  govern,  destroying  many  of  his 
nobles,  such  as  had  stood  against  him,  some  with  poison,  some  by 
other  cruel  means  ;  and  advancing  his  own  side,  with  great  honours 
and  promotions. 

Not  long  after  Selim  was  thus  settled  in  his  kingdom,  Bajazet  Ins 
father,  intending  to  see  and  prove  how  he  behaved  himself  in  his 
government,  first  entered  into  his  treasure-house,  where  he  found  all 
his  riches  to  be  scattered  and  gone.  Afterwards  he  came  into  his 
armoury,  where  all  the  spoils  gotten  by  war  were  likewise  wasted. 
Then  he  entered  into  the  jewel-house,  where  all  his  plate  and  gifts 
sent  from  kings  and  princes  were  kept ;  which  likewise  were  dispersed 
and  given  away.  At  length  he  came  into  the  stable,  where  also  he,  r>isPu-a- 
seeing  his  principal  horses  to  be  lacking,  sighing  with  himself,  ami  iJ','^'!. 
crying,  '  Vengeance  upon  him  !'  prepared  himself,  with  the  residue  of  against 
the  treasure  which  was  remaining,  to  sail  over  into  Natolia,  unto  his 
eldest  son  ;  and  passing  by  an  orchard  near  to  the  sea-side,  where  he 
had  appointed  to  take  ship,  in  the  mean  time,  whilst  the  ships  were 
in  furnishing,  he  sat  down  under  a  tree,  and  began  to  curse  his  son, 
and  to  ask  vengeance  upon  him,  for  that  he  had  so  despised  his  father, 
and  was  become  so  impious  a  wretch. 


Buja-.rt       Selim,    understanding  of  his  father's    departure,    came  into   the 

'n'nd     orchard  where  his  rather  was,  seeming  to  be  very  heavy,  and  much 

*■'""•    lamenting  that  his  rather  would  so  privily  depart  and  go  away,  seeing 

i>i5»em-    that  he  desired  not  the  government  of  the  empire,  but  was  contented 

.    only  with   the  title  thereof.     "  O  father,11  said  he,  "do  not  thus 

Beiimto    privily  depart  away:   do  not  procure  this  shame  to  your  son,  who  so 

r  tenderly  loveth  you.    Letme  have  but  the  name  only,  and  be  you  the 

emperor  indeed.     The  end  of  your  natural  life  most  patiently  I  shall 

expect,  which   1    pray  God  may  long  continue."     And  thus,  using 

many  fair  and  flattering  words  to  his  father,  he  commanded  a  banquet, 

with  many  dainty  junkets,  to  be  brought  unto  him,  but  tempered  and 

infected  with  poison  :  which  as  soon  as  Bajazet  had  begun  to  taste 

i  f.  and  felt  the  strength  of  the  poison  working  in  his  body,  he  took 

Ulher-      his  last  farewel]  of  his  son,  and  going  out  of  the  city,  accompanied 

with  a  great  retinue  of  men.  yelling  and  crying  out  in  the  streets,  in 

the  middle  of  his  journey  fell  down,  and  miserably  died,  a.d.  1512. 

Here  mayest  thou  see,  good  reader  !  a  cursed  brood  of  this  Turkish 

generation,  where  the  father  dieth  in  cursing  the  son,  and  the  son 

reigneth  by  poisoning  his  father. 


the      After  this  wretched  Selim  had  exercised  his  barbarous  cruelty  upon 

his  lather,  with  like  impiety  he  seeketh  the  destruction  of  his  brethren 

ottoman.  ;in(i  tjicjr  (.^iidrcn,  first  beginning  his  murder  with  the  five  children 

his  nephews,  who  were  the  sons  of  his  three  brethren  before  departed. 

This  done,  then  remained  his  other  two  brethren  yet  alive,  Acnuiates. 

and  Corchnthus,  with  their  children,  likewise  to  be  destroyed  ;  of 

whom  the  one  had  three  sons,  whom  their  father  sent  to  Selim  his 

In-other  and  their  uncle,  with  fair  and  gentle  words,  to  entreat  him  to 

be  good  unto  their  father,  offering  to  him  their  duty  and  service  in  all 

things,  honouring  him  also  as  emperor.    But  cruel  Selim  commanded 

s  i  in       forthwith  his  said  nephews  to  be  strangled.     The  father,  hearing  of 

hiibro-    the  cruel  murder  of  his  sons,  leaving  house  and  home,  went  and  hid 

Mphew!  himself  in  mountains,  where  he  lived  for  a  space  with  herbs  and  wild 

honey;  but,  being  bewrayed  by  one  of  his  men,  he  was  brought  to 

Selim,  and  so  was  strangled. 

( 'liristopher  Richer,  writing  of  these  matters,  seemeth  something  to 
differ  from  other  stories,  and  saith,  that  Selim,  after  the  death  of  his 
brother  ( lorchuthus,  came  to  Bursa,  where,  under  the  colour  of  making 
a  great  triumph,  he  ordained  a  feast  for  his  friends  and  kinsfolk, 
whereunto  were  called  especially  his  nephews  ;  who,  then,  at  the  end 
of  the  feast,  calling  his  nephews  aside  (as  under  the  pretence  of  con- 
ferring with  Mm  secretly  about  his  necessary  affairs),  committed  them 
to  his  servants  to  be  strangled  and  put  to  death.  All  this  while 
A.comates,  his  other  brother,  through  the  help  and  instruction  of  his 
mother,  was  kept  out  of  the  tyrant's  hands,  till  at  length,  after  great 
labour  and  search  made  how  to  get  him,  certain  forged  letters  were 
cast  abroad,  wherein  was  contained,  that  Animates,  to  revenge  the 
great  impiety,  and  subdue  the  tyranny  of  Selim  his  brother,  should 
UMrAofr  >h"u  himself  abroad :  which  if 'he  would  do,  he  should  find  friends 
■*•»      enough  to  take  his  part.     Acomatcs,  circumvented  with  these  subtle 

THE    HISTORY    OF    THE    TURKS.  49 

trains,  partly  for  hope  of  rcvcngcmcnt,  partly  for  desire  of  the  empire,    Seiim. 
showed  himself  abroad  with  such  power  and  strength  as  he  had  :  who, 
being  set  upon  incontinent  by  Selim  his  brother,  was  overcome  in 
battle,  and  tailing  from  his  horse,  being  a  man  corpulent  and  gross, 
and  his  horse  falling  upon  him,  was  so  overpressed  and  slain. 

Touching  the  death  of  this  Acomates,  Munstcrus,  somewhat  dif- 
fering from  this  narration,  addeth  moreover,  and  saith,  that  he  was  not 
killed  with  the  fall  from  his  horse,  but  that  sitting  all  dismayed  upon 
a  stone,  and  seeing  no  other  remedy  but  death,  he  desired  the  captain, 
taking  his  rings  from  his  fingers,  to  deliver  the  same  to  his  brother, 
desiring  Mm  that  he  might  not  be  put  to  any  extreme  cruelty  of  death, 
but  that  he  gently  would  suffer  him  to  be  let  blood  in  the  bath,  and 
so  to  die.     But  Selim,  being  not  ignorant  of  this,  suborneth  privy  The  cru- 
tormentors,  who,  binding  his  hands  behind  him,  with  their  feet  cast  g^^f 
him  down  upon  the  ground,  and  so,  twisting  his  neck  with  a  cord,  against 
did  strangle  him.     This  Acomates  had  two  sons,  who,  hearing  of  the  tuer  aco- 
death  of  their  father,  did  fly  for  succour,  the  one  to  Sophus,  in  Persia,  mates' 
and  the  other  to  the  sultan,  in  Egypt, 

By  means  hereof,  new  occasion  of  war  grew  unto  Selim,  whereby 
he  was  kept  in  Asia,  at  home,  to  fight  against  the  Persians  and 
Egyptians  :  so  that,  through  the  Lord's  providence,  Christendom  by 
that  means  was  delivered  from  great  danger  and  peril  of  the  Turk's 
tyranny.     For  otherwise  the  Turk  was  wholly  minded,  -with  all  his 
force  and  puissance,  to  invade  the  Christians  ;  being  in  doubt  whether  The  pro- 
first  to  begin  with  Rhodes,  or  whether  to  assault  Pannonia,  or  else  to  God,  in 
set  upon  Italy,  being  then  at  great  discord  within  itself:  but  this  ^j^f. 
cause  occupied  the  Turk's  mind  otherwise,  and  kept  him  at  home ;  si.ons  f<* 
such  was  then  the  providence  of  the  Lord,  for  the  safeguard  of  his  people. 

Wherefore,  forasmuch  as  the  affairs  and  doings  of  this  Turk  were 
spent  for  the  most  part  in  the  Turkish  and  Heathenish  countries,  it 
shall  not  be  greatly  necessary  to  trouble  our  Christian  stories  there- 
with, but  only  shall  suffice  to  contract  them  in  a  brief  sum,  declaring 
superficially  *vhat  unquietness  was  amongst  them  there,  who  could 
never  be  quiet,  but  ever  working  some  mischief  either  abroad  or  at 
home.     Amurath,  the  Turk's  nephew  aforesaid,  after  he  had  obtained  war  oe- 
aid  of  Sophus  the  king  of  the  Persians,  first  invaded  Cappadocia ;  not  amana6" 
long  after  whom  followed  Ismael  Sophus,  the  Persian  king,  by  reason  ^p"8r-. 
whereof,  a  great  battle  was  fought  betwixt  the  Persians  and  Selim,  m  sianking. 
the  fields  of  Armenia  Major.    In  that  battle,  Ismael  Sophus,  the  Per- 
sian king,  was  hurt  on  the  shoulder  with  a  pellet ;  and  so,  being 
carried  out  of  the  field,  left  the  victory  to  Selim,  who,  albeit  he  had 
an  army  of  150,000  men,  yet  he  in  the  same  field  lost  about  30,000 
of  his  Turks  :  -which  field  was  fought  A.D.  1514.     Selim,  after  this 
victory,  went  to  Tauris,  the  imperial  city  of  the  Persians,  which  he, 
by  yielding,  subdued. 

In  this  mean  time  it  happened  that  one  Aladulus,   a  king  of  Ar-  war  be- 
menia  the  greater,  was  also  a  helper  to   Ismael  against  the  Turk ;  seilmand 
whereupon  Selim  the  Turk,  taking  great  indignation,  the  next  year  Aladulus- 
following,  leaving  the  Persians,  fought  against  the  said  Aladulus,  and 
in  the  end  overcame  him  ;  and  afterwards,  being  found  in  a  cave  in  a 
wood,  he  was  taken  out  and  brought  to  Selim,  and  so  beheaded:  whose 

VOL.  iv.  E 

50  THE    HISTORY    OF    THE    TURKS. 

sdim.    head,  being  first  carried  about  Asia  for  a  triumph,  was  afterwards  sent 
PreMnT  to  the  Benate  of  Venice  for  a  terror  unto  them.     The  eldest  son   of 
Uonof      AJadulus,  escaping  tlie  hands  of  his  pursuers,  fled  into  Egypt.     This 
twJ.n'se-  battle  thus  fought  and  ended,  Selim,  after  he  had  divided  the  king* 
ISchris.  dom  of  Aladulua  into  three  provinces,  went  to  Lycaonia,  and  from 
"'":s        thence  to  Europe,  there  to  defend  the  city  of  Samandria,  against  the 
Christians  in  Hungary  :  but  the  Hungarians,  being  soon  repressed  by 
Juno  Bassa  the  Turk's  captain,  great  preparation  began  to  be  made 
by  the  Turks,  against  the  confines  of  Servia  bordering  upon  Hungary, 
the  terror  whereof  stirred  up  Maximilian  the  emperor,  and  Ladislaus 
The  Turk  kino-  0f  I  [ungary,  and Sigismund  king  ol  Poland,  to  consult  together, 
row      and  conjoin  their  power  for  defence  of  Christendom.     But,  through 
new  incumbrances  incident,  the  Turk,  leaving  Europe,   made  haste 
again  into  Asia,  to  renew  again  his  Avars  against  the  Persians,  who 
Ufa  vow.   had  made  a  vow  not  to  give  over  that  war  before  Ismael  was  over- 

But  before  he  entered  that  war,  first  he  sent  his  messengers  to  the 

sultan  of  Egypt,  requiring  him  not  to  intermeddle  in  that  war :  for 

this  sidtan  before  had  promised  to  assist  the  Persians  against  the 

Campson  Turk.     The  name  of  the  sultan  who  reigned  then  in   Egypt,  was 

orrnierrf  Campson,  set  up  by  the  Mamalukes.     These  Mamalukes  were  a  cer- 

tians'.^11  tain  order  amongst  the  Egyptians,  much  like  the  Janizaries  about  the 

Turk,  who,  being  the  children  of  christian  men,  and  after  denying 

Christ,  were  the  chiefest  doers  in  the  sultan's  court,  and,  being  grown 

into  a  great  multitude,  did  degenerate  into  a  Turkish  barbarity,  or 

rather  became  worse  than  Turks.  This  Campson,  unto  the  messengers 

of  the  Turk  gave  this  answer,  that  unless  he  would  leave  off  this  war 

against  Ismael,  and  restore  the  son  of  Aladulus,  he  would  not  lay 

down  his  armour. 

Selim  being  incensed  not  a  little  with  this  insolent  answer  of  the 
sultan,  leaving  all  other  wars  aside,  with  great  celerity  advanced 
caier-  his  power  against  the  sultan  ;  which  sultan,  partly  through  the  false- 
fais"8to  hood  of  his  captain  Caierbeius,  partly  by  the  suddenness  of  the  Turk's 
jjjj ma8"  coming,  not  far  from  the  city  of  Damascus  encountered  with  the 
Turk ;  and  there,  overthrown  from  his  horse,  being  a  fat  and  gross 
The  sui-  body,  and  falling  under  his  horse,  and  his  horse  also  falling  upon  him, 
tao  -luii.  was  quashed  in  pieces,  and  so  died,  a.  d.  1516. 

The  Mamalukes,  of  whom  more  than  a  thousand  in  this  battle  wrere 
Tomonm-  s\a[n^  flying  from  thence  to  Memphis,  set  up  Tomoumbeius  instead  of 
Campson  ;  whose  captain  Gazelles  was  overcome  at  the  city  of  Gaza, 
and  he  afterwards  himself  driven  out  of  Memphis,  where  a  great  part 
of  the  Mamalukes  were  destroyed.  Then  Tomoumbeius,  flying  over 
the  Hood  Nile,  renewed  his  army  again  ;  but,  in  theend,  he  was  dis- 
comfited  and  chased  into  a  marsh,  where  he  was  found  standing  in  the 
water  up  to  the  chin  ;  and  so,  being  brought  to  Selim,  he  was  put  to 
the  rack  and  greal  torments,  to  make  him  confess  where  Campson's 
treasures  were.  But,  when  he  would  not  declare,  he  was  carried  about 
the  town  wish  a  halter  round  his  neck,  and  hanged  up  upon  a  high 
gibbet,  for  b  Bpectade  to  all  Egypt;  which  was  a.d.  1517.  And 
thus  wo-e  the  two  sultans  of  Egypt  destroyed  with  the  Mamalukes, 
who  there  had  l.onie  the  rule  in  Egypt  the  space  of  two  hundred  and 
forty-three  years;  the  progeny  of  which  Mamalukes  remaining  of  the 

THE    HISTORY    OF    THE    TURKS.  51 

wars,  the  Turk  commanded,  in  the  prison-gates  of  Alexandria,  to  be    sen*,, 
cut  in  pieces.     Selim  from  thence  triumphing,  departed  to  Constan-  so"i"man. 

tinople,  intending  to  spend  the  rest  of  his  time  in  persecuting  the 

Christians.     But  in  that  mean  space  he  was  stricken  with  a  cankered  The 
sore  rotting  inward,  and  died,  after  he  had  reigned  seven  years  like  seura° 
a  beast,  a.d.  1520. 

The  reign  of  this  Turk  was  but  short  in  number  of  years  ;  but  in 
number  of  his  murders  and  cruel  bloodshed  it  might  seem  exceeding 
long,  who  lived  more  like  a  beast  than  a  man  ;  for  he  never  spared 
any  of  his  friends  or  kindred.     His  father  first  he  poisoned,  his  bre- 
thren and  all  his  cousins  he  quelled,  leaving  none  of  all  his  kindred  o/se'ilm 
alive.     Moreover,  his  chief  and  principal  captains  for  small  occasions  ^inrt 
he  put  to  death,  as  Mustapha,  Calogere,  Chendeme,  Bostang  his  son-  kindred. 
in-law,  and  Juno  Bassa. 

It  is  said  moreover,  that  he  intended  the  poisoning  of  his  own  son 
Solyman,  sending  unto  him  a  shirt  infected  with  poison,  because  he 
seemed  something  freely  to  speak  against  the  cruel  demeanour  of  his 
father :  but,  by  the  means  of  his  mother,  the  gift  being  suspected,  was 
given  to  another,  who  was  his  chamberlain,  who,  putting  on  the  shirt, 
was  stricken  with  the  poison  thereof,  and  therewithal  died. 

As  touching  this  Turk  Selim,  by  the  way  here  may  be  noted,  how  a  note  of 
the  secret  providence  of  the  Lord  kept  him  occupied  with  his  Turkish  Pr°ovi- 
wars  at  home,  while  the  reformation  of  Christian  religion  here  in  Eu-  Jherefor- 
rope,  at  the  same  time  begun  by  Martin  Luther,  might  the  more  nation  of 
quietly  take  some  rooting  without  disturbance  or  interruption.     For 
so  it  appeareth  by  the  computation  of  time,  that  in  the  days  of  this 
Selim,  Martin  Luther  first  began  to  write  against  the  pope's  indul- 
gences, which  was  a.  d.  1516. 


Solyman,   the    only    son  of   Selim,  succeeded  after  his  father's  soiyman, 
death,  who,  in  the  first  beginning,  seemed  to  some  to  be  simple  and  twelfth 
sheepish,  and  not  meet  for  the  Turkish  government :  wherefore  cer-  *ner  0t- 

n  1  •  i  i  •         i  i  i-         •  ii  toman. 

tain  of  his  nobles,  consulting  how  to  depose  him,  intended  to  set  up 
another  emperor;  in  which  conspiracy  are  especially  named  Caierbeius 
and  Gazelles.  This  Caierbeius  was  he  that  betrayed  before  Campson 
the  sultan  of  Egypt  to  Selim,  as  is  aforesaid ;  who  now  also  being 
in  consultation  with  Gazelles  and  others  about  this  matter,  detected 
them  also  unto  Solyman.  Wherefore  the  said  Gazelles  and  his  fellows, 
being  thus  detected,  were  put  to  death  by  Solyman  :  declaring  thereby 
that  he  was  not  so  sheepish  as  he  was  thought  of  them  to  be ;  and  as 
also  by  his  acts  afterwards  did  more  appear. 

Solyman,  after  this  execution  done  upon  the  conspirators,  taking  Belgrade 
his  voyage  into  Europe,  first  besieged  Belgrade,  which,  being  a  city  of^'eged 
in  Hungary,  was  the  strongest  fort  of  all  the  Roman  empire,  and  the  ]w  |£e 
chief  defence  at  that  time  of  all  Christendom  ;  which  also,  assaulted 
before  time  by  Amurath  II.,  was  valiantly  defended  by  Johannes 
Huniades,  as  is  above  specified.     But  here  now  lacked  such  a  one  as 
Huniades  was :  for  the  kingdom  of  Hungary  at  that  time  was  under 
the  government  of  Ludovic,  a  young  king,  inexpert  and  of  a  simple 
wit ;  whom  other  princes,  and  especially  the  covetous  churchmen,  did 




*o  pill  and  poll,  that  they  left  him  nothing  but  only  the  bare  name 
an/title  0f  his  kingdom ;  'whereby  he,  being  unfurnished  both  of  men 
and  money,  was  unable  to  match  with  such  an  enemy. 

Another  advantage  also  the  Turks  had  in  besieging  Belgrade,  for 
thftChriBtian  minces,  at  that  time,  were  in  civil  dissension  and  vari- 
ance  amongst  themselves ;  and  the  pope  with  his  churchmen  also  were 
a&n*  go  busy  in"  suppressing  Luther,  and  the  gospel  then  newly  spring- 
1,r"u:''"'    ing  that  they  minded  nothing  else,  except  it  were  to  maintain  the 
wealth  of their  own  bellies;  which  pope,  if  he  had  set  his  care  (as  his 
duty  was)  as  much  in  stirring  up  princes  against  the  common,  enemy, 
as  be  was  bent  to  deface  the  gospel,  and  to  persecute  the  true  pro- 
fessors thereof,  soon  might  he  have  brought  to  pass,  not  only  that 
Belgrade  might  have  been  defended  against  the  Turk,  but  also  that 
to  l>e  recovered  again,  which  was  lost  before ;  and,  moreover,  he  might 
have  stopped  the  great  dangers  and  perils  which  now  are  like  to  fall 
upon  the  religion  and  church  of  Christ;  which  the  Lord  of  his  great 
mercy  avert  and  turn  away. 
The  pope      Certes,  whatsoever  the  pope  then  did,  this  had  been  his  duty, 
u  buy    setting  all  other  things  apart,  to  have  had  an  earnest  compassion  of 
Sithw,    so  many  miserable  and  lost  captives,  who  were  fallen  from  their  faith 
m-Kkct'-    and  religion,  unto  the  misery  and  slavery  of  the  Turk,  and  thraldom 
rSnof     °'  ^e  devil,  and  t0  nave  sought  a^  means  possible  to  have  reduced 
Chiitttn-  them,  as  lost  sheep,  into  the  fold  again;   which  then  might  soon 
have  been  done,  if  prelates  and  princes,  joining  together  in  christian 
concord,  had  loved  as  well  the  public  glory  of  Christ,  and  souls  of 
Christians,  as  they  tendered  their  own  private,  worldly,  and  frivolous 
Tme       quarrels.     And  admit  that  the  pope  had  conceived  ever  so  much 
SSSS'iMk- malice  against  Luther,  his  quarrel  also  being  good;  yet  the  public 
ing  in  the  church,  standing  in  such  danger  as  it  then  did,  by  the  invasion  of 
the  Turk,  reason  would,  nature  led,  religion  taught,  time  required, 
that  a  good  prelate,  forgetting  lighter  matters,  should  rather  have  laid 
his  shoulder  to  the  excluding  of  so  great  a  danger,  as  then  was  immi- 
nent both  to  himself,  and  the  universal  church  of  Christ.     But  now, 
his  quarrel  being  unjust,  and  the  cause  of  Luther  being  most  just 
and  godly,  what  is  to  be  said  or  thought  of  such  a  prelate,  who,  for- 
bearing  the  Turk,  whom  in  a  time  so  dangerous  he  ought  chiefly  to 
have  resisted,  persecuted  the   truth  which  he  should  specially  have 
maintained  ?    But  Christ,  of  his  mercy,  stand  for  his  church,  and  stir 
up  zealous  princes  and  prelates,  if  not  to  recover  that  which  is  lost, 
\<t  at  least  to  retain  that  little  which  is  left ! 
nf''i!,ri'y       Solyman  therefore,  taking  this  occasion,  and  using  the  commodity 
I   tune,  while  our  princes  were  thus  at  variance  betwixt  themselves, 
without  any  resistance  or  interruption  brought  his  army  unto  Bel- 
grade,   ,\.t>.  1521;    which  city  being  but  slenderly  defenccd,  the 
Turk,   through   his  undcrminers,  guns,  and  other  engines  of  war, 
without  great  difficulty,   and  with  little  loss  of  his  soldiers,  soon 
ubdued   and   overcame. 
After  this  victory,   Solyman   resting  himself  a  whole   vear,   and 
in  his  mind  how   to  make  all  sure  behind  him,  for  fear  of 
enemies  to  conic  upon  his  hack,  thought  it  expedient  for  his  purpose, 
if  he    might  obtain    the   island   of   Rhodes;    lor  that  only  remained 
vt   christian    betwixt   him    and    Asia.       Wherefore,    the   next    vear 

THE    HISTORY    OK    THE    TURKS.  53 

following,  he  brought  his  navy  of  four  hundred  and  fifty  ships,  with  Soiyman. 
three  hundred  thousand  men,  to  the  besieging  thereof.  This  Rhodes  Rhodes 
was  a  mighty  and  strong  island,  within  the  Mediterranean  sea ;  the  ^^g^- 
inhabitants  whereof,  at  the  first,  did  manfully  resist  the  Turk,  sparing- 
no  labour,  nor  pains  for  the  defence  of  themselves  and  all  Christen- 
dom. But  afterwards,  being  brought  to  extremity,  and  pinched  with 
penury,  seeing  also  no  aid  to  come  from  the  Christians,  they  some- 
what began  to  languish  in  themselves.  The  Turks,  in  the  mean 
time,  casting  up  two  great  mountains,  with  strength  of  hand,  two 
miles  off  from  the  city,  like  rolling  trenches  carried  them  before 
them  near  unto  the  city,  in  the  tops  whereof  they  planted  their  ord- 
nance and  artillery,  to  batter  the  city.  The  master  of  the  knights 
of  Rhodes  was  then  one  Philippus  Villadamus,  a  Frenchman,  in 
whom  no  diligence  was  lacking,  that  appertained  to  the  defence  of 
the  city.  The  Rhodians,  likewise,  so  valiantly  behaved  themselves 
upon  the  walls,  that  with  their  shot  all  the  ditches  about  the  city 
were  filled  with  the  carcases  of  dead  Turks.  Besides  this,  such  a 
disease  of  the  bloody  flux  reigned  in  the  Turks1  camp,  that  thirty 
thousand  of  them  died  thereof ;  and  yet  for  all  this  Soiyman  would 
not  cease  from  his  siege  begun :  who,  at  length,  by  undermincrs 
casting  down  the  vaumures  and  uttermost  parts  of  the  city,  won 
ground  still  more  and  more  upon  the  Rhodians,  and  with  mortar- 
pieces  so  battered  the  houses,  that  there  was  no  free  place  almost 
standing  in  all  the  city.  And  thus  continued  the  siege  for  the  space 
of  five  or  six  months,  and  yet  all  this  while  came  no  help  unto  them 
from  the  Christians.  Wherefore  they,  being  out  of  all  hope,  through 
the  advice  of  Villadamus,  yielded  themselves  unto  the  Turk,  upon 
condition  that  he  would  spare  them  with  life  and  goods  :  which  con- 
vention the  Turk  kept  with  them  faithfully  and  truly. 

Thus   Soiyman,    with   his  great  glory,    and   utter  shame  to  all  Christian 
christian  princes,  and  also  ruin  of  all  Christendom,  got  the  noble  isle  negligent 
of  Rhodes ;    although  not  without  great  loss  and  detriment  of  his  _  J 
army,  insomuch  that  at  one  assault  twenty  thousand  Turks  about  the  fe3o» 
walls  were  slain  with  fire,  sword,  stones,  and  other  engines :  whereby 
it  may  be  conjectured  what  these  Rhodians  might,   or  would  have 
done,  if  succour  had  come  to  them  from  other  christian  princes,  as 
they  looked  for.     This  city  was  won  upon  Christmas-day,  a.d.  1522. 

This  conquest  of  Rhodes  obtained,  Soiyman,  the  fourth  year  after,  christian 
bringeth  back  his  army  again  into  Hungary,  where  he  found  none  to  against 
resist  him  but  only  Ludovic  the  young  king,  who,  being  accompanied  ^,^urk 
with  a  small  army,  and  nothing  able  to  match  with  the  Turk,  yet,  of  si"-;'  well 
a  hasty  rashness  and  vain  hope  of  victory,  would  needs  set  upon  Jam;  guiding 
.vho,    if  he  had  staid  but  a  little,  had  prospered  the  better,   for  °[t!^!' 
Johannes  Vaivoda,  being  a  captain  well  exercised  in  Turkish  wars 
before,  was  not  far  off,  coming  with  a  sufficient  power  of  able  soldiers. 
But  Paul,  the  archbishop  of  Colosse,  a  Franciscan  friar,  a  man  more 
bold  than  wise,   with  his  temerity  and  rashness  troubled  all  their 
doings ;  for  the  whole  sum  of  the  army  of  the  Hungarians  contained 
in  all  but  only  four  and  twenty  thousand  horsemen  and  footmen, 
who,  at  length  coming  unto  the  battle,  and  being  compassed  about 
with  a  great  multitude  of  the  Turk's  army,  were  brought  into  great 
distress.     The  Turks  twice  shot  off  their  pieces  against  the  christian 

in  help- 
ing tliei 

r.  |  THE    HISTOBY    OF    THE    TURKS. 

soi^man.  army ;  yet  scarce  was  any  Christian  touched  with  the  stroke  thereof: 

which  was  thought    to   be  done  on   purpose,    because  they  were 

chris-  Christians  who  had  the  ordering  of  the  guns  (for  then  the  special 
I'c're  the  gunners  of  the  Turks  were  Christians),  whom  for  the  same  cause 
.i^-ciai  tj,Cy  spared.  Then  the  Turks1  horsemen,  coming  upon  the  back  of 
fodie  the  christian  army,  compassed  them  about,  and  by  reason  of  their 
Turk'  multitude  overcharged  their  horsemen  ;  amongst  whom  was  slain,  at 
The  rash  the  same  time,  the  archbishop  friar  abovesaid,  with  the  bishops  of 
bishop  Striegau  and  Waradein,  and  many  other  nobles  beside.  Also  the 
fnar  king  himself,  being  destitute  of  his  necessary  aid  and  succour,  was 
Kij.p  Lu-  compelled  to  fly  into  a  marsh,  where  he,  falling  from  his  horse,  being 
JtatotiT  heavy  laden  with  his  harness,  was  not  able  to  rise  again,  but  there 
miserably  perished. 

Solyman  the  Turk  marvelled  at  the  foolishness  of  Ludovic  the 

king,  who,  with  so  small  an  army,  would  presume  to  encounter  with 

6uch  a  great  host  of  two  hundred  thousand.    This  battle  in  Hungary 

was  fought  a.d.  1526. 

Ferdi-  After  the  decease  of  Ludovic,  Ferdinand  succeeded  in  the  king- 

Hung«ry.  dom,  being  duke  of  Austria  and  king  of  Hungary.     Then  Solyman, 

setting  contention  betwixt  Johannes  Vaivoda  and  Ferdinand,  for  the 

kingdom  of  Hungary,  sped  his  voyage  to  the  city  of  Buda,  which 

also,  in  short  time,  he  made  to  be  yielded  unto  him  upon  condition 

that  they  should  escape  with  their  lives  and  goods :  which  condition 

con-       some  say  he  kept,  and  some  say  he  did  not.     Besides  Buda,  divers 

ulc  Turk,  places  and  munitions  the  said  Turk,   contrary  to  his  league  made 

before,    did    spoil    and   waste ;    as  Waradein,    Fiinf  kirchen,    and 

other   forts  and  munitions  more,    bordering   about    the    coasts  of 


conten-        In  the  year  of  our  Lord,    1529,    Ferdinand,  king  of  Hungary 

nv"ene"    aforesaid,  recovered  divers  holds  gotten  of  the  Turk  before,  and  also 

nandand  warrm£  against  Johannes  Vaivoda,  his  enemy,  with  whom  he  had 

vaivoda.  variance  (as  ye  heard  before),  expulsed  him  out  of  his  kingdom ; 

vowoda  whereupon  Vaivoda,  flying  to  the  Turk,  desired  his  aid.     The  Turk, 

Bieth  to    g]aj  t0  take  that  occasion,  with  great  preparation  addressed  himself 

Turk.,     to  return  into  Hungary,  where  he,  recovering  again  the  city  of  Buda, 

which  Ferdinand  had  gotten  from  him  a  little  before,  removed  his 

army  into  Austria,  spoiling  and  destroying  by  the  way  all  that  came 

to  his  hands;  showing  many  examples  of  great  cruelty  and  tyranny 

"anMci  m°?'  lamentable  to  hear  and  understand.     For  of  some  he  put  out 

3tK? c'  their  eyes,  of  some  he  cut  off  their  hands,  of  some  their  ears  and 

cruelty.    noscs;  and  their  children  he  shamefully  mutilated.     The  maidens  he 

t       corrupted,  the  matrons  had  their  breasts  cut  off,  and  such  as  were 

with  child  were  ripped,  and  their  children  cast  into  the  fire.     And 

these  examples  of  horrible  and  barbarous  tyranny  this  wretched  Turk 

perpetrated   by  the  way  coming  toward  Vienna,  a  noble  city  in 

Austria;  besides  the  captives  which  he  took  by  the  way  and  led 

into  servitude  most  miserable,  amounting  to  the  number  of  thirty 


Amnnu  other  holds  by  the  way  the  Turk  came,  there  was  a  castle 
called  Altenburg,  Btrongly  by  nature  situated,  and  by  art  defenced; 
which  castle  the  Turk,  intending  not  to  overpass,  because  he  would 
HUkc  all  things  sure  behind  him,  began  to  make  his  assault,  and  lay 

THE    HISTORY    OF    THE    TURKS  5 •*> 

his  ordnance  against  it.     The  warders  and  keepers  of  the  castle,  so  Soiyman. 
soon  as  the  Turk  began  to  lay  siege  against  them,  making  no  resist- 
ance, of  a  womanly  cowardliness  sent  their  messengers  to  the  Turk, 
to  yield  themselves  ready  to  do  his  commandment,  and  further  him 
with  their  victual ;    amongst  whom  were  three  hundred  Bohemians,  Attei?.of 
who  were  commanded  to  follow  the  host,  that  the  Turk  by  them  ^r1,il1(',<1  tii 
might  learn  what  strength  was  in  the  city  of  Vienna ;  also  where  the  the  Tun.. 
king  was,  and  what  was  to  be  done  for  the  winning  thereof. 

Of  whom  when  the  Turk  had  understanding  how  all  things  stood, 
and  how  that  there  were  but  twenty  thousand  men  in  Vienna  able  to. 
bear  armour,  and  that  other  cities  of  Austria  would  soon  yield  if  that 
were  gotten,  and  that  Vienna  was  victualled  but  for  two  months,  and 
that  the  king  was  of  late  in  Bohemia ;  thus,  the  Turk  of  all  things 
being  certified,  having  no  doubt  in  his  mind  of  victory,  made  speed  Neapolis 
toward  Vienna ;  and  first  coming  to  Neapolis,  a  city  but  eight  miles  by*afed 
distant  from  Vienna,  he  required  them  to  yield  themselves ;  who,  Jj*rk 
notwithstanding,  withstood  them,  and  repulsed  them  valiantly.  Then  Turk's 
the  Turks  assigned  a  place  for  the  pitching  of  their  tents,  which,  twohuo- 
because  it  seemed  something  too  little  for  such  a  great  multitude,  ^?^„. 
they  took  in  more  ground,  to  the  compass  of  seven  miles  circuit,  sand  soi- 
The  multitude  of  his  army,  which  he  there  planted,  is  accounted  of  prepata- 
some  to  extend  to  two  hundred  and  fifty  thousand  soldiers.     The  j""^* 
Turks  thus  being  planted,  made  daily  excurses  over  all  the  country  of  °f  Vienna 
Austria,  especially  about  the  city  of  Vienna,  wasting  and  spoiling,  Turk! 
with  great  cruelty  and  murder,  amongst  the  poor  Christians. 

Moreover,  to  make  all  things  more  sure  towards  the  preparation 
of  the  siege,  scouts  were  sent  abroad,  and  ambushments  were  laid 
about  the  side  of  the  river  Danube,  to  provide  that  no  aid  nor 
victual  should  be  brought  to  Vienna.     So  it  pleased  the  providence 
of  the  Lord  (who  disposeth  all  things),  that  three  days  before  the 
coming  of  the    Turk,  Frederic   the    earl  Palatine,  who  was  then  Frede- 
assigned  by  the  empire  to  take  the  charge  of  Vienna,  was  come  down  paiatfiie. 
by  the  river  Danube  with  14,000  men,  and  with  a  certain  troop  of  y^™"1 
horsemen  well  appointed  and  picked  for  the  purpose.     After  the 
coming  of  this  Frederic,  provision  also  of  victual  was  appointed  to 
follow  shortly  after  by  the  said  river  Danube. 

In  the  mean  time,  they  who  had  the  carriage  and  transporting 
thereof,  hearing  how  the  ways  were  laid,  and  all  the  passages  ten 
miles  about  Vienna  stopped  by  the  Turks,  although  they  knew  the 
city  to  stand  in  great  need  of  victual,  yet  seeing  there  was  no  other 
remedy,  rather  than  it  should  come  to  the  enemy's  hand,  thought  it 
best  to  sink  their  boats  with  their  carriage  ;  and  so  they  did  :  whereby 
albeit  the  Christians  wanted  their  relief,  yet  were  the  Turks  dis- 
appointed of  their  prey  and  purpose.  The  captains  who  had  the  captains 
keeping  of  the  city,  who  were  chiefly  Frederic  the  carl  Palatine,  u'o"^ ','- 
William  Rogendorff,  and  Nicholas  earl  of  Salm,  seeing  themselves  vV^a 
so  straitened  contrary  to  their  expectation,  although  they  had  great 
causes  to  be  discouraged,  yet  calling  their  courage  unto  them,  they 
consulted  together  for  the  best  way  to  be  taken  :  and  seeing  that  the 
little  city  Neapolis,  above  mentioned,  being  eight  miles  distant  from 
them,  so  valiantly  withstood  the  Turks,  that  in  one  day  they  sustained 
seven  grievous  assaults  against  all  the  main  force  of  the  Turkish 

gt;  THE    HISTORY    OF    THE    TURKS. 

5,/,™.-..  annv;  by  fcheir  example  and  manful  standing  being  the  more  ani- 

mated  and  encouraged,  they  thought  to  abide  the  uttermost  before 

they  would  give  over;  and  first,  plucking  down  all  the  suburbs  and 

buildings  without  the  walls,  whereby  the  enemy  might  have  any 

succour"  they  willed  all  the  farmers  and  inhabitants  about  the  city  to 

save  themselves,  and  to  bring  in  their  goods  within  the  walls.     Such 

Prapu»   places  us  were  weak  within  the  walls,  they  made  strong.     About  the 

[,';'",," ,!h  towers  and  munition  of  the  walls  they  provided  rampiers  and  bulwarks, 

"'y         distant  eighty  foot  one  from  another,  to  keep  off  the  shot ;  and  every 

iuxu'rk.  man  had  his  place  and  standing  awarded  to  him  upon  the  wall,  and 

his  office  appointed  what  to  do.     But  especially  that  side  of  the  city 

which  lieth  to  the  river  Danube,  they  fortified  after  the  best  wise : 

Provijioo  for  that  way  only  now  remained  for  victual  to  be  transported  from 

visual-'  the  Bohemians  unto  them.     Wherefore  eight  ensigns  were  assigned 

'"'* th8    to  the  keeping  of  the  bridge ;  and  in  the  plain,  which  was  like  an 

island  enclosed  within  the  river,  a  sufficient  garrison  of  horsemen 

were  placed,  lying  within  gunshot  of  the  city ;  to  the  intent  that 

if  any  grain  or  victual  were  sent  from  the  Bohemians,  they  might 

provide  the  same  safely  to  be  brought  into  the  city. 

Good  These  things  thus  being  disposed  and  set  in  order,  lord  William 

.    Rogendorff,  to  assay  the  strength  of.  the  Turks,  made  divers  roads 

out  with  his  horsemen,  albeit  much  against  the  minds  of  the  Austrians ; 
who,  knowing  the  manner  of  the  Turks,  thought  it  better  to  suffer 
them,  while  either  with  time  they  might  be  overwearied,  or  for  lack 
of  victuals  consumed.     Among  many  and  sundry  skirmishes  which 
the  Christians  had  with  the  Turks,  one  especially  was  to  our  men 
unprospcrous ;   in  which  certain  of  the  horsemen,  espying  a  small 
troop  of  the  Turks  scattering  abroad  from  their  company,  made  out 
after  them ;  who  suddenly  and  guilefully  were  enclosed  and  circum- 
vented by  the  Turks,  before  they  could  recover  the  gates  of  the  city, 
and  so  were  all  taken  alive :  of  them  three  were  sent  by  the  Turks 
into  the  city,  to  declare  to  the  Viennians  what  strength  they  had  seen 
in  the  camp  of  their  adversaries,  and  to  solicit  them  to  yield  their 
iy  for  fear  of  punishment  which  would  follow.     The  residue  they 
theTurki  reserved  to  torments  and  punishment,  whom,  in  the  sight  of  the 
3£ciwt.  w!lolc  arm.v,  antl  of  the  Christians  (who  should  tell  the  same  to  the 
a**-  citizens),  they  caused,  every  man,  with  four  horses,  to  be  drawn  to 
pieces,  and  so  to  be  dismembered  and  plucked  asunder. 

After  this  dune,  the  barbarous  Turk  immediately  sent  his  herald 
to  talk  with  the  captains  of  the  city,  whether  they  would  yield  the 
city  upon  honest  conditions,  or  else  would  abide  the  arbitrement  of 
war.  If*  they  would  gently  submit  themselves,  they  should  have  all 
gentleness  to  them  showed.  If  they  would  be  stubborn,  and  stand 
to  their  defence,  he  would  also  stand  to  his  siege  begun,  so  that  he 
ould  par.  neither  man,  woman,  nor  child.  To  this  the  captains 
owwered  again,  That  they  were  contented  that  Solyman  should 
stand  to  his  siege  begun,  and  do  his  utmost,  what  he  would,  or  what 
''«•  could.  As  tor  them,  they  were  at  a  point  to  defend  themselves 
and  thar  citj  as  long  as  they  might:  that  the  event  and  fall  of  vic- 
lorv  was  doubtful,  and  many  times  so  happeneth,  that  they  who 
1,1  "-'■"  ,1"'  *tt  we  wearied,  sooner  than  they  who  be  provoked: 
leithei  that  they  were  so  unmindful  either  of  themselves,  or  of  their 

..r  the 
Turk  tn 


country,  but  that  they  did  remember  well  what  they  arc,  and  what  soiyman. 
they  be  called ;  named  to  be  Germans,  who  use  always  first  to  assay 
the  adversary,  what  he  is  able  to  do,  and  not  rashly  to  commit  them- 
selves into  their  enemies1  hands. 

Soiyman,  not  a  little  disdaining  at  this  answer,  first  burning  and  soiyman 
consuming  all  the  villages,  houses,  and  places  round  about  the  city  ;  e?hv??h' 
infecting  also  the  springs  and  fountains  which  gave  water  into  the  [l,^;l.wiUl 
city ;  and  so  stopping  all  passages,  that  no  relief  should  have  way  B«at  «- 
unto  them,  began  with  angry  mood  to  approach  more  near  to  the  mie8, 
city,  with  three  great  camps,  sending  them  word  in  scorn  and  con- 
tumely by  one  of  his  captives,  That  if  they  stood  in  need  of  help  of 
soldiers,   he  would  send  unto  them  the  three  hundred  Bohemians 
(mentioned  a  little  before),  to  aid  them  in  their  defence.     To  whom 
the  Palatine  directed  answer  again,  That  they  had  more  soldiers  in 
the  city  than  they  needed.     As  for  the  Bohemians  who  had  yielded 
themselves,  he  might  do  with  them  what  he  would,  for  Vienna  stood 
in  no  great  need  of  them. 

In  the  mean  time  a  messenger  coming  from  Ferdinand  was  privily  a  meg- 
let  in  by  night  into  the  city,  who  brought  word  that  they  should  play  ^lf,y„m 
the  men  in  keeping  out  the  enemy  awhile  :  for  it  would  not  be  long,  l"^u> 
but  both  Ferdinand  and  Charles,  his  brother,  with  the  strength  of  all  Vienna. 
Germany,  would  be  ready  to  rescue  them.      At  this  message  the 
hearts  of  the  soldiers  began  somewhat  to  be  cheered,  and  to  contemn 
the  huge  multitude  of  the  adversaries,  being  so  great  as  they  never 
did  behold,  nor  did  ever  almost  hear  of  before ;   the  largeness  of 
whose  army  extended  to  no  less  in  compass  (as  is  abovesaid)  than 
of  seven  miles  round  about  the  city  walls. 

Long  it  were  to  recite  the  whole  order  of  this  terrible  siege,  with  The  siege 
all  the  parts  and  circumstances  thereof.     Briefly  to  touch  so  much  as  begin 
shall  suffice  for  this  history,  with  fewer  words  than  were  stripes  given  ,Rth 
at  the  siege  thereof;  this  is  to  be  judged  and  confessed,  whosoever 
beholdeth  the  number  and  fierceness  of  the  Turks,  the  absence  of 
king  Ferdinand,  the  lack  of  provision  and  victual  within  the  city,  the 
noise  of  the  guns,  the  violence  of  the  shot,  the  terror  of  the  sight, 
and  yet  no  succour  sent  unto  them ;   that  the  custody  of  that  city 
was  no  man's  doing,   but  the  arm  only  of  the  Lord  God  of  Hosts,  The 
according  to  the  true  saying  of  the  Psalm,  "  Unless  the  Lord  do  p«4ei 
keep  the  city,  the  watchmen  watch  in  vain,  which  watch  to  save  it :  ^dence 
unless  the  Lord  do  build  the  house,  the  builder  striveth  in  vain  jjj**?- 
which  taketh  upon  him  to  build  itf  experience  whereof,  in  keeping  city, 
this  city,  may  well  appear. 

First  Soiyman,  bending  his  shot  and  ordnance  against  the  city,  beat 
down  to  the  ground  the  vaumures,  with  all  the  uttermost  suburbs  of 
the  city  ;  and  that  in  such  a  short  moment  of  time,  that  the  hearts  of 
the  Viennians,  a  little  before  refreshed,  were  now  as  much  appalled 
again  with  fear,  misdoubting  with  themselves,  lest  the  Turk,  with  the 
same  celerity  and  violence,  would  have  prevailed  against  the  inward 
walls,  as  he  did  in  beating  down  the  outward  vaumures.  And  no 
doubt  the  same  time  the  Turk  had  put  the  city  in  great  hazard,  had 
not  night,  coming  on,  broken  off  the  siege  for  that  day. 

In  the  mean  time  the  citizens  laboured  all  night  in  repairing  and 
refreshing  the  walls,  to  make  all  things  sure  against  the  next  assault. 

the  man 


assault  of 

5g  Tilt    HISTORY    OF    THE    TURKS. 

socman.  The  next  day,  early  in  tlie  morning,  the  Turks,  approaching  the  city 
in  with  anew  assault,  thinking  to  scale  the  walls,  were  so  repulsed 
and  manfully  resisted  by  the  Germans,  that  scarcely  any  ditches  about 
ub.''uY.he  the  walls  could  be  Been,  for  the  bodies  of  the  dead  Turks,  wherewith 
vSbjul    they  were  replenished;  so  that  the  Turks  were  fain  to  fight  standing 
upon  the  bodies  of  them  that  were  slain  :  by  which  calamity,  the  force 
oj  the  enemy  was  not  a  little  abated. 
Mlllli.          it  happened  the  same  time,  that  a  company  of  the  Turks  being 
vSmm-     Ti,,!  oUt  ot  t'10c''ty  wandering  out  of  order,  the  captain  Rogendorff, 
•i"''1"      with  two  legions  of  horsemen  issuing  out  of  the  city  gate  called  Sal- 
ami bo  passing  closely  under  the  bill's  side,  did  so  set  upon  them, 
that  tliey  slew  a  great  number  of  them,  the  rest  being  driven  to  take 
the  river ;   whom  with  stones  and  shot  likewise  they  destroyed,  and 
so   retired  back  into   the  city  again.      By  this  victory  the  captain 
Rogendorff  began  to  be   terrible  to  the   Turks:  for  in  the  same 
skirmish,  as  after  was  known,  were  slain  of  them  so  many,  that  of  five 
thousand  three  hundred  horsemen  and  footmen,  scarce  one  hundred 
and  forty  escaped  alive. 

Solyman,  disdaining  at  this  repulse,  thought  to  prove  another  way, 
thrTurks  and  so  bringing  his  power  toward  the  gate  called  the  King's  Gate, 
'\\"»L  then'  making  his  trenches  and  bulwarks,  planted  his  ordnance;  with 
the  violence  whereof  the  walls  were  so  battered  and  shaken,  that  no 
man  was  able  there  to  stand.  Wherefore  the  Turk,  seeing  two  great 
breaches  made  in  the  wall,  commanded  his  soldiers  covertly,  in  the 
dark  smoke  of  the  gunpowder,  to  press  into  the  city.  The  like  also 
was  done  at  the  Scottish  tower,  whereby  the  city  Avas  invaded  in  two 
sundry  places  at  one  time.  The  Viennians,  at  first,  freshly  began  to 
withstand  them,  new  soldiers  still  coming  in  the  place  of  them  that 
were  slain  and  hurt ;  and  so  this  assault  continuing  more  than  six 
hours  together,  our  men  began  at  length  to  languish  and  faint  not  only 
in  strength,  but  also  in  courage,  whereby  the  city  had  been  in  great 
danger  of  losing,  had  not  the  two  aforesaid  captains,  Rogendorff  in 
the  one  place,  and  the  earl  of  Salm  in  the  other  place,  manfully  en- 
couraged  the  soldiers  to  abide  the  brunt,  and  to  bear  out  awhile  the 
violence  of  the  Turks ;  promising  that  immediately  they  should  have 
aid  from  Ferdinand. 

In  the  mean  time  the  Turks  came  so  thick,  for  greediness  of  the 
victory,  scaling,  climbing,  and  fighting  upon  the  walls,  that  had  it  not 
been  for  the  press  and  throng  of  the  great  multitude  of  the  Turks, 
coming  so  thick  that  one  of  them  could  not  fight  for  another,  Vienna 
that  same  day  had  been  taken  and  utterly  lost.  But,  by  the  policy 
"I  the  captains  giving  a  sign  within  the  city,  as  though  new  soldiers 
were  (ailed  for,  our  men  began  to  be  encouraged,  and  the  Turks1 
hearts  to  be  discomfited. 

W  hen  Solyman  saw  his  army  the  second  time  repulsed,  he  began 
t"  attempt  a  new  way,  purposing,  by  undermining,  to  overthrow  the 
city;  in  which  work  specially  he  used  the  help  of  the  Illyrians,  of 
whom  he  had  a  great  number  in  his  camp,  expert  in  that  kind  of  feat. 
I  hese  lllyrians,  beginning  to  break  the  earth  at  the  gate  Carinthia, 
;""1  coming  mar  to  the  foundations  of  the  tower,  which  they  by 
strength  of  hand  attempted  to  break,  could  not  work  so  closely  under 
th(   ground,  but  they  were  perceived  by  certain  men  above,  who  were 


oi  the 


THE    HISTORY    OF    THE    TURKS.  59 

skilful  and  expert  in  that  kind  of  matter ;  who,  contrariwise,  under-  soiyman. 
mining  against  them,  and  filling  their  trenches  as  they  went  with  gun- 
powder,  so  conveyed  their  train,  that  when  fire  should  be  set  unto  it, 
the  violence  thereof  should  burst  out  by  the  trenches  of  the  enemies  : 
which  done,  suddenly  the  ground  beneath  made  a  great  shaking,  so 
that  the  tower  did  cleave  asunder,  and  all  the  underminers  of  the 
Turks,  working  in  their  trenches,  were  smothered  and  destroyed, 
which  came  to  the  number  (as  it  was  supposed  afterwards)  of  eight 
thousand  persons ;  insomuch  that  yet  till  this  day  a  great  number  of 
dead  men's  sculls  are  found  in  the  ground. 

When  Soiyman  saw  that  this  way  also  would  not  serve,  and  had  Another 
privy  intelligence  that  the  walls  about  the  gates  of  Stubarium  were  {JJX?* 
negligently  kept,  and  that  he  might  have  there  more  easy  entrance  ;  Turks- 
secretly  he  conveyeth  about  ten  garrisons  of  fresh  soldiers,  in  such 
sort  as  the  townsmen  should  not  perceive  them ;  who  came  so  sud- 
denly upon  them,  that  they  had  filled  their  ditches,  and  were  upon 
the  top  of  the  fortresses  and  munitions,  before  our  men  were  aware  of 
them,  or  could  make  themselves  ready  to  resist  them.  For,  although 
there  was  no  lack  of  soldiers  within  the  city,  yet,  forasmuch  as  the 
Avhole  brunt  of  the  siege  did  lie  especially  at  the  two  gates  aforesaid, 
from  whence  the  soldiers  who  were  there  warding,  could  not  be  well 
removed ;  for  a  shift,  the  rescuers  (who  within  the  city  were  ready  for 
all  sudden  adventures)  were  sent  to  the  walls;  by  whose  coming, 
those  few  who  kept  the  enemies  off  before,  being  sore  hurt  and 
wounded,  were  succoured  and  sent  to  surgery ;  and  thus  the  said  as- 
sault continued  terrible  and  doubtful,  until  (the  dark  night  coming 
upon  them)  they  could  not  well  know  the  one  from  the  other.  In  this 
bickering  were  counted  of  the  Turks  to  be  slain  more  than  five  thousand. 

Then  the  captain  Rogendorff,  commending  the  valiant  standing  of 
his  soldiers,  misdoubting  with  himself  (as  it  happened  indeed)  that 
the  Turks  would  not  so  give  over,  but  would  set  upon  him  the  next 
day  with  a  fresh  assault,  providing  with  all  diligence  for  the  purpose, 
made  up  the  breaches  of  the  walls,  and  prepared  all  things  necessary 
for  resistance.  The  next  morning  following,  which  was  something  dark 
and  misty,  the  Turks,  thinking  to  prevent  our  men  with  their  sud- 
den coming,  began  again  busily  to  bicker  upon  the  top  of  the  walls. 

It  would  require  a  long  tractation  here  to  describe  the  great  dis- 
tress and  danger  that  the  city,  those  three  days  following,  was  in  ; 
during  all  which  time  there  was  no  rest,  no  intermission,  nor  diligence 
lacking,  either  in  the  enemies,  fighting  against  the  city,  or  in  our  men 
in  defending  the  same.     For  the  Turks,  besides  the  multitude  of  the 
great  ordnance,  wherewith  (as  with  a  great  tempest  of  gun-shot)  they 
never  ceased  still  battering  the  walls,  and  beating  the  munitions  of 
the  city,  sent  also  such  heaps  and  multitudes  of  the  Turks  to  the 
scaling  and  climbing  of  the  walls,  that  scarcely  with  all  the  ordnance  and 
shot  of  the  city,  either  their  violence  could  be  broken,  or  the  number 
of  them  diminished  ;  till  at  last,  the  soldiers  of  the  Turks,  perceiving  The 
themselves  able  by  no  means  to  prevail,  but  only  to  run  in  danger  of  variance 
life,  and  to  do  no  good,  began  to  wrangle  among  themselves,  grudging  a™™P 
and  repining  against  their  dukes  and  captains,  imputing  the  whole  cause  selves, 
only  to  them,  that  the  city  was  yetuntaken,  seeing  there  was  nthem  nei- 
ther diligence  nor  goodwill  lacking:  and  so  ceased  the  siege  for  that  time. 


seigman       After  this,  when  Solyman  had  purposed  in  liimself,  with  his  last 
ami  strongest  siege,  to  try  against  the  city  the  uttermost  that  he 
was  able  to  do,  and  had  encouraged  his  soldiers  to  prepare  themselves 
riK-Turk  in  most  forcible  wise  thereunto,  the  soldiers  showed  themselves  much 
Millie'5    unwilling  to  return  again,  from  whence  they  were  so  often  repulsed 
cannot     before  i   ',v  reason  whereof  great  commotion  began  to  arise  in  the 
Turk's  camp.     The  rumour  whereof  when  it  came  to  Solyman's  ears, 
lie  sendeth  his  grand  captain  to  keep  all  the  soldiers  in  order  and 
obedience ;  or,  if  they  would  be  stubborn,  to  compel  them,  whether 
they  would  or  not,  to  accomplish  his  commandment :  who,  coming  to 
the   soldiers,    showed  to  them  the  great  Turk's  message  ;  and,  to 
animate  and  encourage  them,  declared  that  the  opportunity  of  the 
time  present  was  not  to  be  neglected,  neither  could  they  now,  without 
great  shame,  give  over,  after  so  many  assaults  attempted ;  who,   if 
they  would  sustain  but  one  brunt  more,  the  victory  were  in  their  own 
hands.  The  townsmen,  he  said,  were  wasted,  and  their  victuals  spent ; 
and  the   more  to  enflame  their  minds,  he  promised  them  not  only 
great  thanks  and  reward  of  their  emperor,  but  also  the  whole  spoil  of 
the  city,  in  recompense  of  their  travail, 
compui-       But  when  all  this  could  not  stir  up  the  sturdy  stomachs  of  the  tired 
men0      Turks,  using  compulsion  where  persuasion  would  not  serve,  he  ap- 
notwten  pointed  a  number  of  horsemen  to  be  set  at  their  backs,  whereby  to 
dtfend-d   enmrce  tucm  either  to  go  forward,  or,  if  they  be  denied,  with  guns 
•■tii.        and  spears  to  destroy  them.     The  Turks  seeing  themselves  in  such 
a  strait,  that  whether  they  went  or  tarried  it  was  to  them  like  peril, 
yet  would  they  not  set  forward,  except  the  captain  would  take  the 
venture  before  them ;  who,  warding  forward  in  his  array,  thus  spake 
unto  his  fellows,  saying :  "  Do  you  forsake  your  faith  and  allegiance, 
and  betray  the  emperor  of  Constantinople  unto  the  Christians,  if  you 
will,  but  I  will  discharge  my  duty  towards  the  commonwealth,  and  my 
emperor ;"  and  with  that  word  advanced  his  ensign,  making  toward  the 
city  walls.     Whom  when  others  followed,  and  still  more  and  more 
onhe1""  Prcssc^  after'  so  it  came  to  pass  that  whole  routs  of  them  were  over- 
Turks  at  thrown  and  slain  by  our  men  upon  the  walls,  before  it  was  known  what 
they  meant.     Others,  terrified  by  their  example,  gave  back  and  left 
their  array,  and  winding  themselves  by  by-ways,  and  under  covert  of 
hills,  returned  again  into  their  tents ;  and  so  came  it  to  pass,  that  the 
strength  of  the  enemies  daily  more  and  more  decreasing,  they  had  less 
and  less  hope  (-very  day  than  the  other,  of  obtaining  the  city.     For 
besides  the  innumerable  slaughter  of  Turks  upon  the  walls,  the  towns- 
men also,  watching  the  foragers  and  purveyors  of  the  Turks,  as  they 
ranged  about  for  victual  for  the  camp,  ever  as  occasion  served  them 
did  compass  them  about,  and  so  encountered  with  them  by  the  way, 
that  of  a  whole  legion  scarcely  the  tenth  part  returned  again  to  their 
Fellows  alive;  by  means  whereof  the  courage  of  the  enemies  began 
Breauyto  faint.     Whereby  such  a  marvellous  alteration  happened, 
J'"1  l    ""i'  men  began  to  receive  more  hope  and  courage,  so  the  Turks 
began  still  more  to  droop  and  to  languish  with  despair;  so  that  at 
length  scarce  durst  they  appear  without  the  bounds  where  they  were 
intrenched,  but  only  in  light  skirmishes,  when  they  were  provoked 
bv  '""'  """  '"  come  out  and  to  show  themselves. 
Solyman,  perceiving  his  soldiers  thus  daily  to  go  to  wrack,  of  whom 

THE    HISTORY    OF    THE    TURKS.  61 

he  had  lost  already  more  than  eighty  thousand,  and  that  with  long  8otgmam. 
tarrying  he  could  do  no  good,  being  also  in  lack  of  forage,  for  that  Tiie~Turk 
the  country  about  him  was  wasted,  beginneth   to  consult  with  his  ["Jft",,, 
captains  and  councillors,  what  remained  best  to  be  done ;  of  whom  *«*« 
the  most  part  advised  him  to  raise  his  siege,  and  betimes  to  provide  retire. 
for  himself:  which  to  do,  many  causes  there  were  that  moved  him. 
First,  the  loss  of  his  men,  who  daily  were  cut  from  him  by  gnat  num- 
bers, besides  those  who  lay  in  his  camp  wounded,  or  sick,  or  famished. 
Secondly,  lack  of  purveyance.     Thirdly,  the  near  approach  of  winter. 
lint  the  chiefest  cause  was,  for  that  he  heard  Frederic  Palatine  above- 
mentioned,   was  coming    with  a  great  army  at    Ratisbonc,  towards 
Vienna,  and  there  had  done  great  molestation  to  a  great  number  of  the 
Turkish  foragers,  whom  by  the  way  he  prevented,  and  so  inclosed  in 
the  woods,  that  he  slew  them  :  whereof  when  Solyman  had  intelligence,  Soiyman 
thinking  it  not  best  to  abide  the  coining  of  the  Palatine,  he  made  ShST"*' 
haste  with  bag  and  baggage  to  remove  his  camp,  and  to  retire ;  and  Vienn»- 
first  sending  away  his  carnage  before  him,  he  made  speed  himself  with 
his  army  to  follow  shortly  after. 

The  Viennians,  when  they  heard  of  the  removing  away  of  the 
Turks,  although  at  first  they  scarcely  believed  it  to  be  true,  being 
afterwards  certified  out  of  doubt  both  of  their  removing,  and  also  of 
the  order  thereof,  how  it  was  in  the  manner  of  a  flight  or  chase,  were 
greatly  desirous  to  make  out  of  the  city  after  them.     Wherein,  albeit 
the  presence  of  the  Palatine  with  his  army,  if  he  had  been  there  pre- 
sent, might  have  stood  them  in  great  stead,  yet,  notwithstanding, 
they  took  the  opportunity  of  the  time  present,  and  issuing  out  of  the 
city,  in  most  speedy  wise  set  after  them  with  their  horsemen :  and 
first  overpassing  the  tents  (where  the  Turks  had  pitched  their  stations  me 
or  pavilions)  for  haste  of  the  way,  they  made  such  pursuit  after  them,  ^al^s 
that  within  little  time  they  overtook  the  rear-ward  or  latter  end  of  the  P"™u?? 
army,  whereof  they  made  such  havoc  and  destruction,  that  (as  the  flight 
author  reporteth)  there  was  never  a  shot  of  the  pursuers,  nor  weapon 
drawn,  nor  stroke  stricken,  which  lighted  in  vain  ;  which  was  no 
hard  thing  for  our  men  to  do,  for,  as  the  Turks  in  their  flight  went 
scattered  out   of  order   and  array,  neither  would  they  in   the  fore- 
rank  (being  so  far  off  from  jeopardy)  return   back   to  help  their 
fellows,  it  was  easy  for  our  men,  without  resistance,  to  come  upon  xhepnvy 
their  backs  as  they  would.     Yet,  notwithstanding,  in  long  pursuit,  ;;t"[!;;:SL' 
when  our  men  could  not  see  the  carriage  of  the  Turks,  which  was  Turks 

1?         1        i  1  x"         prevent- 

wont  in  armies  to  come  away  behind  alter  the  host,  and  suspecting  e<i. 
(as  truth  was)  some  ambush  to  be  left  in  privy  wait  behind  them, 
to  come  betwixt  them  and  home,  they  called  themselves  to  retreat, 
and  consulted  upon  the  matter,  thinking  good,  first  to  send  out 
certain  scouts,  to  espy  and  bring  them  word  where  the  enemies  lay, 
and  what  was  the  number  of  them.  Whereof  when  intelligence  was 
given  them  that  the  remnant  of  the  Turk's  army  was  remaining  in 
the  tents  behind,  word  was  sent  to  their  fellows  in  Vienna  to  issue 
out,  and  to  join  also  with  them  against  the  tail  of  the  Turks,  who 
had  entrenched  themselves  within  the  earn]).  Others  were  appointed 
to  follow  the  chase,  lest  peradventurc  the  Turks,  seeing  our  men  to 
recule  back,  might  return  again  upon  them  and  help  their  fellows. 
Which  things  being  thus  ordered  and  appointed,  in  the  mean  time, 



gg  THE    HISTORY   OF    THE    TURKS. 

Solfum  wlu]e  part  of  the  Viennians  were  hovering  after  the  main  army,  the 
"  rest  encountered  with  them  that  were  left  in  the  camp,  who,  seeing 
themselves  overmatched,  first  defenced  their  camp  with  a  deep  ditch 
and  bulwark,  to  delay  the  time,  until  some  help  might  come  to  them 
from  the  army :  secondly,  they  directed  messengers  to  the  Christians, 
to  treat  for  peace  :  thirdly,  they  conveyed  their  privy  letters  untoSo- 
lyman,  for  speedy  aid  and  rescue;  but  all  the  ways  and  passages 
Being  topped  by  the  Christians,  their  letters  were  intercepted.    And 
bo  the  miserable  Turks,  being  destitute  of  all  hope  and  succour,  seeing 
no  other  remedy,  made  out  of  their  camp,  to  hazard  and  prove  the 
uttermost  for  their  defence ;  but,  in  conclusion,  in  their  desperate  ven- 
ture they  were  inclosed  about  by  our  men  on  every  side,  and  there 
put  to  the  sword  and  slain,  a  few  only  excepted,  who,  escaping  out 
very  hardly  by  secret  passages,  shifted  after  the  rest  of  their  fellows, 
i\"\n  In    as  well  as  they  could.     Their  carriage,  and  other  furniture  left  behind 
"'  '""''  them  in  their  tents,  was  distributed  amongst  the  soldiers;  only  such 
things  reserved  as  might  serve  for  the  public  use  and  commodity  of 
the  city. 
Merciful       Thus,  through  the  merciful  protection  and  benefit  of  Almighty  God, 
fioTof     Austria  was  delivered  from  the  fierce  and  barbarous  hostility  of  the 
Gmi  over  crUel  Turks,  notwithstanding  that  neither  Ferdinand  the  king,  nor 
don!!'  "   the  emperor  his  brother,  was  there  present ;  but  only  the  power  of 
God,  through  the  valiantness  of  the  worthy  Germans,  defended  that 
city,  in  defence  whereof  consisted  the  safety  and  deliverance,  no  doubt, 
of  all  these  west  parts  of  Christendom  :  for  which,  immortal  praise  and 
cod's       thanks  be  unto  our  immortal  God  in  Christ  our  Lord,  according  as 
Jjl^sthng    he  hath  of  us  most  graciously  and  worthily  deserved.     Wherein,  by 
r" '•'inta'in-  *"'1C  wa)''  *aKC  ^ms  wr  a  n°te?  gentle  reader  !  how  and  after  what  man- 
enorui  net  God's  blessing  goeth  with  the  true  reformers  of  his  religion;  and 
■Mp  ami"  so  much  the  more  is  it  to  be  noted,  for  that  the  Turks  in  so  many 
religion,   battles  and  sieges  heretofore,  were  never  so  repulsed  and  foiled,  as  at 
this  present  time  in  encountering  with  the  protestants,  and  defenders 
of  sincere  religion.     This  city  of  Vienna  was  besieged  and  delivered, 
a.  i).  1529.    The  assaults  of  the  Turk  against  the  city  are  numbered 
to  be  twenty,  and  his  repulses  as  many.     The  number  of  his  army 
which  he  first  brought,  was  250,000,  whereof  were  reckoned  to  be  slain 
eighty  thousand  and  above.     During  the  .time  of  his  siege  he  led 
away,  out  of  the  country  about,  many  captives ;  virgins  and  matrons 
he  quelled,  and  cast  them  out  naked ;  the  children  he  stuck  upon 

Solyman,  thus  put  from  the  hope  of  the  victory  of  Vienna,  after  he 
had  breathed  himself  a  while  at  home,  the  second  year  after,  which 
was  a.  d.  1531,  repairing  his  host,  returned  again  into  Hungary,  with 
no  less  multitude  than  before;  where  first  he  got  the  town  called 
( I  mis,  bring  but  slenderly  kept  with  a  small  garrison,  by  reason  whereof 
tin  townsmen  and  soldiers,  yielding  themselves  unto  the  Turks,  were 
cod  trained  to  agree  upon  unreasonable  conditions.1 

M'Miior  Soitcrus,  in  his  second  book,  writing  '  De  bello  Pan- 
nomco,1  touching  the  aforesaid  town  of  Guns  or  Gunzium,  differeth 
herein  something  from  Ramus,  declaring  how  this  Guns,  being  a 
small  town  in  Hungary,  and  having  in  it  but  only  a  hundred  soldiers 

(1)  Ex  Johanne  Ramo, 

THE    HISTORY    OF    THE    TURKS.  63 

(or,  as  Wolfgangus  Drcclislcrus  in  his  Chronicle  reporteth,  at  the  Soiyman. 
most  but  two  hundred  soldiers),  under  the  valiant  captain  Nicholas  Nicholas 
Jurescbitz  defended  themselves  so  manfully  and  wonderfully,  through  ^Itta 
the  notable  power  of  God,  against  the  whole  puissance  of  two  liun-  valiant 
dred  thousand  Turks,  that  they,  notwithstanding  being  distressed  capUin 
with  lack  and  penury  of  purveyance,  and  suddenly  of  the  Turks 
invaded,  yet  with  pure  courage  and  promptness  of  heart  sustained  the 
uttermost  force  and  violence  of  thirteen  assaults  of  that  great  multi- 
tude, for  the  space  of  twenty-five  days  together. 

Although  the  narration  of  the  author  may  seem  to  some  incredible,  Minwu- 
yet  thus  he  writeth,  That  what  time  the  great  ordnance  and  battering  i""pieXof 
pieces  of  the  Turks  were  planted  upon  two  mountains  much  higher  ,he  Lord's 
than  the  town,  whereby  they  within  the  town  were  oppressed  both  Son  and 
before  and  behind,  insomuch  that  eight  ensigns  of  the  Turks  were  {J^e. 
already  within  the  town  ;  yet  by  reason  of  women  and  children,  and 
other  impotent  persons,  who  in  the  middle  of  the  town  were  congre- 
gated in  a  house  together,  such  a  noise  and  clamour  went  up  to 
heaven,  praying  and  crying  to  God  for  help,  that  the  Turks  within 
the  Avails,  supposing  a  new  army  of  fresh  soldiers  to  be  sent  into  the 
town,  for  sudden  fear  voided  the  town,  and  leaped  down  from  the 
walls  again  (which  before  they  had  got),  whom  no  man  either  pur- 
sued or  resisted  ;    for  never  a  soldier  almost  was  left  on  the  walls, 
who  was  not  either  slain  or  else  wounded  with  the  Turks1  ordnance. 
At  that  time,  through  the  Lord's  providence,  it  so  happened,  that  one 
Ibrahim  Bassa,  near  about  the  Turk,  seeing  both  the  town  to  be 
small,  and  the  great  destruction  of  the  Turks  in  the  siege  thereof, 
and  that  the  captain  in  no  case  would  yield,  persuaded  so  the  Turk, 
declaring  how  the  town,  being  so  little,  was  not  worth  the  loss  of  so 
many  men,  in  the  winning  whereof  there  was  no  glory,  and  if  he  were 
repulsed,  great  dishonour  might  follow;  whereby  the  Turk,  being 
persuaded,  did  follow  his  counsel,  which  was  this  :  That  Nicholas,  the 
christian  captain,  being  called  unto  him  under   pledges  and  safe- 
conduct,  should  receive  the  town  as  of  his  hand  and  gift,  with  con-  raiseth 
dition  that  he  should  do  no  violence  to  his  soldiers  left  behind  and  ^^ese 
wounded,  but  should  procure  such  means  as  he  could  for  the  re-curing  Guns, 
of  them.     And  so  he,  raising  his  siege,  departed. 

Another  cause  also,  which  moved  him  so  suddenly  to  raise  his 
siege,  might  be  for  that  he  heard  the  Palatine  not  to  be  far  off  in 
pursuing  after  him  ;  and  therefore,  taking  his  flight  by  the  mountains 
of  the  Noricians,  he  returned  with  much  spoil  of  christian   men's 
goods  unto  Constantinople.1     For  so  it  was  provided  the  same  time 
in  Germany,  after  the  council  of  Augsburg  and  Ratisbone  (at  what 
time  the  controversy  of  religion  between  the  protestants  and  the 
papists  was  deferred  and  set  off  to  the  next  general  council),  that 
Charles  V.,  and  Ferdinand  his  brother,  having  understanding  of  the 
Turk  thus  ranging  in  Hungary,  should  collect  of  the  Germans,  Hun-  The  em_ 
garians,  Spaniards,  and  others,  an  able  army  of  eighty  thousand  foot-  P,eror 
men,  and  thirty  thousand  horsemen,  to  repulse  the  invasions  of  the  and  Fer- 
Turk.     But  Soiyman,  having  intelligence  of  this  preparation  of  the  J^n'to 
christian  power  coming  toward  him,  whether  for  fear,  or  whether  to  J^L.. 
espy  further  opportunity  of  time  for  his  more  advantage  and  our  the  Turk. 

(1)  Ex  Mclchiore  Soit.  lib.  li.  de  bello  Paul 

(J4  THE    HISTORY    OF    THE    TURKS. 

sotymau.  detriment,  refused  at  that  time  to  tarry  their  coming ;  and  so,  speeding 

Lis  return  nnto  Constantinople,  retired  with  much  spoil  and  prey  sent 

before  him,  as  is  above  premised:  which  was  a.d.  1532. 
TtoTmk      Not  long  after,  being  the  year  of  our  salvation,  1534,  Solyman, 
^^    intending    two    wars    at    once,    first    sent    Conradine    Barbarossa, 
rfTunS    tlu'  a,nilir:U  °f  n^s  navies>   mto  Africa,  to  war  against  the  king  of 
Tunis ;  whom    then    Barbarossa    also    dispossessed    and    deprived 
of  his  kingdom  :    but  Charles   the  emperor,  the  next  year  follow- 
ing  (a.d.  1535),  restored  the  said  king  again  into  his  kingdom, 
and  delivered  in   the  same  voyage  twenty  thousand  captives  out  of 

The  same  time  the  Turk  also  sent  another  captain  into  Hungary, 
to  Avar  against  Vaivoda,  while  he  himself,  taking  "his  course  to  Persia, 
Tauris  planted  his  siege  against  the  city  Tauris,  which  he  in  short  space 
thrlj'i!/k  subdued  and  expugned.  Albeit  he  long  enjoyed  not  the  same ;  for 
Twenty  Tuliaincs  king  of  the  Persians,  suddenly  coming  upon  the  Turks  un- 
orthemd  prepared,  slew  of  them  twenty  thousand,  and  took  his  concubines,  to 
siain.       tjie  great  f0il  and  reproach  of  the  Turk. 

cmeyra        Two  years  after  this,  which  was  a.  d.  1537,  Solyman,  who  could 
Md*8*     no^  De  (lluet  a*  home,  nor  rest  in  peace,  returning  again  out  of  Asia 
•polled,     into  Europe  with  two  hundred  and  seventy  ships,  great  and  little,  set 
upon  Corcyra,  another  island  belonging  to  the  Venetians,  which  he 
besieged  ten  days,  wasting  and  burning  the  towns  and  fields  as  he 
unit,  beside  the  destruction  of  much  people  therein,  whom  partly  he 
z.u-in-      slew,  partly  he  led  away  captives.    From  thence  he  sailed  to  Zacyn- 
cythaw.d  thus,  and  to  Cythara,  another  island  not  far  from  Corcyra,  bordering 
•polled.    near  t0  t,]ie  coasts  0f  Epyrus  and  Greece,  where  he,  suddenly  by  night 
invading  the  husbandmen  in  villages  and  fields,  sleeping  and  mis- 
trusting no  harm,  drew  them  out  of  their  houses  and  possessions, 
faptivcf   men  and  women,  besides  children,  to  the  number  of  nine  hundred, 
chile-      whom  he  made  his  bondslaves  ;  burning  moreover  their  houses,  and 
tiau.       earning  away  all  the  goods  and  cattle  being  without  the  said  city  of 

Xacvnthus  and  Cythara.1  be-  From  thence  these  hellhounds  turned  their  course  to  the  siege  and 
SnrtT6  sPoil  of  Egina,  a  rich  and  populous  island,  lying  between  Greece  and 
i"llkl'e  Asia'  w,iere  first  tne  Eginians  did  manfully  in  battle  resist  them,  and 
were  like  to  have  prevailed ;  but  being  wearied  at  length,  and  op- 
pressed with  innumerable  thousands  of  fresh  Turks,  who  still  were 
sent  in,  to  rescue  the  others  who  were  overcome  before,  they  were 
compelled  to  fly  into  the  city  of  Egina.  That  city  the  cruel  Turks 
(oi  rather  devils  on  earth),  with  much  labour,  and  violence  of  their 
jivat  ordnance  fetched  out  of  their  ships,  subdued  and  cast  down  to 
the  ground  ;  the  citizens  and  inhabitants  whereof,  the  Turk,  after  he 
had  burned  their  houses,  and  ransacked  their  goods,  commanded  to 
be  dun  and  killed  every  one.  The  women,  both  noble  and  unnoble, 
wKli  their  infants,  were  given  to  the  mariners  to  be  abused,  and  from 
thence  being  shipped  unto  Constantinople,  were  led  away  to  perpe- 
tual misery  and  slavery  ;  which  was  a.d.  1537. 

111  the  same  journey  Solyman  also  took  the  isle  in  the  said  sea  of 

'nut",'      x1''*-r""n-  ,al1"1   Paros;  also  the  isle  adjoining  to  the  same,  named 

\  ma,  and  made  them  to  him  tributaries;  the  duke  whereof  was  he 

(1)  Ex  Johan.  C'rispo. 

THE    HISTORY    OK    THE    TURKS.  (',', 

who  wrote  the  story  both  of  these  islands  aforesaid,  and  also  of  the  Soigman. 
other  islands,  called  Cyclades ;  and  other  dukes.1 

This  done,  Solyman  directed  his  navy  unto  Apulia,  where  he  set 
on  land  ten  thousand  footmen,  and  two  thousand  horsemen,  who 
spoiled,  likewise,  and  wasted  those  parts,  while  the  emperor,  the  pope, 
and  the  Venetians,  were  together  in  war  and  dissension.2  Further- 
more, the  next  year  following  (a.d.  1538),  great  attempts  began  in 
Stiria ;  but,  by  the  resistance  of  the  inhabitants,  the  force  of  the 
barbarous  Turks  was  repulsed,  notwithstanding  great  spoils  of  men 
and  cattle  were  carried  from  thence,  and  the  country  miserably  spoiled. 
In  that  year  also,  the  Turk,  turning  into  Hungary,  gave  battle  unto 
the  Christians  in  Savia  ;  where,  through  the  fraudulent  falsehood  of  the 
captain  Cassianerus  (Wolfgangus  nameth  him  Calcianus),  being  (as 
they  say)  corrupted  with  money,  our  men  were  put  to  the  worse, 
a.d.  1538. 

After  the  Turks  had  invaded  the  island  of  Corcyra  abovesaid,  the  False- 
Venetians,  with  Solyman  the  Turk,  had  joined  truce  for  a  certain  ^° %°Jlk 
time,  for  which  they  gave  the  Turk  three  hundred  thousand  crowns,  with  thi; 
with  the  city  of  Neapolis,  and  Maluasia,  in  the  borders  of  Mace-  tfent 
donia.      But  within  four  or  five  years,   the  Turk,   to  get  a  new 
stipend  of  the  Venetians,  brake  his  league,  and  invaded  their  domi- 
nions, whereby  they  were  enforced  to  enter  new  conditions  again 
with  him. 

In  the  year  of  our  Lord  1540,  the  restless  Turk,  making  his  return  Novum 
toward  Hungary,  by  the  way  passing  by  Dalmatia,  lay  against  the  SS^et. 
town  called  Novum  Castellum,  being  defended  by  the  Spaniards;  in  thrown  by 
which  town,  because  they  refused  to  yield  themselves,  all  the  inha-  theTurk- 
bitants  and  soldiers  were  put  to  the  sword,  and  slain  every  one.    This 
Novum  Castellum,  or  New  Castle,  was  a  strong  fort  of  the  Christians, 
which  being  now  in  the  Turk's  power,  he  had  great  advantage  over 
all  those  quarters  of  Dalmatia,  Stiria,  Carinthia,  and  Hungary.     From 
thence  he  proceeded  further,  keeping  his  course  into  Hungary,  where 
he  planted  his  power  against  the  city  of  Buda.     This  Buda  was  a 
principal  city  in  Hungary,  about  which  great  contention  had  been  (as  conten- 
ye  have  heard  before)  between  Johannes  Vaivoda  and  Ferdinand ;  by  Hungary 
reason  whereof  the  Turk,  occasioned  by  Vaivoda,  came  into  Hungary,  between 
and  delivered  the  city  to  Vaivoda.     This  Vaivoda,  living  not  long  nand  and 
after,  left  behind  him  a  son,  whom,  being  an  infant,  he  committed  to  JnThw* 
the  government  of  one  Georgius  Monachus,  who,  being  left  tutor  suc 
unto  the  infant,  reduced  all  Transylvania,    Buda,  Pest,  with  other 
parts  of  Hungary,  which  belonged  to  Vaivoda  before,  to  the  subjec- 
tion of  the  child.     Ferdinand,  hearing  thereof,  in  a  great  haste  and 
anger  levied  an  army  to  recover  his  lands  in  Hungary,  and  bo  laid 
siege  to  Buda.     Monachus,  seeing  his  party  weak,  first  sent  his  legate 
to  Ferdinand,  desiring  him  to  talk  and  confer  with  him  upon  matters, 
as  he  pretended,  pertaining  to  the  behoof  of  them  both  :  whereupon, 
both  the  parties  being  agreed,  the  place  and  manner  of  their  conven- 
tion was  appointed,  and  also  the  day  and  time  assigned.     Thur*  the 
parties,  according  to  the  agreement,  conventing  together  wi/.h  their 

(1)  Ex  Johanne  Crispo,  Buce  Xaxi,  £  c. 

(2)  Note  what  hurt  conieth  by  the  dissension  of  christian  priiires. 
(8)  Stiria  is  a  country  or  province  nearly  adjoining  to  Austria. 

vol .  IV.  ., 



soigman.  armies,  withdrawing  a  little  aside,  as  they  were  entered  in  communi- 

comm.i-  cation,  suddenly  among  Ferdinand's  men  happened  a  dag  to  be  heard, 

"j*rthm    which,  by  the  heat  of  the  day,  as  is  thought,  loosing  of  its  own  accord, 

Mo..a-     gave  a  crack ;  the  sound  whereof  coming  to  the  ears  of  Monachus, 

Fherdi-"d  he,  supposing  the  same  to  have  been  discharged  against  him,  in  great 

what      anger  drew  out  his  sword,  bidding  Ferdinand  avaunt  with  his  doubling 

tiunuiay  dissimulation,  saying,  that  he  would  never  anymore  trust  the  pro- 

raTsus-  mises  of  Christians.     And  immediately  upon  the  same,  he  sent  to 

pidon.     ^u]vllian  ti,e  Turk  for  aid  against  the  Christians,  promising  that  he 

would  surrender  to  him  free  possession  of  Hungary,  if  he  would  come 

The  Turk  and  vanquish  the  army  of  Ferdinand  lying  about  the  siege  of  Buda. 

a'ain  into  T11C  Turk  maketli  no  long  tarrying,  but  taketh  the  occasion,  and 

liun-ary.  vvit],  a  mighty  power  flieth  into  Hungary,  and  eftsoons  discharging 

the  host  of  Ferdinand,  and  putting  them  off  from  the  siege  of  Buda, 

getteth  the  city  into  his  own  hands,  commanding  the  son  of  Vaivoda, 

with  his  mother,  to  follow  after  his  camp. 

In  the  history  of  Johannes  Ramus  it  followeth,  that  when  Sol yman 
the  Turk  had  thus  prevailed  against  the  city  of  Buda  aforesaid,  and 
against  other  parts  besides  of  Hungary,  by  the  assent  of  the  empire, 
one  Joachim,  duke  of  Brandenburg,  prince  elector,  was  assigned  with 
a  puissant  army  of  chosen  soldiers  of  all  nations  collected,  to  recover 
the  city  of  Buda  from  the  Turk,  and  to  deliver  the  other  parts  of 
cowardly  Christendom  from  the  fear  of  the  Turk  [a.d.  1542]  ;  which  Joachim, 


at  his  first  setting  forth,  appeared  so  courageous  and  valiant,  as  though 

Branu'cn-  ^1C  M'ou^  nave  conquered  the  whole  world.     But  this  great  heat  was 

I'urg,       so  slacked  in  short  time  by  the  Turk,  that  before  any  great  jeopardy 

the  Turk,  was  offered  unto  him,  he  was  glad  to  be  discharged  of  the  viage,  and 

with  shame  enough  returned  home  again.     And  would  God  he  had 

left  behind  him  in  the  fields  no  more  but  his  own  shame  !  for  the 

enemies  having  intelligence  before  of  his  cowardly  departure,  thinking 

to  work  some  point  of  mastery  or  victory  before  his  going,  did  set 

upon  the  right  wing  of  his  army  (which  chiefly  consisted  of  Dutch- 

a  num-    men  of  Low  Germany),  out  of  which  they  took  away  with  them  above 

christian  five  hundred  strong  and  valiant  soldiers,  not  killing  them,  but  carrying 

them  away  alive  :  for  whom  it  had  been  much  better  to  have  stood 

theJurks.  to  their  weapon,  and  to  have  died  manfully  upon  the  Turks,  than  by 

yielding  themselves,  to  be  disgarnished  of  weapon  and  armour,  and  so 

to  be  left  to  the  cursed  courtesy  of  the  foul  Turks.     To  whom  what 

courtesy  was  showed,  by  the  sequel  did  appear.    For,  after  the  Turks 

Dunlth*   ^  'ct*  ^lcm  out  °^  Hungary  into  their  own  dominions,  after  a  most 

horrible  and  beastly  sort  they  disfigured  and  mangled  them  ;  and  so 

111.  tits 

victory.  Their  kind  of  punishment  was  thus:  first,  they  had  their 
right  arm  thrust  through  with  an  iron  red  hot,  whereby  they  should 
be  unable  and  unmeet  to  all  labour  and  warfare :  secondly,  their 
heads  vera  shaven  to  the  very  sculls,  after  the  manner  of  our  friars 
and  monks,  when  they  are  newly  shaven  :  thirdly,  they  were  all  most 
dreadfully  mutilated;  which  wound  was  so  grievous  unto  them,  that 
'lest  part  of  them  died  thereupon  :  the  lew  that  recovered  the 
tormenl  thereof,  led  a  life  more  bitter  and  more  miserable  than  death 
itself.  Ami  tins  kind  of  cruelty  was  executed  in  order  upon  them  all. 
In  much  like  sort  did  cruel  Pharaoh  exercise  his  tyranny  against  the 



people  of  God  in  Egypt ;  who,  to  destroy  the  generation  of  them,  sohjman. 
caused  all  the  male  children  to  be  drowned  in  the  river.  Whereby 
it  is  the  more  to  be  hoped,  that  seeing  the  tyranny  of  this  Turkish  Pha- 
raoh is  come  to  such  an  extremity,  the  merciful  goodness  of  God  will 
the  more  shortly  send  some  Moses  or  other,  unto  us,  for  our  speedy 
deliverance.  This  was  by  the  cruel  Turks  done,  a.d.  1542,  wit- 
nessed by  Johannes  Ramus,  who  not  only  writeth  the  story,  but  by 
the  testimony  also  of  his  own  eyes  recordcth  the  same  to  be  true, 
beholding  with  his  eyes  one  of  the  same  number  in  the  city  of  Vienna, 
who,  having  wife  and  children  in  Brussels,  either  for  shame  or  sorrow, 
had  no  mind  to  return  home  to  his  own  house.1 

But  to  return  again  to  the  city  of  Buda,  from  whence  we  have  Falseness 
digressed ;  "here  is  not  to  be  pretermitted  what  falsehood  and  what  iJah  in 
cruelty  the  Turks  used  toward  the  Christians  there  after  their  victory.  j^"_g 
For,  after  that  Solyman  the  Turk,  upon  the  yielding  and  submission  of  miwwith 
the  men  of  Buda,  had  given  to  them  his  promise  of  safety  and  life,  tians. 
within  a  short  time  the  said  Turk,  picking  a  quarrel  with  them  for 
selling  oxen  unto  the  Christians,  and  for  bargaining  with  them,  slew 
all  the  magistrates  of  the  said  city  of  Buda  :  like  as  in  all  other  cities, 
wheresoever  the  Christians  yielded  unto  him,  he  never,  or  very  rarely, 
kept  his  promise  with  them,  neither  did  ever  any  Christians  speed 
better  with  the  Turk,  than  they  who  most  constantly  did  resist  him. 

And  as  his  promise  with  the  magistrates  of  Buda  was  false  and  Horrible 
wretched,  so  his  cruelty  with  the  soldiers  thereof,  was  much  more  "  the  e 
notorious  and  abominable.    For  in  the  expugnation  of  Buda,  amongst  of"6,1,1/' 
the  rest  who  were  slain,  two  cohorts  or  bands  of  christian  soldiers  Turks. 
came  alive  to  his  hands.     To  whom,  when  he  seemed  at  the  first  to 
grant  pardon  of  life,  he  commanded  to  put  on  their  armour  again,  and 
to  dispose  themselves  in  order  and  battle  array,  after  the  warlike 
manner  of  the  Christians  ;  which  when  they  had  accomplished  readily, 
according  to  his  commandment,   and  he,  riding  about  the  ranks  of 
them,  had  diligently  viewed  and  beholden  them  a  certain  space,  at 
length  he  commanded  them  to  put  off  their  armour  again.     This 
done,  certain  of  the  tallest  and  strongest  of  them  he  picked  out ;  the 
residue   he  commanded,  by  his  soldiers  coming  behind  them  with 
swords,  to  be  cut  in  pieces  and  slain.     Of  the  others,  whom  he  had 
elected  and  chosen,  some  he  set  for  marks  and  butts  to  be  shot  at ; 
some  he  appointed  to  his  two  sons,  for  them  to  slash  with  their  swords 
and  try  their  strength,  which  of  them  could  give  the  deeper  wound, 
and  (as  they  termed  it)  the  fairer  blow,  whereby  the  most  blood  might 
follow  out  of  their  christian  bodies.2 

After  the  winning  of  Buda,  the  Turk,  purposing  not  so  to  cease 
before  he  had  subdued  and  brought  under  his  obedience  all  Hungary; 
proceeding  further  with  his  army,  first,  brought  under  a  strong  hold 
of  the  Christians,  named  Pestum  or  Pest,  where  a  great  number  of 
christian  soldiers  partly  were  slain,  partly  were  led  away  to  more  cruel 

Then  he  came  to  another  castle  called  Walpo,  situate  in  the  con-  Thcoas- 
fines  of  Bosnia,  Croatia,  and  Hungary,  which  fort  or  castle  he  be-  Po  %ou; ' 
sieged  three  months,  while  no  rescue  or  aid  was  sent  unto  them, 

tl)  Ex  Johanne  Ramo  de  Rebus  Turcicis,  lib.  ii. 

(2)  Ex  Epist.  Mart.  Stcll.t  Ue  Succcssibus  Turcarum,  &-c. 

63  THE    HISTORY    OK    THE    TURKS. 

soiymnn.  neither  from  Ferdinand  king  of  Hungary,  nor  from  any  other  chris- 

tian  prince  or  princes  :   whereupon,  at  length,  the  fort  was  given  up 

to  the  Turk,  but  more  through  the  false  treachery,  or  cowardly  heart 
a  notaUe  0f  the  soldiers,  than  of  the  captain.     Wherein  is  to  be  noted  an  ex- 
" Go^f"  ample  not  unworthy  of  memory  ;  for  when  the  cowardly  soldiers, 
menti      cither  for  fear  or  flattery,  would  needs  surrender  themselves  and  the 
UgbHng    p]ace  unto  the  Turk,  contrary  to  the  mind  of  the  captain,  who  in  no 
i  case  would  agree  to  their  yielding,  they,  thinking  to  find  favour  with 
hUahood  the  Turk,  apprehended  their  captain  and  gave  him  to  Solyman.    But 
toward     see  ]10W  the  justice  of  God,  sometimes  by  the  hand  of  the  enemy, 
cent       disposcth  the  end  of  things  to  the  rewarding  of  virtue  and  punishing 
of  vice.     For  where  they  thought  to  save  themselves  by  the  danger 
of  the  faithful  captain,  the  event  turned  clean  contrary  ;  so  that  the 
Turk  was  to  the  captain  bountiful  and  very  liberal,  and  the  soldiers, 
notwithstanding  that  they  had  all  yielded  themselves,  yet  were  all  put 
to  death,  and  commanded  piteously  to  be  slain.1 
me  city        There  is  in  Hungary  another  town,  bearing  the  name  of  the  Five 
cinches0  Churches,    called    Quinque  Ecclesise,   which   being    partly   spoiled 
gelded  to  before,  as  is  above-mentioned,  but  now,  through  the  loss  of  Walpo, 
Turks,     and  by  the  hugeness  of  the  Turk's  army  (containing  in  it  two  hun- 
The        dred  and  twenty  thousand  fighting  men)  so  discouraged,  and  put  out 
bi^op      of  hope  and  heart,  that  the  bishop  and  chief  nobles  of  the  town,  fled 
his  nock   before  the  jeopardy  :  the  rest  of  the  commons,  who  were  partly  pre- 
biiers.      vented  by  the  sudden  coming  of  the  Turks,  partly  for  poverty,  could 
not  avoid,  sent  their  messengers  to  the  Turk,  to  yield  and  surrender 
the  town,  upon  promise  of  life,  into  his  hands  ;  whose  promise  how  firm 
it  stood,  the  story  leaveth  it  uncertain.     This  is  affirmed,  that  three 
days  after  the  yielding  of  this  Quinque  Ecclesise,  never  a  Turk  durst 
enter  the  city.  a.  d.  1543.2 
sociosia,       The  next  fort  or  hold  gotten  by  the  Turks  in  Hungary,  was  So- 
Hnngary,  elosia.     The  town,  at  the  first  invasion  of  the  Turks,  was  won,  sacked, 
subdued.  ami  fjre(j#     rpne  cast]e  wjthin  the  town  did  something  hold  out. for  a 
time;  and  first  requiring  truce  for  fourteen  days,  to  see   what   aid 
should  be  sent  unto  them  ;  and  to  deliberate  upon  the  conditions  that 
should  be  proposed  unto  them,  after  the  fourteen  days  expired,  they, 
trusting  to  the  situation  and  munition  of  the  place,  which  was  very 
strong,  began,  for  a  certain  space,  stoutly  to  put  back  the  enemy. 
But  afterwards,  seeing  their  walls  to  be  battered,  their  foundations  to 
VJltX    snake_  (for  the  Turk  had  set  twelve   thousand   underminers  under 
the  ditches  of  the  castle),  and  their  strength  to  diminish,  and  mis- 
.'  doubting  themselves  not  to  be  able  long  to  hold  out,  agreed  in  like 
manner  to  yield  themselves,  upon  condition  to  escape  with  life  and 
goods  :   which  condition  of  saving  their  goods  was  the  losing  of  their 
fives,  especially  of  the  richer  sort;  for  the  Turks  perceiving  by  that 
Tbt        condition  that  they  were  of  wealth  and  substance,  omitting  the  inferior 
[,'.','*  ,i,    "r  1,:iMT  s,>rti  ,("  "l""1  the  wealthy  men  for  their  riches,  and   slew 
them  every  one.     a.d.  1548.8     In  the  which  his  history,  this  is  also 
to  Denoted,  that  during  the  time  the  castle  of  Sociosia  was  besieged, 
ill''  nUages  and  pages  round  about  the  same,  came  of  their  own  ac- 
cord, submitting  and  yielding  themselves  unto  the  Turk,  bringing  in, 
fel  thej  were  commanded,  all   kind  of  victual  and  forage  into  the 

Hartino  Stella  de  rurcarum  in  Hungaria  sm-ecssibus,  &c. 

THE    HISTOliY    OF    THE    TURKS.  \}\f 

Turk's  camp  :   which  done,  Solyman  the   Turk  commanded  all  the  Soiyman. 
headmen  of  the  pages  to  appear  before  him,  who  humbly  obeyed  and  Kxaniple 
came.     Then  the  Turk  warned  them  to  return  again  the  next  day  £jjj£th 
after,  every  one  bringing  with  him  his  inferior  retinue  and  household  i>y  Cbris- 
servants  ;  which  when  they  had  with  like  diligence  also,  according  to  his  ,',','!',',  s 
commandment,  accomplished,  the  Turk  immediately  commanded  them  ^e^.ng 
every  one,  in  the  face  of  his  whole  army  to  be  slain  :  and  so  was  this  Turk, 
their  reward  :   which  reward,  the  more  it  deelareth  the  bloody  cruelty 
of  the  Turk,  the  more  encouragement  it  may  minister  to  our  men  the 
more  constantly  to  withstand  him.1 

Another  strong  town  there  is  in  Hungary,  named  Stricgau,  distant  stri^o- 
from  Buda  abovesaid  the  space  of  five  Dutch  miles,  against  which  the  atrfega" 
Turks  made  great  preparation  of  ordnance,  and  all  other  instruments  J^t';,f d 
of  artillery  necessary  for  the  siege  thereof;  which  city,  in  like  man-  Turk. 
ner,  began  also  to  be  compassed  and  inclosed  by  the  Turks,  before  it 
could  be  sufficiently  prepared  and  garnished  by  our  men,  but  only  that 
the  archbishop  of  Striegau  privily  conveyed  unto  them  two  hundred 
oxen  ;  such  was  then  the  negligence  of  Ferdinand,  king  of  Hungary, 
who  so  slenderly  looked  unto  the  necessary  defence  of  his  towns  and 
cities.     Moreover,  such  was  the  discord  then  of  christian  kings  and  Negii- 
princes,  who  in  their  civil  dissension  and  wars  were  so  occupied  and  christian 
hot  in  needless  quarrels,  that  they  had  neither  leisure  nor  remem-  gi£8  in 
brance  to  help  in  time,  there,  where  true  need  required  :  which  slender  defence. 
care  and  cold  zeal  of  the  christian  rulers,  in  not  tendering  the  public 
cause,  while  they  contended  in  private  trifles,  hath  caused  the  Turk 
to  come  so  far  as  he  hath  ;  and  yet  further  is  like,  unless  the  mercy 
of  the  Lord  do  help,  more  than  our  diligence.     One  of  the  chief  cap- 
tains within  the  city  was  Martin  us  Lascanus,  a  Spaniard. 

The  Turks,  in  the  beginning  of  the  siege,  began  first  to  tempt 
the  citizens,  with  fair  words  and  accustomed  promises,  to  yield  and 
gently  to  submit  themselves;  but  they,  not  ignorant  of  the  Turk's 
promises,  wisely  refused,  and  manfully  stood  so  long  asthey  could  to  the 
defence  of  their  city  ;  now  and  then  skirmishing  with  them  in  out-cor- 
ners, and  killing  certain  numbers  of  them  ;  sometimes  with  their  shot 
disturbing  their  munitions,  and  breaking  the  wheels  of  their  guns,  &c. 

Three  special  means  the  Turks  use  in  winning  great  forts  and  Three 

..  r,  , .  i  1  •  special 

cities  :  great  multitude  of  soldiers  ;  great  ordnance  and  mortar  pieces  ;  helps  or 
the  third  is  by  undermining  :  all  which  here,  in  the  siege  of  this  city, theTurks- 
lacked  not.     This  siege  continued  vehement  a   certain    space;  in 
which  the  Striegaunians  had  borne  out  four  strong  assaults,  and  slain 
many  thousands  of  the  Turks ;  till  at  length  the  Turks  either  depart- 
ing away,  or  else  seeming  to  depart  unto  Buda,  the  people  at  last 
being  so  persuaded  and  made  to  believe  of  some  chief  rulers  of  the 
city  (peradventure  not  the  truest  men),  the  citizens,  being  erected 
with  hope  and  comfort,  and  singing  Te  Deum,  as  though  the  city  had 
been  free  from  all  danger,  suddenly  (by  whose  counsel  it  is  unknown) 
conveyed  themselves  all  out  of  the  city  :   three  hundred  horsemen  ^^* 
also  passed  over  the  river  and  departed.     The  Italians,  who  were  Btrtegra 
under  Franciscus  Salamanca,  a  Spanish  captain,  hardly  could  be  per-  dty  'c 
suaderl  by  him  to  abide,  who  were  in  all  scarce  six  hundred. 

Within  three  days  after,  three  hundred  German  soldiers,  with  two 

(I)  Ex  Martino  Stella. 

-,,  THE    HISTORY    OF    THE    TURKS. 

soiyman.  bUds  laden  witli  shot,  powder,  and  artillery,  were  privily  let  into  the 

—  town,  so  that  of  our  men  in  all  there  were  scarce  one  thousand  three 

dMuS^"  hundred  soldiers;  who,  seeing  the  small  quantity  of  their  number, 

ed'  burning  and  casting  down  the  town  and  suburbs,  took  them  to  the 

castle;  from  whence  they  beat  off  the  Turks  valiantly  with  their 

ordnance  a  good  space,  and  with  wildfire  destroyed  great  companies 

of  them,  till  at  last,  seeing  their  walls  to  fail  them,  and  the  whole 

castle  to  shake  by  undermining,  but  especially  by  the  working  of  a 

certain  Italian  surnamed  Presbyter,  they  gave  over.     This  Italian, 

whether  for  fear  or  falsehood,  secretly,  unknown  to  the  rest  of  the 

soldiers,  accompanied  by  two  others,  conveyed  himself  down  from  the 

walls,  and  being  brought  into  the  tents  of  the  next  captain  or  bassa 

of  the  Turks,  there,  in  the  name  of  all  his  fellows,  con  vented  with  the 

An  u.v    Turks,  to  give  up  to  them  the  castle  :  whereupon  the  Turks  were  bid 

tayteM-   t0  cease  tne  shooting.     This  Italian,  shortly  after,  with  two  other 

i»f-;  »ie     Turks,  was  sent  back  to  Salamanca,  his  captain,  with  the  Turk's  mes- 

striegau   sage.     The  going  out  of  this  Italian  being  privy  to  the  residue  of  his 

Turk0      fellows,  contrary  to  the  laws  and  discipline  of  Avar,  although  it  seemed 

to  come  of  his  own  head,  yet,  forasmuch  as  the  other  soldiers  were  not 

sure,  but  rather  suspected  lest  the  other  Italians,  his  countrymen, 

had  been  in  some  part  of  consent  therein,  and  would  take  his  part, 

they  neither  durst  offer  him  any  harm  for  that  his  doing,  nor  yet 

could  well  advise  with  themselves  what  was  best  to  do,  for  fear  of 

privy  confederacy,  within  themselves. 

a  Turk-       Thus,  while  Lascanus  the  chief  captain  of  the  Christians  aforesaid, 

taken""  *&h  his  fellow-soldiers,  were  in  a  maze  what  to  do,  or  not  to  do ;  in 

ciids-'10  the  mean  time  came  one  running,  who  giving  a  sign  both  to  the  Chris- 

tiani,       tians  and  the  Turks  to  hold  their  hands  and  weapons,  for  that  it  was 

knowing  against  all  law  of  war  to  fight  after  peace  and  truce  taken,  our  men, 

thea-of.    as  t]iey  were  commanded,  went  into  the  inward  tower.     The  Turks, 

in  the  mean  time,  had  got  into  the  castle,  and  occupied  all  the  outer 

parts.     Then  was  Salamanca,  by  the  consent  of  the  rest,  sent  out  to 

the  Turk,  who,  being  stayed  there  that  night,  the  next  morrow  the 

Turk's  bull  or  warrant  Avas  sent  into  the  castle,  permitting  free  liberty 

The  false  to  the  Christians  to  depart  with  bag  and  baggage ;  who  now  being 

ve'/trao0*  ready  to  depart,  first  were  commanded  by  the  Turks,  compassing  them 

JJj.P[°-     round  about,  to  cast  from  them  their  dags,  lances,  and  battleaxes,  into 

the  trench.    Then  coming  to  the  gate  to  go  out,  their  swords  were  taken 

from  them,  looking  then  for  nothing  but  present  death. 

At  last,  when  they  were  come  a  little  further,  others  were  sent  to 
them  to  discharge  them  of  their  helmets,  their  targets,  cuirasses,  and 
Miserable  whatsoever  piece  of  harness  was  about  them  :  whereupon  great  fear 
"  came  upon  them,  lest  some  great  cruelty  should  be  showed  upon  them. 
1  Bolyman,  after  he  had  long  deliberated  with   himself,  whether  to  kill 
them  or  not,  at  last,  contrary  to  all  expectation,  granted  their  lives  : 
but,  before  they  should  be  dismissed,  he  first  caused  them,  in  derision 
•'I  ( 'liristiauity,  to  be  baited  with  scorns  and  mocks  throughout  all  the 
'I  urkish  army;  and  so  the  next  day  commanded  them,  being  stript 
"ut  ot  then-  coats  and  apparel,  to  be  reduced  again  into  the  castle  by 
companies,  setting  over  them  certain  Turks  with  cudgels  and  bats  to 
,:|.V  "I""1  1,l(ir  backs  and  sides,  causing  them  to  bury  the  dead  car- 
et! et,  and  to  gather  up  the  rubbish  broken  down  from  the  castle-walls, 

THE    HISTORY    OF    THK    TIKKS.  71 

nnd  to  scour  the  ditches.  This  done,  the  next  day  following  lie  de-  Soiyman. 
inanded  of  them,  by  an  interpreter,  whether  they  would  enter  wages  Holy  soi- 
with  him,  and  take  horse  and  armour  to  serve  him  in  his  wars  ;  which  |j|£tj«d 
condition,  divers  for  fear  were  contented  to  take,  seeing  no  other  ffii\ 
remedy  to  avoid  present  death.  Sonic,  neither  bv  menacing  words,  for  their 
nor  for  any  fear  of  death,  could  be  compelled  thereunto  ;  of  whom  [Idigkra, 
certain,  who  stood  stoutly  in  refusing  thereof,  were  presently 
slain,  whom  I  may  worthily  recite  in  the  number  and  catalogue  of 
holy  martyrs. 

Of  the  aforesaid  Christians,  part  were  carried  over  the  river  Danube, 
not  without  great  villany,  and  contumely  most  despiteful.  For  some 
had  their  wives  taken  from  them,  and  earned  away;  some  had  their  wives 
abused  before  their  face ;  and  such  as  made  or  showed  any  resistance 
thereat,  had  their  wives  before  them  cast  into  the  river  and  drowned  ; 
also  their  infants  and  young  children,  being  appointed  by  the  Turks 
to  the  abominable  order  of  the  Janizaries,  mentioned  before,  their 
parents,  not  consenting  thereunto,  were  precipitated  and  thrown  into 
the  river,  and  drowned.  All  these  things  are  testified  by  John 
Martin  Stella,  in  his  epistles  in  print  extant,  written  to  his  two 
brethren,  William  and  Michael ;  which  Martin  Stella,  moreover, 
addeth  and  affirmeth  this :  that  he  himself,  being  the  same  time  at 
Vienna,  did  see  one  of  the  aforesaid  wives,  who,  being  held  fast  by 
the  hair  of  the  head,  yet  notwithstanding,  having  her  hair  plucked 
off,  cast  herself  into  the  river  Danube,  for  the  singular  love  to  her 
husband,  and  so  swam  to  the  ship  where  he  was.  And  thus  this  mi- 
serable company  of  Germans,  Spaniards,  and  Italians  mixed  together, 
macerated  with  labours,  with  hunger  pined,  with  watchings,  dolors, 
and  sorrow  consumed,  came  at  length  to  Schinda. 

When  the  tidings  thereof  were  noised  at  Vienna,  partly  with  fear  Divers 
and  dread,  partly  Avith  indignation,  all  men's  hearts  were  moved  and  °J? "™ua 
vexed  diversely.     Some  thought  them  not  worthy  to  be  received  into  J^nni" 
their  city,  showing  themselves  so  dastardly  and  cowardly.     Others  touching 
thought  again,  that  mercy  was  to  be  showed  unto  them,  and  com-  Jrabi"" 
mended  their  fact,  for  that  they,  being  so  few,  and  unfurnished  with  aid,  "0^-e^ 
neither  able  to  match  by  any  means  with  such  an  innumerable  multi- 
tude of  the  Turks,  kept  themselves  till  better  time  might  serve  them. 
But  howsoever  the  matter  was  to  be  thought  of,  the  captains  brought 
the  poor  remnant  of  that  rueful  company  unto  Possidonium,  where 
the  said  captains  were  laid  fast,  and  there  kept  in  durance,  to  render 
account  of  the  whole  matter,  how  it  was  wrought  and  handled.     And 
thus  have  ye  the  lamentable  story  of  Striegau. 

The  Turk  proceeding  in  his  victories,  conducted  his  army  next  unto  Tata  sub- 
Tata,  and  to  the  parts  lying  near  about  Comaron.     This  Tata  was  u^d  ''y 
also  a  stronghold  in  Hungary,  wherein  were  placed  certain  garrisons,  Turks- 
partly  of  the  Germans,  partly  of  the  Italians.     The  chieftain  of  the 
Italians  was  one  Annibal  Tasso,  constituted  by  Philippus  Tornelius.  victory 
This  Tasso  was  a  man  well  expert  in  prowess  of  war,  but  of  a  filthy  ha,hs"e" 
corrupt  life,  and  also  a  foul  swearer,  and  horrible  blasphemer  of  God  cess  uu- 
and  his  saints.    To  make  the  story  short,  this  fort  of  Tata,  before  any  wicked 
siege  was  laid  unto  it,  was  yielded  and  given  up  to  the  Turks ;  upon  a^,,a'"' 
what  conditions,  or  by  whose  means,  the  author  showeth  not.    Tims  iwoawr. 
much  he  showeth,  that  the  said  Annibal,   shortly  upon   the   same, 



device  in 



yj  thk  history  of  the  turks. 

st^man.  returning  into  Italy,  was  commanded  by  Tornelius  aforesaid,  U)  be 

apprehended  and  beheaded. 
Aiba  Re-       After  the  Turks  had  subverted  and  destroyed  the  fort  of  Tata,  they 
SegedL*   turned  tlieir  power  against  Alba,  surnamed  Regalis,  for  that  the  kings 
of  Hungary  have  been  always  wont  there  to  be  crowned  and  buried. 
This  Alba  is  a  little  well-compacted  city  in  Hungary,  having  on  the 
one  side  a  marsh  somewhat  foggish  or  fenny,  which  made  the  town  less 
assaultable.    But,  near  to  the  same  was  a  wood,  from  which  the  Turks 
every  day,  with  six  hundred  carts,  brought  such  matter  of  wood,  and 
">'  trees,  felled  for  the  purpose,  into  the  marsh,  that,  within  less  than 
w'arsh.     twelve  davs,  they  made  it  apt  and  hard  to  their  feet ;  which  the  towns- 
men thought  never  could  be  gone  upon,  but  only  in  the  hard  frosts 
strata-     of  winter.     At  the  first  beginning  of  the  siege,  there  stood,  a  little 
&?< 'ifris-  without  the  munitions,  in  the  front  of  the  city,  a  certain  church  or 
1  ■*»■       monastery,  into  which  the  citizens,  pretending  to  maintain  and  keep 
against  the  Turks,  had  privily  conveyed  light  matter  easily  to  take 
flame,  with  powder  in  secret  places  thereof,  and  had  hid  also  fire 
withal :  which  done,  they  (as  against  their  wills  being  driven  back) 
withdrew  themselves  within  the  munitions,  waiting  the  occasion  when 
this  fire  would  take.     Thus  the  Turks  having  the  possession  of  the 
church,  suddenly  the  fire  coming  to  the  powder,  raised  up  the  church, 
and  made  a  great  scatter  and  slaughter  among  the  barbarous  Turks. 
This  was  not  so  soon  espied  of  them  within  the  town,  but  they  issued 
out  upon  them  in  this  disturbance,  and  slew  of  them  a  gTeat  number. 
Among  whom,   divers  of  their  nobles  also  the  same  time  were  slain, 
and  one  bassa,  a  eunuch,  who  was  of  great  estimation  with  the  Turks. 
a  note     Moreover,  in  the  same  skirmish  was  take  none  of  those  gunners,  which 
touching  ^c  pronc]1  j^g  js  ga^  to  jiave  gent  £0  tjje  Turk  a  little  before : 

Engthat  wmcb  if  it  be  true,  let  the  christian  reader  judge  what  is  to  be  thought 
Sen  was.  of  those  christian  princes,  who,  not  only  forsaking  the  common  cause 
of  Christ's  church,  joined  league  with  the  Turk,  but  also  sent  him 
gunners  to  set  forward  his  wars  to  the  destruction  of  Christ's  people, 
and  to  the  shedding  of  their  blood ;  for  whom  they  know  the  blood 
of  Christ  to  be  shed.  If  this  be  not  true,  I  show  mine  author  ;l  if  it 
be,  then  let  the  pope  see  and  mark  well,  how  this  title  of  '  Christian- 
i-Minus1  can  well  agree  with  such  doings. 

But  to  let  this  matter  sleep,  although  the  Turks,  (as  ye  heard)  had 

won  the  fen,  with  their  policy  and  industry,  against  the  city  of  Alba, 

yet  all  this  while  the  Albanes  were  nothing  inferior  to  their  enemies, 

through  the  valiant  help  and  courageous  endeavour  of  Octavianus 

Scruzatus,  a  captain  of  Milan,  by  whose  prudent  counsel  and  constant 

standing,  the  busy  enterprises  of  the  Turks  did  little  prevail  a  long 

time  ;  till  at  length,  suddenly  arose  a  thick  fog  or  mist  upon  the  city, 

whereas,  round  about  besides,  the  sun  did  shine  bright.     Some  said 

it  came  by  art  magical,  but  rather  it  may  appear  to  rise   out  of  the 

bn  or  marsh,  being  so  pressed  down  withmehs  feet,  and  other  matter 

laid  upon  it. 

Ti.rr.ut-        J  lie  Turks  using  the  occasion  of  this  misty  darkness,  in  secret  wise 

vaiUfot  approaching  the  walls,  had  got  up  to  a  certain  fortress  Avhere  the  Ger- 

Tulki.     nana  "rere,  before  our  men  could  well  perceive  them;  where  they 

pressed  in  bo  thick,   and  in  such  number,  that  albeit  the  christian 

|1)  Ex  Epist.  John.  Marti.  Stella  .id  fratrcs  do  Turear.  in  Hungaria  successlbus. 

swim  as  well  as  they  could  into  the  city,  where  many  of  them,  stick-  dj 

THE    HISTORY    OF    THE    TURKS.  i  O 

soldiers,  standing  strongly  to  the  defence  of  their  lives,  did  what  ^l— ' 
valiant  men  in  cases  of  such  extremity  were  able  to  do ;  yet,  being 
overmatched  by  the  multitude  of  the  Turks,  and  the  suddenness  of 
their  coming,  they  gave  back,  seeking  to  retire  unto  the  inward  walls, 
which  when  their  other  fellows  did  see  to  recule,  then  was  there  flying 
of  all  hands,  every  man  striving  to  get  into  the  city.  There  was 
between  the  outward  walls  or  vaumures,  and  inward  gate  of  the  city, 
a  strait  or  narrow  passage,  cast  up  in  the  manner  of  a  bank  or  cause- 
way, ditched  on  both  sides,  which  passage  or  ingress  happened  at  the 
same  time  to  be  barred  and  stopped  ;  by  reason  whereof  the  poor  Miserable 

to  ' 

tian  sol- 
ing in  the  mud,  were  drowned,  one  pressing  upon  another :  many 
were  slain  of  their  enemies  coming  behind  them,  they  having  neither 
heart  nor  power  to  resist.  A  few,  who  could  swim  out,  were  received 
into  the  city ;  but  the  chief  captains  and  warders  of  the  town  were 
there  slain. 

The  citizens,  being  destitute  of  their  principal  captains  and  war- 
riors, were  in  great  perplexity  and  doubt  among  themselves  what  to 
do,  some  thinking  good  to  yield,  some  counselling  the  contrary. 
Thus,  while  the  minds  of  the  citizens  were  distracted  in  divers  and 
doubtful  sentences,  the  magistrates,  minding  to  stand  to  the  Turk's 
gentleness,1  sent  out  one  of  their  heads  unto  the  Turk,  who,  in  the 
name  of  them  all,  should  surrender  to  him  the  city,  and  become  unto 
him  tributaries,  upon  condition  they  might  enjoy  liberty  of  life  and 
goods.  This  being  to  them  granted,  after  the  Turkish  faith  and  as- 
surance ;  first,  the  soldiers  who  were  left  within  the  city,  putting  ofF 
their  armour,  were  discharged  and  sent  away;  who,  being  but  only  three 
hundred  left  of  four  ensigns  of  Italians,  and  of  one  thousand  Ger- 
mans, by  the  way  were  laid  for  by  the  Tartarians  for  hope  of  their 
spoil ;  so  that  they,  scattering  asunder  one  one  way,  and  another 
another,  to  save  themselves  as  well  as  they  could,  fled  every  one  what 
way  he  thought  best ;  of  whom,  some  wandering  in  wroods  and 
marshes  fainted  for  famine  ;  some  were  taken  and  slain  by  the  Hun- 
garians :  a  few,  with  bare,  empty,  and  withered  bodies,  more  like 
ghosts  than  men,  escaped,  and  came  to  Vienna.  And  this  befell  upon 
the  soldiers. 

Now  understand  what  happened  to  the  yielding  citizens.  So  in  the 
story  it  followeth,  that  when  the  Turk  had  entered  the  town,  and  had 
visited  the  sepulchre  of  the  kings,  for  three  or  four  days  he  pretended 
much  clemency  toward  the  citizens,  as  though  he  came  not  to  oppress 
them,  but  to  be  revenged  of  Ferdinand  their  king,  and  to  deliver 
them  from  the  servitude  of  the  Germans.  On  the  fourth  day,  all  the  what  it  is 
chief  and  head  men  of  the  city  were  commanded  to  appear  before  the  {^j1,^" 

Turk,  in  a  plain  not  far  from  the  city,  where  the  condemned  persons  ■"**? 
i  1111         111  stIck  l0 

before  were  wont  to   be  executed,  as  though  they  should  come  to  his  pro- 
swear  unto  the  Turk.     At  this  commandment  of  the  Turk,  when  the  mise' 
citizens  in  great  number,  and  in  their  best  attire  were  assembled,  the 
Turk,   contrary  to  his  faith  and  promise,  commanded  suddenly  a 
general  slaughter  to  be  made  of  them  all.     And  this  was  the  end  of 
the  citizens  of  Alba. 

(1)  Let  good  Christiana  never  stand  to  the  Turk's  gentleiteu. 

74  THE    HISTORY    OF    THE    TURKS. 

Mpm.  In  tlic  mean  time,  during  the  siege  of  Alba,  the  Hungarians,. 
JIalf  a  meeting  sometimes  with  the  horsemen  of  the  Tartarians,  who  were 
>'ou"p  sent  out  to  stop  their  victuals  from  the  city,  slew  of  them,  at  one 
found  in  bickering,  three  thousand  Turks  :  in  which  story  is  also  reported  and 
ei'of  aCh'  mentioned  of  mine  author,  a  horrible  sight  and  example  of  misery, 
coming  concerning  a  certain  captain  (a  Christian  belike),  who,  coming  unto 
ftomtha  Vienna,  was  found  to  have  in  his  scrip  or  satchel  the  half  of  a  young 
child  of  two  years  old,  which  remained  yet  uneaten,  the  other  half 
being  eaten  before,    a.d.  1543.1 

Next  after  this,  was  expugned  the  castle  of  Papa  by  the  Turks. 

Let  the  castle  of  '  Papa1  now  take  heed,  lest  one  day  it  follow  after  ! 

visegrade      The  like  fidelity  the  Turks  also  kept  with  the  fort  of  Visegrade, 

brthef"1  an(l  tne  s°luiers  thereof.     This  Visegrade  is  situate  in  the  mid-way 

Turks,     between  Buda  and  Striegau  ;    of  which  fort  or  castle,  the  highest 

tower  so  mounteth  upon  the  hill,  that  unless  it  be  for  famine  or  lack 

of  water,  they  have  not  to  dread  any  enemy.    Notwithstanding  so  it 

happened,  that  the  lower  piece  being  won,  they  in  the  higher  tower 

abiding  four  days  without  drink,  were  compelled,  with  liberty  granted 

The  false  of  life  and  goods,  to  yield  themselves.     But  the  devilish  Turks, 

theTuxks  keeping  no  faith  nor  promise,  slew  them  every  one :  only  Petrus 

'thr'ruris  Amandus,  the  captain  of  the  piece,  excepted  ;  who  privily  was  con- 

tians.    '   vcyed  by  the  captain  of  the  Turks,  out  of  the  slaughter,    a.d.  1544. 

Novum         To  these,  moreover,  may  be  added  the  winning  of  Novum  Cas- 

Cumte!n     tellum,  in  Dalmatia,  where  he  slew  all  that  were  within,  both  soldiers 

Datoatia  and  others,  for  that  they  did  not  yield  themselves  in  time.    Thus  the 

theTu'rks.  Turk,  whether  they  yielded  to  him  or  not,  never  spared  the  people 

and  flock  of  Christ. 

As  the  false  and  cruel  Turk  was  thus  raging  in  Hungary,  and 

intended  further  to  rage  without  all  mercy  and  pity  of  the  Christians, 

and  might  easily  then  have  prevailed  and  gone  whither  he  would,  for 

_.  that  Charles  the  emperor,  and  Francis  the  French  kin"1,  were  at  the 

Discord  .  .  l    l  "Y>  ii  i  i     • 

of  elms-  same  tune  in  war  and  hostility,  and  also  other  christian  princes;  as 
priacei.  Henry,  duke  of  Brunswick,  against  John  Frederic,  duke  of  Saxony  ; 
The  pro-  also  princes  and  rulers  were  contending  among  themselves :  behold 
(;','„'] "l,'r"  the  gracious  providence  of  our  Lord  and  God  toward  us,  who,  seeing 
t1ian8.hris" tllc  misery,  and  having  pity  of  his  poor  Christians,  suddenly,  as  with 
wcasTonrk  ?  snan:H  reined  this  raging  beast,  and  brought  him  out  of  Europe 
ed  to  re-  into  his  own  country  again,  by  occasion  of  the  Persians,  who  were 
.Vf  Ku'rope  tnen  in  great  preparation  of  war  against  the  Turks,  and  had  invaded  his 
dominion  ;  by  reason  whereof  the  Turks  were  kept  there  occupied, 
fighting  with  the  Persians  a  long  continuance.  Which  wars  at  length 
being  achieved  and  finished  (wherein  the  said  Turk  lost  great  victories, 
with  slaughter  of  many  thousands  of  his  Turks),  he\vas  not  only 
provoked  by  the  instigation  of  certain  evil  disposed  Hungarians,  but 
also  occasioned  by  the  discord  of  christian  princes,  to  return  again 
into  Europe,  in  hope  to  subdue  all  the  parts  thereof  unto  his  domi- 
nion. Whereunto  when  he  had  levied  an  army  incredible  of  such  a 
multitude  of  Turks,  as  the  like  hath  not  lightly  been  heard  of,  see 
again  the  merciful  providence  and  protection  of  our  God  toward  his 
people.  As  the  Turk  was  thus  intending  to  set  forward  with  his 
innumerable  multitude  against  the  Christians,  the  hand  of  the  Lord 

11     Bl  i:,msI.  Marti.  Stella  ad  fratres  ds  Turcar.  in  Kfl&gWTM  successions. 

nitu  Asia. 

THE    HISTORY    OF    THE    TL'KKS.  75 

sent  such  a  pestilence  through  all   the  Turk's  army  and  dominion,  suiymnn. 
reaching  from  Bithynia,  and  from  Thrace  to  Macedonia,  and  also  to 
Hungary,  that  all  the  Turk's  possession  seemed  almost  nothing  else, 
but  as  a  heap  of  dead  corpses,  whereby  his  voyage  for  that  time  was 
stopped,  and  he  almost  compelled  to  seek  a  new  army. 

Besides  this  plague  of  the  Turks  aforesaid,  which  was  worse  to  Another 
them  than  any  war,  other  lets  also  and  domestic  calamities,  through  of 3° 
God's  providence,  happened  unto  Solyman,  the  great  rover  and  robber  2™vc'e~ 
of  the  world,  which  stayed  him  at  home  from  vexing  the  Christians ; 
especially  touching  his  eldest  son,  Mustapha. 

This  Mustapha  being  hated,  and  partly  feared  of  Rustan,  the  chief 
councillor  about  the  Turk,  and  of  Rosa,  the  Turk's  concubine  and 
afterwards  his  wife,  was  divers  times  complained  of  to  his  father, 
accused,  and  at  length  so  brought  into  suspicion  and  displeasure  of 
the  Turk,  by  them  aforesaid,  that,  in  conclusion,  his  father  caused  him 
to  be  sent  for  to  his  pavilion,  where  six  Turks  with  visors  were  ap- 
pointed to  put  him  to  death :  who,  coming  upon  him,  put,  after  their 
manner,  a  smal'l  cord  or  bow-string  full  of  knots  about  his  neck,  and 
so,  throwing  him  down  upon  the  ground,  not  suffering  him  to  speak 
one  word  to  his  father,  with  the  twitch  thereof  throttled  and  strangled  soiyman 
him  to  death,  his  father  standing  in  a  secret  corner  by,  and  beholding  eth  Mus- 
the  same.  Which  fact  being  perpetrated,  afterwards,  when  the  Turk  own^on!" 
would  have  given  to  another  son  of  his  and  of  Rosa,  called  Gianger, 
the  treasures,  horse,  armour,  ornaments,  and  the  province  of  Mustapha 
his  brother,  Gianger,  crying  out  for  sorrow  of  his  brother's  death : 
"  Fye  of  thee  !"  saith  he  to  his  father,  "  thou  impious  and  wretched 
dog,  traitor,  murderer ;  I  cannot  call  thee  father.  Take  the  treasures, 
the  horse,  and  the  armour  of  Mustapha  to  thyself ;"  and  with  that, 
taking  out  his  dagger,  thrust  it  through  his  own  body.  And  thus 
was  Solyman  murderer  and  parricide  of  his  own  sons :  which  was  in 
a.d.  1552. 

Herein,  notwithstanding,  is  to  be  noted  the  singular  providence  The  lov- 
and  love  of  the  Lord  toward  his  afflicted  Christians.     For  this  Mas-  dence  of 
tapha,  as  he  was  courageous  and  greatly  expert  and  exercised  in  all  fo/ijjs™1 
practice  of  war,  so  had  he  a  cruel  heart,  maliciously  set  to  shed  the  jj£*j"" 
blood  of  Christians  :  wherefore  great  cause  have  we  to  congratulate, 
and  to  give  thanks  to  God,  for  the  happy  taking  away  of  this  Mus- 
tapha.    And  no  less  hope  also  and  good  comfort  we  may  conceive  of 
our  loving  Lord  hereby  ministered  unto  us,  to  think  that  our  merciful  Go°<i 
God,  after  these  sore  afflictions  of  his  Christians  under  these  twelve  Gods 
Turks  afore  recited,  now,  after  this  Solyman,  intendeth  some  gracious  JjJE^Si 
good  work  to  Christendom,  to  reduce  and  release  us  out  of  this  so  long  ^^ 
and  miserable  Turkish  captivity,  as  may  be  hoped  now,  by  taking  tians. 
away  these  young  imps  of  this  impious  generation,  before  they  should 
come  to  work  their  conceived  malice  against  us  :  the  Lord  therefore 
be  glorified  and  praised.    Amen  ! 

Moreover,  as  I  was  writing  hereof,  opportunely  came  to  my  hands  Good 
a  certain  writing  out  of  Germany,  certifying  us  of  such  news  and  theTurta 
victory  of  late  achieved  against  the  Turk,  as  may  not  a  little  increase  p^Ja^ 
our  hope,  and  comfort  us,  touching  the  decay  and  ruin  of  the  Turk's  thechris- 
powcr  and  tyranny  against  us ;  which  news  are  these  :  That  after  the 
Turkish  tyrant  had  besieged,  with  an  army  of  30,000  men.  the  famous 

~<j  THE    H1ST0KV    OK    THE    TLKKS 

socman,  and  strong  town  and  castle  of  Gyula,  in  Hungary  lying  forty  Dutch 

miles  beyond  the  river  Danube,  which  city  had  by  the  space  ot  six 

weeks  sustained  many  grievous  assaults,  God,  through  his  great  mercy 
and  goodness,  so  comforted  the  said  town  of  Gyula,  and  the  poor 
Christians  therein,  at  their  earnest  prayers,  that  the  Turk,  with  all  his 
host,  was  driven  back  by  the  hands  of  the  general,  called  Karetshim 
Laslaw,  and  his  valiant  company ;  who  not  only  defended  the  said 
town,  but  also- constrained  the  Turks  to  retire,  to  their  great  shame 
and  confusion,  with  a  great  slaughter  of  the  Turkish  rabble  ;  for  which 
the  everlasting  God  be  praised  for  ever. 

The  manner  of  the  overthrow  was  this :  As  the  aforesaid  general 

Kand  did  see  his  advantage,  with  captain  George  and  other  horsemen  of  the 

IVaYn s      Silesians  and  Hungarians,  they  set  on  the  rearward  of  the  Turks,  and 

killed  about  eight  thousand  of  them,  and  took  also  some  of  their 

artillery,  and  followed  them  so  fast,  that  the  Turks  were  constrained 

to  flee  into  a  marshy  ground,  and  to  break  the  wheels  of  the  rest  01 

their  artillery  to  save  themselves  ;  and  therewith  they  got  a  very  rich 

booty,  rescuing  besides,  and  taking  from  the  Turks,  a  great  number  01 

Chris-      christian  prisoners.     Like  thanks  are  also  to  be  given  to  God,  for  the 

'-uedand  prosperous  success  given  to  Magotsehy,  the  valiant  captain  of  Erlan, 

take..3"    who,  making  toward  the  Turks  and  encountering  with  the  Tartarians, 

TurkSthe  slew  of  them  about  eight  hundred.' 

a  great  Not  long  after  this  it  happened,  through  the  like  providence  of 
captain  our  Q0(\,  that  a  Turkish  captain  called  Begen.  accompanied  with  a 
Torta  thousand  fresh  horsemen,  came  newly  out  of  Turkey,  to  go  toward  the 
citv  named  Quinque  Ecclesise,  or  Fiinfkirchen,  with  whom  the 
carl  of  Serin,  by  the  way,  did  encounter,  and  in  the  night,  setting  upon 
him,  killed  the  captain,  and  took  eight  camels,  and  eight  mules  laden 
with  treasure,  and  also  got  two  red  guidons,1  with  a  whole  great  piece 
of  rich  cloth  of  gold,  and  with  another  fair  and  strange  jeAvel.  The 
horse  of  this  aforesaid  Turkish  captain  was  betrapped  and  decked 
most  richly ;  the  saddle  whereof  had  the  pommel  and  back  part 
covered  over  with  plate  of  fine  Arabic  gold,  and  the  rest  of  the  saddle, 
besides  the  sitting  place,  was  plated  with  silver  very  fair  gilded.  The 
scat  of  the  saddle  was  covered  with  purple  velvet ;  the  trappings  and 
bridle  beset  with  little  turquoises  and  rubies :  which  horse  was  sent 
to  Vienna,  unto  the  emperor  Maximilian,  for  a  present. 

Although  the  earl  would  very  fain  have  saved  the  captain,  not 
knowing  what  he  was,  yet  the  Janizaries,  labouring  to  carry  away 
their  captain,  so  stiffly  defended  themselves,  that  the  earl,  with  his 
company,  was  constrained  to  kill  both  them  and  their  captain.  From 
whom  the  said  earl  of  Serin,  the  same  time,  got  fifteen  thousand 
Turkish  and  Hungarian  ducats;  which  money  was  brought  for  the 
payment  of  the  Turkish  soldiers  in  the  aforesaid  town  of  Fiinf- 
Ivirchen.  All  which  be  good  beginnings  of  greater  goodness  to 
be  hoped  for  hereafter,  through  the  grace  of  Christ  our  Lord;  espe- 
cially if  our  christian  rulers  and  potentates,  first,  the  churchmen  and 
prelates  for  their  parts,  then,  the  civil  powers  and  princes  for  their 
parts,  withholding  their  affections  a  little,  will  turn  their  brawls  and 
variance  into  I irothcrly  concord  and  agreement;  which  the  Lord  of 
Peace  put  in  their  minds  to  d<>.   Amen  !     Or  otherwise,  if  it  will  so 


I  :  ■  OumI.'hn,"'  standards.— Ed 

THE    HISTORY    OF    THE    TIKKS.  "7 

please  the  Lord  that  the  Turk  conic  further  upon  us,  so'as  lie  hath  Soigmam 
begun  for  our  punishment  and  castigation,  his  grace  then  give  to  the  i^ 
flock  of  his  poor  Christians,  constancy  of  faith,  patience  in  suffering,  T"rk.s 
and  amendment  of  life.    For  so  I  understand  by  public  fame,  although  Suoitafy. 
uncertainly  rumoured  by  the  voice  of  some,  that  the  Turks1  power  of 
late,  this  present  year  of  our  Lord,  156"b',  hath  pierced  the  parts  of 
Apulia  within  Italy,  wasting  and  burning  the  space  of  a  hundred 
miles  toward  Naples :  which  if  it  be  certain,  it  is  to  be  feared,  that 
the  Turk  having  thus  set  in  his  foot,  and  feeling  the  sweetness  of 
Italy,  will  not  so  cease  before  he  get  in  both  head  and  shoulders  also, 
so  far  into  Italy,  that  he  will  display  his  banners  within  the  walls  of 
Rome,  and  do  with  old  Rome  the  like  as  Mahomet,  his  great  grand- 
father, did  with  new  Rome,  the  city  of  Constantinople,  and  as  the 
Persians  did  with  Babylon. 

The  causes  why  we  have  so  to  judge,  be  divers :  first,  that  the  see  Conjec- 
of  Rome  hath  been  defended  hitherto  and  maintained,  with  much  why'it  is 
blood ;  and  therefore  it  may  seem  not  incredible,  but  that  it  will  not  f°a^d 
long  continue,  but  be  lost  with  blood  again,  according  to  the  verdict  that  the 
of  the  gospel :  "  He  that  striketh  with  the  sword,  shall  perish  with  ^tnome! 
the  sword,"  &c.    Another  cause  is,  the  fulfilling  of  Apocalypse  xviii., 
where  it  is  written,  "  That  great  Babylon  shall  fall,  and  be  made  an 
habitation  of  devils,  and  a  den  of  unclean  spirits,  and  a  cage  of  filthy 
and  unclean  birds  :"  the  fall  whereof  shall  be  like  a  mill-stone  in  the 
sea,  that  is,  which  shall  not  rise  again.     And  that  this  is  to  come 
before  the  day  of  judgment,  the  text  of  the  said  chapter  doth  apertly 
declare ;  where  the  words  do  follow,  showing,  That  the  kings  of  the 
earth,  and  the  merchants,  which  had  to  do  with  the  whorish  city, 
standing  afar  off  for  fear  of  the  heat,  and  beholding  the  smoke  of  the 
said  city  flaming  and  burning  with  fire,  shall  bewail  and  rue  her 
destruction  and  desolation,   &c.     What  city  this  is,  called  Great 
Babylon,  which,  like  a  mill-stone,  shall  fall  and  burn,  and  be  made 
a  habitation  of  unclean   spirits  and  beasts,  let  the  reader  construe. 
This  is  certain  and  plain,  by  these  her  kings  and  merchants  standing  The  pro- 
afar  off  for  fear,  and  beholding  her  burning,  that  the  destruction  of  APoca-of 
this  city  (what  city  soever  it  be)  shall  be  seen  here  on  earth  before  ]JW 
the  coming  of  the  Lord's  judgment,  as  may  easily  be  gathered  by  expoimd- 
these  three  circumstances  ;  that  is,  by  the  standing,  the  beholding, ed' 
and  the  bewailing  of  her  merchants;  by  which  merchants  and  king? 
of  the  earth,  peradventure,  may  be  signified  the  pope,  the  rich  car- 
dinals, the  great  prelates,  and  the  fat  doctors,  and  other  obedientiaries 
of  the  Romish  see,  who,  at  the  coming  of  the  Turks,  will  not  adven- 
ture their  lives  for  their  church,  but  will  flee  the  city,  no  doubt,  and 
stand  afar   off  from  danger.     And  when  they  shall  see  with  their 
eyes,  and  hear  with  their  ears,  the  city  of  Rome  to  be  set  on  fire  and 
consumed  by  the  cruel  Turks,  the  sight  thereof  shall  seem  to  them 
piteous  and  lamentable,  to  behold  the  great  and  fair  city  of  Rome, 
the  tall  castle  of  St.  Angelo,  the  pope's  mighty  see  (where  they  were 
wont  to  fish  out  such  riches,  dignities,  treasures,  and  pleasure),  so  to 
burn  before  their  eyes,  and  to  come  to  such  utter  desolation,  which 
shall  never  be  re-edified  again,  but  shall  be  made  a  habitation  of 
devils  and  unclean  spirits ;  that  is,  of  Turks  and  heathen  sultans,  and 
barbarous  Saracens,  &c.     This,  I  say,  peradventure,  may  be  the 


soiymnn.  meaning  of  that  prophetical  place  of  the  Apocalpse  ;  not  that  I  have 
here  any  thing  to  pronounce,  but  only  give  my  guess,  what  may  pro- 
bably be  conjectured.     But  the  end  at  length  will  make  this,  and  all 
other  things,  more  plain  and  manifest ;  for  mystical  prophecies  lightly 
arc  never  so  well  understood,  as  when  the  event  of  them  is  past  and 
TWru  Another  cause,  concurring  with  the  causes  aforesaid,  may  be  col- 
cause.      Jected  out  of  Paulus  Jovius,  who,  writing  of  the  subversion  of  Rhodes, 
which  was,  as  ye  heard  a.  u.  1522,  upon  Christmas  day,  saith,  that 
it  chanced  suddenly,  the  same  day,  in  Rome,  that  as  pope  Adrian  VI. 
was  entering  into  the  church  to'  his  service,  suddenly  over  his  head 
the  upper  frontier  or  top  of  the  chapel  door,  which  was  of  marble, 
immediately  as  the  pope  was  entering,  fell  down,  and  slew  certain 
of  his  guard  waiting  upon  him.     Whereby  peradventure  may  be 
meant,  that  the  ruin  of  Rome  was  not  long  after  to  follow  the  loss 
of  Rhodes. 
Fourth         The  fourth  cause  I  borrow  out  of  Johannes  Aventinus,  who,  in 
cau"e-      his  third  book,  alleging  the  names,  but  not  the  words  of  Hildegard, 
a  pro-     Briget,  and  other  prophetical  persons,  hath  these  words  ;   "  Si  vera 
phec>'      sint  carmina  et  vaticinia,  D.  Hildegardse,  et  Brigittse,  Sybillarum 
Germanise,  et  Bardorum  fatidicorum,  qui  ea  quae  nostro  sevo  com- 
pleta  vidimus  longo  ante,  tempore  nobis  cecinerunt ;  Agrippinensis 
Colonia,  nolimus,  velimus,  Turcarum  capui  erit,"  &c. ;    that  is,  "  If 
the  sayings  and  prophecies  of  Hildegard,  of  Briget,  and  other  pro- 
phetical persons,  be  true,  which,  being  foretold  long  before,  we  have 
seen  now  in  these  our  days  accomplished ;  the  town  of  Cologne,  will 
wc,  nill  we,  must  needs  be  the  head  city  of  the  Turks.""1 

And  this  I  write,  not  as  one  pronouncing  against  the  city  of  Rome 

what  will  happen,   but  as    one  fearing  what  may  fall :  which  if  it 

come  to  pass  (as  I  pray  God  it  may  not),  then  shall  the  pope  well 

understand,  whither  his  wrong  understanding  of  the  Scriptures,  and 

his  false  flattering  glossers  upon  the  same,  have  brought  him. 

a  caveat       Wherefore  my  counsel  to  the  pope,  and  all  his  popish  maintainers 

bishop  of  aml  upholders  is,  to  humble  themselves,  and  to  agree  with  their 

h.""!T  'f  brethren  betimes,  letting  all   contention  fall :    lest  that  while   the 

wise.       bishop  of  Rome  shall  strive  to  be  the  highest  of  all  other  bishops,  it 

so  fall  out  shortly,  that  the  bishop  of  Rome  shall  be  found  the  lowest 

of  all  other  bishops,  or,  peradventure,  no  bishop  at  all. 

Whereupon  also  another  cause  may  be  added,  taken  out  of 
Hieronymus  Savanarola,  who  prophcsieth,  that  one  like  unto 
Cyrus  shall  come  over  the  Alps,  and  destroy  Italy :  whereof  see 
more  before. 

This  Solyman,  if  he  be  yet  alive,  hath  now  reigned  forty-six  years, 
who  began  the  same  year  in  which  the  emperor  Charles  V.  was 
crowned,  which  was  a.  D.  1520,  and  so  hath  continued,  by  God's  per- 
mission, for  a  scourge  to  the  Christians,  unto  this  year  now  present, 
I  •">»>(>.  This  Solyman,  by  one  of  his  concubines,  had  his  eldest  son, 
called  Mustapha.  By  another  concubine  called  Rosa,  he  had  four 
sons,  Mahomet,  Bajazet,  Selim,  and  Gianger:  of  wrhich  sons,  Mus- 
tapha and  Gianger  were  slain  (as  ye  heard  before)  by  means  of  their 

(1)  Anna),  lib.  .1,  fol.  30. 

THE    HISTORY    OF    THE    TURKS.  79 

own  father.  And  thus  much  concerning  the  wretched  tyranny  of  the  fofcmaa. 

Turks,  out  of  the  authors  hereunder  written.1 


Hitherto  thou  hast  heard,  christian  reader  !  the  lamentable  perse-  rerseeu- 
cutions  of  these  latter  days,  wrought  by'the  Turks  against  the  people  ^the" 
and  servants  of  Christ.     In  the  reading  whereof,  such  as  sit  quietly  Tuit 
at  home,  and  be  far  from  jeopardy,  may  see  what  misery  there  is 
abroad  ;  the  knowledge  and  reading  whereof  shall  not  be  unprofitable 
for  all  Christians  earnestly  to  weigh  and  consider,  for  that  many  there 
be,  who,  falsely  deceiving  themselves,  imagine  that  Christianity  is  a 
quiet  and  restful  state  of  life,  full  of  pleasure  and  solace  in  this  pre- 
sent world  ;  when  indeed  it  is  nothing  less,  as  testified  by  the  mouth 
of  our  Saviour  himself,  who,  rightly  defining  his  kingdom,  teacheth 
us,  that  his  kingdom  is  not  of  this   world  ;    premonishing  us  also 
before,  that  in  this  world  we  must  look  for  affliction,  but  in  him  we 
shall  have  peace.    Examples  hereof  in  all  parts  of  this  history,  through  compa- 
all  ages,  are  plenteous  and  evident  to  be  seen,  whether  we  turn  our  tweentile 
eyes  to  the  first  ten  persecutions  in  the  primitive  church,  during  the  £"nSg  „f" 
first  three  hundred  years  after  Christ;  or  whether  we  consider  the  the p"- 
latter  three  hundred  years  in  this  last  age  of  the  church,  wherein  the  and  the 
poor  flock  of  Christ  hath  been  so  afflicted,  oppressed,  and  devoured,  church, 
that  it  is  hard  to  say,  whether  have  been  more  cruel  against  the 
Christians,  the  infidel  emperors  of  Rome,  in  the  primitive  age  of  the 
church,  or  else  these  barbarous  Turks,  in  these  our  later  times  of 
the  church  now  present. 

Thus,  from  time  to  time,  the  church  of  Christ  hath  had  little  or 
no  rest  in  this  earth  :  what  for  the  heathen  emperors  on  the  one  side ; 
what  for  the  proud  pope  on  the  other  side ;  on  the  third  side,  what 
for  the  barbarous  Turk  :   for  these  are,  and  have  been  from  the  be-  Three 
ginning,  the  three  principal  and  capital  enemies  of  the  church  of^mles 
Christ,  signified  in  the  Apocalypse  by  "  the  beast,  the  false  lamb,  and  "''Christ's 
the  false  prophet,  from  whom  went  out  three  foul  spirits,  like  frogs, 
to  gather  together  all  the  kings  of  the  earth  to  the  battle  of  the  day 
of  the  Lord  God  Almighty.'1''  [Apoc.  xvi.]     The  cruelty  and  malice  The  cru- 
of  these  three  enemies  against  Christ's  people  hath  been  such,  that  to  Ldous  'e 
judge  which  of  them  did  most  exceed  in  cruelty  of  persecution,  it  is  ^"[j^" 
hard  to  say  ;  but,  that  it  may  be  thought  that  the  bloody  and  beastly 
tyranny  of  the  Turks  especially,  above  the  rest,  incomparably  sur- 
mounteth  all  the  afflictions  and  cruel  slaughters  that  ever  were  seen 
in  any  age,  or  read  of  in  any  story  :  insomuch  tliat  there  is  neither 
history  so  perfect,  nor  writer  so  diligent,  who,  writing  of  the  miserable 

(1)  The  Authors  of  the  Turks'  Stories. 

Leonicus  Chalcondyla.  Ludovicus  Vives.  Paulus  Jovius. 

Nicolaus  Eboicus  Episc.  Sagun-    Bernard  as  de  Breydenbach.  Jolian.  Martinus  Stella. 

tinus.  Sabellicus.  Caspar  Peucerus,  ,vr. 

Johannes  Ramus.  Mityleneus  Archiepisc.  N'itolaus  a  Motlen  Burgundus. 

Andrajas  a  Lueana.  Isiodorus  Ruthtrus.  Sebast.  Munsterus. 

Wolfgangus  Drechslerus.  Marimia  Barletus.  Baptists  Egnatius. 

Johannes  Crispus.  Henricus  hello  Rhodio.    Uarthol.  Peregrinus., 

Johannes  Faber,  Melchior  Soiterus. 


soiymnn.  tyranny  of  the  Turks,  is  able  to  express  or  comprehend  the  horrible 
^l        examples  of  their  unspeakable  cruelty  and  slaughter,  exercised  by  these 
!,!li"o' d    twt'lve  Turkish  tyrants  upon  poor  christian  men's  bodies,  within  the 
in  the      compass  of  these  latter  three  hundred  years.     Whereof  although  no 
1  "rk"      sufficient  relation  can  be  made,  nor  number  expressed  ;  yet,  to  give 
to  the  reader  some  general  guess  or  view  thereof,  let  us  first  perpend 
and  consider  what  dominions  and  empires,  how  many  countries,  king- 
doms, provinces,  cities,  towns,  strongholds,  and  forts,  these  Turks 
have  surprised  and  won  from  the  Christians;  in  all  which  victories, 
being  s0  many,  this  is  secondly  to  be  noted,  that  there  is  almost  no 
place  which  the  Turks  ever  came  to  and  subdued,  where  they  did  not 
cither  slay  all  the  inhabitants  thereof,  or  led  away  the  most  part 
thereof  into  such  captivity  and  slavery,  that  they  continued  not  long 
after  alive,  or  else  so  lived,  that  death,  almost,  had  been  to  them 
more  tolerable. 

Like  as  in  the  time  of  the  first  persecutions  of  the  Roman  empe- 
rors, the  saying  was,  that  no  man  could  step  with  his  feet  in  all 
Rome,  but  should  tread  upon  a  martyr ;  so  here  may  be  said,  that 
almost  there  is  not  a  town,  city,  or  village,  in  all  Asia  and  Greece, 
also  in  a  great  part  of  Europe  and  Africa,  whose  streets  have  not 
flowed  with  the  blood  of  the  Christians,  whom  the  cruel  Turks  have 
murdered :  of  whom  are  to  be  seen  in  histories,  heaps  of  soldiers 
slain,  of  men  and  women  cut  in  pieces,  of  children  sticked  upon  poles 
and  stakes,  whom  these  detestable  Turks  most  spitefully,  and  that  in 
the  sight  of  their  parents,  use  to  gore  to  death.  Some  they  drag  at 
their  horse's  tails,  and  famish  to  death  ;  some  they  tear  in  pieces, 
tying  their  arms  and  legs  to  four  horses  ;  others  they  make  marks  to 
shoot  at  r  upon  some  they  try  their  swords,  how  deep  they  can  cut 
and  slash,  as  before  ye  have  read.  The  aged  and  feeble  they  tread 
under  their  horses  ;  women  with  child  they  spare  not,  but  mangle  their 
bodies,  and  cast  the  infants  into  the  fire,  or  otherwise  destroy 
them.  Whether  the  Christians  yield  to  them,  or  yield  not,  all  is  a 
matter.  As  in  their  promises  there  is  no  truth,  so  in  their  victories 
there  is  no  sense  of  manhood  or  mercy  in  them,  but  they  make 
havoc  of  all.1 

So  the  citizens  of  Croia,  after  they  had  yielded  and  were  all  pro- 
mised their  lives,  were  all  destroyed,  and  that  horribly.  In  Mysia, 
after  the  king  had  given  himself  to  the  Turk's  hand,  having  promise 
of  life,  Mahomet  the  Turk  slew  him  with  his  own  hands.  The 
princes  of  Rasia  had  both  their  eyes  put  out,  with  basons  red  hot  set 
before  them.  Theodosia,  otherwise  called  Capha,  was  also  surren- 
dered to  the  Turk,  having  the  like  assurance  of  life  and  safety ;  and 
yet,  contrary  to  the  league,  the  citizens  were  put  to  the  sword  and 
slain.  At  the  winning  and  yielding  of  Lesbos,  what  a  number  of 
youn<j  men  and  children  were  put  upon  sharp  stakes  and  poles,  and 
so  thrust  through  !  At  the  winning  of  the  city  of  Buda,  what  tyranny 
was  showed  and  exercised  against  the  poor  Christians  who  had  yielded 
themselves,  and  against  the  two  dukes,  Christopher  Bisserer,  and 
Johnn  Tranbinger,  contrary  to  the  promise  and  hand-writing  of 
the  Turk,  is  to  be  seen  in  the  story  of  Mclchior  Soiterus,  '  De  bello 
Pannonico/2  The  like  also  is  to  be  read  in  the  story  of  Bcrnardus  de 

(I)  Ex  Marino  Barlctio  de  Scod.  cxpugnat.  lib.  ii.  (2)  Lib.  i.  M.  515. 

THE    HISTORY    OF    THE    TURKS.  81 

Breydenbacli,1  who,  writing  of  the  taking  of  Hydruntum,  a  city  In  socman. 
Apulia,  testifieth  of  the  miserable  slaughter  of  the  young  men  there  T|1(,  6U_ 
slain,  of  old  men  trodden  under  the  horses'  feet,   of  matrons   and  pe»a- 
virgins  abused,  of  women  with  child  cut  and  rent  in  pieces,  of  the  otto*" 
priests  in  the  churches  slain,  and  of  the  archbishop  of  that  city,  who,  ^^tM 
being-  an  aged  man,  and  holding  the   cross  in  his   hands,  Mas  cut 
asunder  with  a  wooden  saw,  &c.    The  same  Bernard,  also,  writing  of 
the  overthrow  of  Nigropont,  otherwise  called  Chalcides,  a.  n.  1471, 
describeth  the  like  terrible  slaughter  which  there  was  exercjsed,  where 
the  Turk,  after  his  promise  given  before  to  the  contrary,  most  cruelly 
caused  all  the  youth  of  Italy  to  be  pricked  upon  sharp  stakes  ;  some 
to  be  dashed  against  the  hard  stones,  some  to  be  cut  in  sunder  in  the 
midst,  and  others  with  other  kinds  of  torments  to  be  put  to  death  : 
insomuch,  that  all  the  streets  and  ways  of  Chalcides  did  flow  with  the 
blood  of  those  who  were  there  slain.     In  that  history  the  aforesaid 
writer  recordeth  one  memorable  example  of  maidenly  chastity,  worthy 
of  all  Christians  to  be  noted  and  commended.     The  story  is  told  of  a  not*- 
the  praetor's  daughter  of  that  city,  who,  being  the  only  daughter  of  ^y*,: 
her  father,   and  noted  to  be  of  an  exceeding  singular  beauty,  was  maidenly 
saved  out  of  the  slaughter,  and  brought  to  Mahomet  the  Turk,  to  be 
his  concubine.     But  she,  denying  to  consent  to  his  Turkish  appetite 
and  filthiness,  was  commanded  therewith  to  be  slain  and  murdered, 
and  so  died  she  a  martyr,  keeping  both  her  faith  and  her  body  nude- 
filed  unto  Christ  Jesus  her  spouse. 

The  like  cruelty  also  was  showed  upon  those  who  kept  the  castle,  Miserable 
and  afterwards,  yielding  themselves  upon  hope  of  the  Turk's  promise,  chrisui*' 
were  slain  every  one.   What  should  I  speak  of  the  miserable  slaughter  ™^ds 
of   Modon,  and  the   citizens    thereof,   dwelling   in  Peloponnesus  ? 
who,  seeing  no  other  remedy  but  needs  to  come  into  the  Turk's 
hands,  set  the  barn  on  fire  where  they  were  gathered  together,  men, 
women,  and  children ;  some  women  also  with  child,  voluntarily  cast 
themselves  into  the  sea,  rather  than  they  would  sustain  the  Turk's 

Miserable  it  is  to  behold,  long  to  recite,  incredible  to  believe,  all 
•the  cruel  parts,  and  horrible  slaughters,  wrought  by  these  miscreants 
against  the  Christians  through  all  places  almost  of  the  world,  both  in 
Asia,  in  Africa,  but  especially  in  Europe.     Who  is  able  to  recite 
the  innumerable  societies  and  companies  of  the  Greeks  martyred  by 
the  Turk's  sword  in  Achaia,  Attica,  Thessalia,  Macedonia,  Epvrus, 
and  all   Peloponnesus  ?    besides  the  island  of   Rhodes,  and  other 
islands  and  cyclades  adjacent  in  the  sea  about,  numbered  to  two  and 
fifty;  of  which,  also,  Patmos  was  one,  where  St.  John,  being  banished, 
wrote  his  Revelations.     Where  did  ever  the  Turks  set  any  foot,  but 
the  blood  of  Christians  there,  without  pity  or  measure,  went  to  wrack  ? 
and  what  place  or  province  is  there  almost  throughout  the  world, 
where  the  Turks  either  have  not  pierced,  or  are  not  likely  shortly  to  Brierre. 
enter  ?     In  Thrace,  and  through  all  the  coasts  of  the  Danube,  in  <*ai  tf 
Bulgaria,  Dalmatia,  in  Scrvia,  Transylvania,  Bosnia,  in  Hungary,  also  towns 
in  Austria,  what  havoc  hath  been  made  by  them  of  christian  mcifs  ™m%T 
bodies,  it  will  rue  any  christian  heart  tq  remember.     At  the  siege  of  jj|c1,1u"rlt 
Moldavia,   at  the  winning  of  Buda,  of  Pest,  of  Alba,  of  Walpo,  rope. 

(1)  Ex  Bernardo  de  Breydenbach.  Dccan.  Eccl.  Magnus. 
VOE.   IV.  G 

go  THE    HISTOEY   OF    THE    TL'RKS. 

m.  Strieg.ui,    Soclosia,    Tata,    Vissegrade,   Novum  Castellum  in   Dal- 

matia,  Belgrade,  Waradein,  Quinquc  Ecclesise :  also  at  tlie  battle 

of  Vama,  where  Ladislaus,  king  of  Poland,  with  almost  all  his  army, 

through   the  rashness  of  the  pope's  cardinal,   were  slain.      At  the 

winning,  moreover,  of  Xabiacchus,  Lyssus,  Dynastrum  :  at  the  siege 

of  Guns,  and  of  the  faithful  town  Scorad,  where  the  number  of  the 

shot  against  their  walls,  at  the  siege  thereof,  was  reckoned  to  be 

Cruelty  of  two  thousand  five  hundred  and  thirty-nine.     Likewise  at  the  siege 

S«tortk  °f  Vienna,  where  all  the  christian  captives  were  brought  before  the 

thedtt-    whole  army  and  slain,  and  divers  drawn  in  pieces  with  horses:  but 

Vienna,    especially  at  the  winning  of  Constantinople,  above  mentioned.     Also 

ins  cruel- at  Croia  and  Modon,  what   beastly  cruelty  was  showed,   it  is  un- 

^^rl  speakable.     For  as  in  Constantinople,  Mahomet,  the  drunken  Turk, 

suncrsof  never  rose  from  dinner,   but  he  caused  every  day,  for  his  dispoit, 

three  hundred  christian  captives  of  the  nobles  of  that  city  to  be  slain 

before   his    face  :  so,  in  Modon,  after  that  his  captain  Omar  had 

sent  unto  him  at  Constantinople,    five   hundred  prisoners  of   the 

Christians,  the  cruel  tyrant  commanded  them  all    to    be  cut  and 

divided  asunder  by  the  middle,  and  so,  being  slain,  to  be  thrown  out 

into  the  fields.1 

a  Btrange      Leonicus  Chalcondyla,  writing  of  the  same  story,  addeth,  more- 
over, a  prodigious  narration,  if  it  be  true,  of  a  brute  ox,  which,  being 
,,;  in  the  fields,  and  seeing  the  carcases  of  the  dead  bodies  so  cut  in  two, 
to-  made  there  a  loud  noise  after  the  lowing  of  his  kind  and  nature  :  and 

dead  a     afterwards,  coming  to  the  quarters  of  one  of  the  dead  bodies  lying  in 

bujy.tian  tnc  nc^i  nrst  to°k  UP  tne  one  na^>  an(i  tncn  coming  again,  took  up 
likewise  the  other  half,  and  so,  as  he  could,  joined  them  both  toge- 
ther. Which  being  espied  by  those  who  saw  the  doing  of  the  brute 
ox,  and  marvelling  thereat,  and  word  being  brought  thereof  to  Ma- 
homet, he  commanded  the  quarters  again  to  be  brought  where  they 
were  before,  to  prove  whether  the  beast  would  come  again ;  who 
failed  not  (as  the  author  recordeth),  but,  in  like  sort  as  before,  taking 
the  fragments  of  the  dead  corpse,  laid  them  again  together.  It  fol- 
lowcth  more  in  the  author,  how  that  Mahomet,  being  astonied  at  the 
strange  wonder  of  the  ox,  commanded  the  quarters  of  the  christian 
man's  body  to  be  interred,  and  the  ox  to  be  brought  to  his  house, 
and  much  made  of.  Some  said  it  was  the  body  of  a  Venetian  ;  some 
affirmed,  that  he  was  an  Illyrian  ;  but,  whatsoever  he  was,  certain  it 
is,  that  the  Turk  himself  was  much  more  bestial  than  was  the  brute 
ox ;  which,  being  a  beast,  showed  more  sense  of  humanity  to  a  dead 
inan,  than  one  man  did  to  another.2 

"»■  «-        To  this  cruelty  add,   moreover,  that  besides  these  five  hundred 

'  Modonkns   thus  destroyed  at  Constantinople,   in  the   said  city  of 

Modon,  all  the  townsmen,  also,  were  slain  by  the  aforesaid  captain 

''■""•       <  taaar,  and,  among  them,  their  bishop  likewise  was  put  to  death.3 

John  Paber,  in  his  oration  made  before  king  Henry  VIII.,  at  the 
appointment  of  king  Ferdinand,  and  declaring  therein  the  miserable 
cruelty  of  the  Turks  toward  all  Christians,  as  also  toward  the  bishops 
and   ministers  of  the  church,   testifieth,  how  that  in  Mitylene,   in 

(l)  r;*  Leonleo  Chalcondula  de  rebus.  Tuicicla.  lib.  x.  (2)  Kx  Leonic  Chalcondyla, 

(3)  ix  Amir,  do  Lacuna,  et  ex  Wolfg.  it  aliis. 

THH    HISTORY    OF    THF    TURKS.  83 

Constantinople,  and  in  Trapczunda,  what  bishops  and  archbishops,  Soiyman 
or  other  ecclesiastical  and  religious  persons  the  Turks  could  find,  — 
they  brought  them  out  of  the  cities  into  the  fields,  there  to  be  slain 
like  oxen  and  calves.1  The  same  Faber  also,  writing  of  the  battle 
of  Soiyman  in  Hungary,  whore  Ludovic,  the  king  of  Hungary,  was 
overthrown,  declareth,  that  eight  bishops  in  the  same  field  were 
slain.  And  moreover,  when  the  archbishop  of  Striegau,  and  Paul, 
the  archbishop  of  Colosse,  were  found  dead,  Soiyman  caused  them  to 
be  taken  up,  and  to  be  beheaded  and  chopped  in  small  pieces,  a.  d. 

What  christian  heart  will  not  pity  the  incredible  slaughter  done  Cruelty  <,f 
by  the  Turks  in  Euboea,  where  the  said  Faber  testified),'  that  innu-  *eE^!rk 
merable  people  were  stuck  and  gored  upon  stakes,  divers  were  thrust  bflea- 
through  with  a  hot  iron,  children  and  infants  not  yet  weaned  from 
the  mother,  were  dashed  against  the  stones,  and  many  cut  asunder  in 
the  midst ! 2 

But  never  did  country  taste  and  feel  more  the  bitter  and  deadly  The 
tyranny  of  the  Turks,  than  did  Rascia,  called  Mysia  Inferior,  and  now  ^of 
Servia,  where  (as  writeth  Wolfgangus  Dreschlerus)  the  prince  of  the  sfain'o  "d 
same  country,  being  sent  for  under  fair  pretence  of  words  and  pro-  the  Turk. 
mises  to  come  and  speak  with  the  Turk,  after  he  was  come  of  his  ^"uT/ 
own  gentleness,  thinking  no  harm,  was  apprehended,  and  wretchedly  prince 
and  falsely  put  to  death,  and  his  skin  flayed  off,  his  brother  and  sister  Turk. ie 
brought  to  Constantinople  for  a  triumph,  and  all  the  nobles  of  his 
country  (as  Faber  addeth)  had  their  eyes  put  out,  &c. 

Briefly  to  conclude  :  By  the  vehement  and  furious  rage  of  these  The 
cursed  caitiffs,  it  may  seem  that  Satan,  the  old  dragon,  for  the  great  birred  uP 
hatred  he  beareth  to  Christ,  hath  stirred  them  up  to  be  the  butchers  °?,thtJ;  de~ 
of  all  christian  people,  inflaming  their  beastly  hearts  with  such  malice  H^  *■ 
and  cruelty  against  the  name  and  religion  of  Christ,  that  they,  de-  Christ, 
generating  from  the  nature  of  men  to  devils,  neither  by  reason  will  xurksare 
be  ruled,  nor  by  any  blood  or  slaughter  satisfied.     Like  as  in  the  butchers 
primitive  age  of  the  church,  and  in  the  time  of  Dioclesian  and  Maxi-  chris- 
milian,  when  the  devil  saw  that  he  could  not  prevail  against  the  tians' 
person  of  Christ,  who  was  risen  again,  he  turned  all  his  fury  upon  his 
simple  servants,  thinking  by  the   Roman  emperors  utterly  to  ex- 
tinguish the  name  and  profession  of  Christ  out  from  the  earth  :  So  in 
this  latter  age  of  the  world,  Satan,  being  let  loose  again,  ragcth  by  the 
Turks,  thinking  to  make  no  end  of  murdering  and  killing,  till  he 
have  brought,  as  he  intendeth,  the  whole  church  of  Christ,  with  all 
the  professors  thereof,  under  foot.     But  the  Lord,  I  trust,  will  once 
send  a  Constantine,  to  vanquish  proud  Maxentius  ;  a  Moses,  to  drown 
indurate  Pharaoh ;  a  Cyrus,  to  subdue  the  stout  Babylonian. 

And  thus  much  hitherto  touching  our  christian  brethren  who  were  Misery  of 
slain  and  destroyed  by  these  blasphemous  Turks.  Now,  forasmuch  uaVcap"-" 
as  besides  these  aforesaid,  many  others  were  plucked  away  violently  ^\^' 
from  their  country,  from  their  wives  and  children,  from  liberty,  and  Turk. 
from  all  their  possessions,  into  wretched  captivity  and  extreme  The  buy- 
poverty,  it  remaineth  likewise  to  treat  somewhat,  also,  concerning  the  ^tog  of 
cruel  manner  of  the  Turk's  handling  of  the  said  christian  captives.  caPtives- 

(1)  Ex  Johan.  Fabro,  in  c-atioue  ad  rcprm  Hen.  VIII.  (2)  Ex  Johan.  Fabro,  et  difc. 

G  2 

S4.  THE    HISTORY    OF    THE    TURKS. 

soiyman.  And  first  here  is  to  be  noted,  that  the  Turk  never  cometh  into 

Europe  to  war  against  the  Christians,  but  there  followeth  after  his 

army  a  great  number  of  brokers  or  merchants,  such  as  buy  men  and 
children  to  sell  again,'  bringing  with  them  long  chains  in  hope  of 
great   escheats  :    in  which  chains   they  link  them  by  fifty  and  sixty 
together,  such  as  remain  undestroyed  with  the  sword,  whom  they  buy 
of°the  spoils  of  them  that  rob  and  spoil  the  christian  countries; 
which  is  lawful  for  any  of  the  Turks'  army  to  do,  so  that  the  tenth 
of  their  spoil  or  prey   (whatsoever  it  be)  be  reserved  to  the  head 
Turk  ;  that  is,  to  the  great  master  thief. 
curiatiM       Of  such  as  remain  for  tithe,  if  they  be  aged  (of  whom  very  few  be 
SSwdb.  reserved  alive,  because  little  profit  cometh  of  that  age),  they  be  sold 
the  Turk,  to  the  use  of  husbandry,  or  keeping  of  beasts.  If  they  be  young  men 
or  women,  they  be  sent  to  certain  places,  there  to  be  instructed  in 
their  language  and  arts,  as  shall  be  most  profitable  for  their  advan- 
tage ;  and  such  are  called  in  their  tongue,  Sarai.     And  the  first  care 
of" the  Turks  is  this :  to  make  them  deny  the  christian  religion,  and. 
to  be  circumcised  ;  and,  after  that,  they  are  appointed,  every  one  as 
he  seemeth  most  apt,  either  to  the  learning  of  their  laws,  or  else  to 
learn  the  feats  of  war.     Their  first  rudiment  of  war  is  to  handle  the 
bow ;    first  beginning  with  a  weak  bow,  and  so,  as  they  grow  in 
strength,  coming  to  a  stronger  bow  ;  and  if  they  miss  the  mark,  they 
are  sharply  beaten :  and  their  allowance  is  two  pence  or  three  pence 
o  wick-    a  dav,  till  they  come  and  take  wages  to  serve  in  war.     Some  are 
pMstng    brought  up  for  the  purpose  to  be  placed  in  the  number  of  the  wicked 
an^mise-  Janizarje^  that  iSi  the  order  of  the  Turk's  champions,  which  is  the 
most  abominable  condition  of  all  others.    Of  these  Janizaries,  see  be- 
fore.   And  if  any  of  the  aforesaid  young  men  or  children  shall  appear 
t       to  excel  in  any  beauty,  he  is  compelled  to  serve  their  abominable 
o  misery  abomination ;    and,  when  age  cometh,  then  they  serve    instead  of 
i'n'i'crics !  eunuchs,  to  wait  upon  matrons,  or  to  keep  horses  and  mules,  or 

else  to  be  scullions  and  drudges  in  their  kitchens. 

The  *er-       Such  as  be  young  maidens  and  beautiful,  are  deputed  for  concu- 

young  °    bines.     Those  who  be  of  mean  beauty,  serve  for  matrons  to  their 

eaptirea    drudgery  work  in  their  houses  and   chambers,   or  else  are  put  to 

spinning,  and  such  other  labours ;  but  so,  that  it  is  not  lawful  for 

them  either  to  profess  their  christian  religion,  or  ever  to  hope  for  any 

liberty.     And  thus  much  of  those  who  fall  to  the  Turk  by  tithe. 

The  others,  who  are  bought  and  sold  amongst  private  subjects,  first 
are  allured  with  fair  words  and  promises  to  take  circumcision  ;  which 
if  they  will  do,  they  are  more  favourably  treated  :  but  all  hope  is 
taken  from  them  of  returning  again  into  their  country ;  which  if  they 
attempt,  the  pain  thereof  is  burning.  And  if  such,  coming  at  length 
to  liberty,  will  marry,  they  may;  but  then  their  children  remain  in 
bond  to  the  lord,  for  him  to  sell  at  his  pleasure  ;  and,  therefore,  such 
as  are  wise  amongst  them  will  not  marry.  Those  who  refuse  to  be  cir- 
cumcised, are  miserably  handled  ;  for  example  whereof,  the  author 
(who  givetfc  testimony  hereof)  doth  infer  his  own  experience.  Such 
captives  as  he  expert  in  any  manual  art  or  occupation,  can  better  shift 
lor  themselves;  but,  contrariwise,  they  who  have  no  handicraft  to  live 
upon,  are  in  worse,  ease.  And  therefore  such  as  have  been  brought 
up  m  learning,  or  be  priests  or  noblemen,   and  such   others  whose 

THE    HISTORY    OF    THE    TURKS.  85 

tender  education  can  abide  no  hardness,  are  the  least  reputed,  and  Soiy,,,,,,,. 
most  of  all  others  neglected  of  him  that  hath  the  sale  or  keeping  of  ~~ 
them,  for  that  he  secth  less  profit  to  rise  of  them,  than  of  the  others ; 
and,  therefore,  no  cost  of  raiment  is  bestowed  upon  them,  but  they 
are  carried  about  barehead  and  barefoot,  both  summer  and  winter,  in 
frost  and  snow.  And  if  any  faint  and  be  sick  in  the  way,  there  is  no 
resting  in  any  inn,  but  first  he  is  driven  forward  with  whips,  and  if 
that  will  not  serve,  he  is  set  peradventure  upon  some  horse ;  or  if  his 
weakness  be  such  that  he  cannot  sit,  then  is  he  laid  overthwart  the 
horse  upon  his  belly,  like  a  calf;  and  if  he  chance  to  die,  they  take 
off  his  garment,  such  as  he  hath,  and  throw  him  in  a  ditch.1 

In  the  way  moreover,  besides  the  common  chain  which  doth  inclose 
them  all,  the  hands  also  of  every  one  are  manacled,  which  is,  because 
they  should  not  harm  their  leaders  :  for  many  times  it  happened,  that 
ten  persons  had  the  leading  of  fifty  captives  ;  and,  when  night  came, 
their  feet  also  were  fettered,  so  that  they  lodged  in  no  house,  but  lay 
upon  the  ground  all  night. 

The  young  women  had  a  little  more  gentleness  showed,  being  car-  Miserable 
ried  in  panniers  in  the  daytime.     But  when  night  came,  pity  it  was  "'chris* 
to  hear  the  miserable  crying  out  of  such  as  were  inclosed  within,  by  ^,ae"  wo" 
reason  of  the  injuries  which  they  suffered  by  their   carriers,  inso-  under  the 
much  that  the  young  tender  age  of  seven  or  eight  years,  as  well  of  the 
one  sex,  as  of  the  other,  could  not  save  them  from  the  villany  of      t 
the  Turks. 

When  the  morning  cometh,  they  are  brought  forth  to  the  market  Christian 
for  sale,  where  the  buyer,  if  he  be  disposed,  plucking  off  their  gar-  brought 
ments,  vieweth  all  the  bones  and  joints  of  their  body  ;  and  if  he  k°e™aud 
like  them,  he  giveth  his  price,  and  carrieth  them  away  into  miserable  sold. 
servitude,  either  to  tilling  of  their  ground,  or  to  pasture  their  cattle,  or 
to  some  other  strange  kind  of  misery,  incredible  to  speak  of:  insomuch  Put  to 
that  the  author  reporteth,  that  he  hath  seen  himself,  certain  of  such  (t')™"  m 
christian  captives  yoked  together  like  horses  and  oxen,  and  to  draw  the  Plougii. 
plough.     The  maid-servants  likewise  are  kept  in  perpetual  toil  and 
work  in  close  places,  where  neither  they  come  in  sight  of  any  man, 
neither  be  they  permitted  to  have  any  talk  with  their  fellow-servants, 
&c.     Such  as  are  committed  to  keep  beasts,  lie  abroad  day  and  night 
in  the  wild  fields,  without  house  and  harbour,  and  so,  changing  their 
pasture,  go  from  mountain  to  mountain ;  of  whom  also,  beside  the 
office  of  keeping  the  beasts,  other  handy  labour  is  exacted  at  spare 
hours,  such  as  pleaseth  their  masters  to  put  unto  them. 

Out  of  this  misery  there  is  no  way  for  them  to  flee,  especially  for  Danger  of 
them  that  arc  carried  into  Asia  beyond  the  seas  ;  or  if  any  do  attempt  ^f"Who 
so  to  do,  he  taketh  his  time  chiefly  about  harvest,  when   he  may  Jj^™1  of 
hide  himself  all  the  daytime  in  the  corn,  or  in  woods  or  marshes,  and 
find  food  ;  and  in  the  night  only  he  fleeth,  and  had  rather  be  devoured 
of  wolves  and  other  wild  beasts,  than  to  return  again  to  his  master. 
In  their  fleeing  they  use  to  take  with  them  a  hatchet  and  cords,  that 
when  they  come  to  the  sea  side,  they  may  cut  down  trees,  and  bind 
together  the  ends  of  them,  and  so,  where  the  sea  of  Hellespont  is 
narrowest,  about  Sestos  and  Abydos,  they  take  the  sea,  sitting  upon 

(1)  Ex  Bartholo.  Geor-rioniz.  Pcrigrena  lib  de  afflictionibua  Cbristianorum  sub  Turco. 

gg  TIIK    HISTORY    OF    THE    TURKS. 

soiyman.  trees,  where,  if  the  wind  and  tide  do  serve  luckily,  they  may  cut  over 

D    er  of  in  four  or  five  hours.     But  the  most  part  either  perish  in  the  floods, 

our  men   or  arc  driven  back  again  upon  the  coasts  of  Asia,  or  else  be  devoured 

«a:hL      of  wild  beasts  in  the  woods,  or  perish  with  hunger  and  famine.  If  any 

escape  over  the  sea  alive  into  Europe,  by  the  way  they  enter  into  no 

town,  but  wander  upon  the  mountains,  following  only  the  north  star 

for  their  guide. 

As  touching  such  towns  and  provinces  as  are  won  by  the  Turk, 
and  wherein  the  Christians  are  suffered  to  live  under  tribute,  first, 
all  the  nobility  there  they  kill  and  make  away;  the  churchmen  and 
clergy  hardly  "they  spare.  The  churches,  with  the  bells  and  all  the 
furniture  thereof,  cither  they  cast  down,  or  else  they  convert  to  the 
use  of  their  own  blasphemous  religion ;  leaving  to  the  Christians  cer- 
tain old  and  blind  chapels,  which  when  they  decay,  it  is  permitted  to 
our  men  to  repair  them  again  for  a  great  sum  of  money  given  to  the 
Turk.  Neither  be  they  permitted  to  use  any  open  preaching  or 
ministration,  but  only  in  silence  and  by  stealth  to  frequent  together; 
nor  is  it  lawful  for  any  Christian  to  bear  office  within  the  city  or  pro- 
vince, or  to  bear  weapon;  or  to  wear  any  garment  like  to  the  Turks.1 
And  if  any  contumely  or  blasphemy,  be  it  ever  so  great,  be  spoken 
against  them,  or  against  Christ,  yet  must  thou  bear  it,  and  hold  thy 
peace.  Or  if  thou  speak  one  word  against  their  religion,  thou  shalt 
be  compelled  (whether  thou  wilt  or  no)  to  be  circumcised  :  and  then, 
if  thou  speak  one  word  against  Mahomet,  thy  punishment  is  fire  and 
burning.  And  if  it  chance  a  Christian,  being  on  horseback,  to  meet,  or 
ass  by  a  Mussulman,  that  is,  a  Turkish  priest,  he  must  alight  from  his 
lorse,  and  with  a  lowly  look  devoutly  reverence  and  adore  the  Mussul- 





""'re       man  ;  or  if  he  do  not,  he  is  beaten  down  from  his  horse  with  clul 
him.        and  staves. 

Furthermore,  for  their  tribute  they  pay  the  fourth  part  of  their 
substance  and  gain  to  the  Turk  ;  besides  the  ordinary  tribute  of  the 
Christians,  which  is  to  pay  for  every  poll  within  his  family  a  ducat 
unto  the  Turk,  which  if  the  parents  cannot  do,  they  are  compelled  to 
sell  their  children  into  bondage.     Others  being  not  able  to  pay,  go 
chained  in  fetters  from  door  to  door  begging,  to  make  up  their  pay- 
ment, or  else  must  lie  in  perpetual  prison. 
Misery  of      And  yet  notwithstanding,  when  the  Christians  have  discharged  all 
away       duties,  it  reiiiaineth  free  for  the  Turks,  to  take  up  among  the  Chris- 
chHdren   t'ans1  children  whom  they  best  like,  and  them  to  circumcise,  and  to 
frma       take  them  away,  being  young,  from  the  sight  of  their  parents,  to  far 
parents,    places,  to  be  brought  up  for  the  Turks'"  wars,  so  that  they  may  not 
return  to  them  again  ;  but  first  are  taught  to  forget  Christ,  and  then 
their  parents  ;  so  that  if  they  come  again  amongst  them,  yet  are  they 
not  able  to  know  their  kinsfolks  and  parents, 
omisory!      This  misery,  passing  all  other  miseries,  no  man  is  able  with  tongue 
to  utter,  or  with   words  to  express.     What  Aveeping  and  tears,  with 
Borrow  and  lamentation;  what  groaning,  sighs,  and  deep  dolour,  doth 
tear  ami  rend  asunder  the.  wol'ul  hearts  of  the  simple  parents,  at  the 
plucking  away  of  their  babes  and  children  ?  to  see  their  sons  and  their 
own  children,  whom  they  have  born  and  bred  up  to  the  service  of 

■  1 1  irChrlstUni  may  not  po  like  Turks,  why  should  our  gospellers  ko  like  papists.'    The  Tuiba 
have  tneii  lire  and  hggoti  as  well  u3  our  papists. 

THE    HISTOBY    OK    THK    TU11KS.  87 

(  hrist  Jesus  the  Son  of  God,  now  to  be  drawn  away  violently  from  Spifum. 
them  to  the  warfare  of  Satan,  and  to  fight  against  Christ  ?  to  see  their 
babes,  born  of  christian  blood,  of  Christians  to  be  made  Turks,  and 
so  to  be  plucked  out  of  their  arms,  and  out  of  their  sight,  without 
hope  ever  to  return  to  them  again  ?  to  live  perpetually  with  aliens, 
barbarous  and  blasphemous  Turks,  and  so  to  become  of  the  number 
of  those  who  are  called  fatherless  and  motherless  P1 

Albeit  the  same  children  afterwards  do  greatly  degenerate  from  the  privy 
faith  of  Christ,  yet  very  many  of  them  have  privily  about  them  the  g??S£f™ 
gospel  written  by  St.  John,  "  In  principio  erat  verbum,'1  £>ce.  which,  key- 
for  a  token  or  remembrance  of  their  christian  faith,  thev  carry  under 
their  arm-hole,  written  in  Greek  and  Arabic  :   who  greatly  desire,  and 
long  look  for  the  revenging  sword  of  the  Christians,  to  come  and  de-  An  old 
liver  them  out  of  their  dolorous  thraldom  and  captivity,  according  as  fouchfni; 
the  Turks  themselves  have  a  prophecy,  and  great! v  stand  in  fear  of  ^j1® Chris- 
the  same.     Whereof  more  shall  be  said,  Christ  willing,  in  the  chap-  sword. 
ter  following. 

And  thus  have  ye  heard  the  lamentable  afflictions  of  our  christian 
brethren  under  the  cruel  tyrannv  and  captivity  of  the  Turks,  passing 
all  other  captivities  that  ever  have  been  to  God's  people,  either  under 
Pharaoh  in  Egypt,  or  under  Nebuchadnezzar  in  Babylon,  or  under 
Antiochus  in  the  time  of  the  Maccabees :  under  which  captivity,  if 
it  so  please  the  Lord  to  have  his  spouse  the  church  to  be  nurtured, 
his  good  will  be  done  and  obeyed  !  But  if  this  misery  come  by  the 
negligence  and  discord  of  our  christian  guides  and  leaders,  then  have 
we  to  pray  and  cry  to  our  Lord  God,  either  to  give  better  hearts  to 
our  guiders  and  rulers,  or  else  better  guides  and  rulers  to  his  flock. 

And  these  troubles  and  afflictions  of  our  christian  brethren  suffered 
by  the  Turks,  I  thought  good  and  profitable  for  our  country  people 
here  of  England  to  know,  for  as  much  as  by  the  ignorance  cf  these, 
and  such  like  histories  worthy  of  consideration,  I  see  much  incon- 
venience doth  follow :  whereby  it  cometh  to  pass,  that  because  we 
Englishmen,  being  far  off  from  these  countries,  and  little  knowing  ^eces. 
what  misery  is  abroad,  are  the  less  moved  with  zeal  and  compassion  tsh'eyt,iat 
to  tender  their  grievances,  and  to  pray  for  them,  whose  troubles  we  troubles 
know  not.      Whereupon  also  it  tolloweth,  that  we,  not  considering  church  be 
the  miserable  state  of  others,  are  the  less  grateful  to  God,  when  any  kno""- 
tranquillity  by  him  to  us  is  granted.     And  if  any  little  cloud  of 
perturbation  arise  upon  us,  be  it  ever  so  little,  as  poverty,  loss  of 
living,  or  a  little  banishment  out  of  our  country  for  the  Lord's  cause, 
we  make  a  great  matter  thereof,  and  all  because  wc  go  no  further 
than  our  own  country,  and,  only  feeling  our  own  cross,  do  not  com- 
pare that  which  we  feel,  with  the  great  crosses  whercunto  the  churches 
of  Christ  commonly  in  other  places  abroad  are  subject.   Which  if  we 
did  rightly  understand,  and  earnestly  consider,  and  ponder  in  our 
minds,  neither  would  wc  so  excessively  forget  ourselves  in  time  of 
our  prosperity  given  us  of  God,  nor  yet  so  impatiently  be  troubled, 
as  we  are  in  time  of  our  adversity  ;  and  all  because  either  wc  hear  not, 
or  else  we  ponder  not,  the  terrible  crosses  which  the  Lord  layeth 
upon  our  other  brethren  abroad  in  other  nations,  as  by  this  present 
story  here  prefixed  may  appear. 

(J)  This  is  with  tears  rather  than  with  words  to  he  expressed. 

33  THE    HISTORY    OF    THE    TURKS. 

siyman.       Now  consequently  remainetli,  as  I  have  showed  hitherto  what 

" tyranny  hath  been  used  of  the  Turks  against  Christ's  people,  so  to 

••  declare  likewise,  how  far  this  tyranny  of  the  Turks  hath  extended 
TuiVs  and  spread  itself;  describing,  as  in  a  table,  to  the  christian  reader, 
d?mi'  what  lands,  countries,  and  kingdoms,  the  Turks  have  won  and  got 
from  Christendom;  to  the  intent,  that  when  christian  princes  shall 
behold  the  greatness  of  the  Turk's  dominions  spread  almost  through 
all  the  world,  and  how  little  a  part  of  Christianity  remaineth  behind, 
they  may  thereby  understand  the  better,  how  it  is  time  now  for  them 
to  "bestir  them,  if  ever  they  think  to  do  any  good  in  God's  church. 
And  therefore,  to  make  a  compendious  draft,  as  in  a  brief  table, 
of  such  countries,  kingdoms,  and  dominions,  got  from  us  by  the 
Turks,  we  will  first  begin  with  Asia,  describing  what  tracts,  countries, 
cities,  and  churches,  the  Turk  hath  surprised,  and  violently  plucked 
away  from  the  society  of  christian  dominions,  taking  only  such  as 
be  most  principal,  and  chiefly  them  that  be  in  Scripture  contained, 
for  that  it  were  too  long  to  discourse  all  and  singular  such  places  by 
name,  as  the  Turk  hath  under  his  subjection. 

The  world  being  divided  commonly  into  three  parts,  Asia,  Africa, 
and  Europe  ;x  Asia  is  counted  to  be  the  greatest  in  compass,  contain- 
ing as  much  as  both  the  others,  and  is  divided  into  two  portions,  the 
one  called  Asia  Major ;  the  other  called  Asia  Minor.  And  although 
the  empire  of  the  Turk  extendeth  unto  them  both;  yet  especially  his 
dominion  standeth  in  the  other  Asia,  which  is  called  Asia  Minor, 
which  reacheth  from  the  coasts  of  Europe  unto  Armenia  Major, 
beyond  the  river  Euphrates,  and  comprehendeth  these  regions  and 
cities  following. 


With  the  particular  Countries  and  Cities  belonging  to  the  same. 


Pontus2  and  Bitliynia.3 


Nicea.  Heraclea.  Nicomedia. 

(lialcedon.  Prusa  or  Bursa.  Apamea.* 

Natolia,  or  Anatolia,  containeth  divers  countries,  with  their  cities, 
as  followed) : 


Mysia  Minor.5 
Phrygia  Minor.6 

Mysia  Major.8 
Phrygia  Major.9 









Alexandria  or  Troas. 



(1)  On  the  4th  of  August,  1408,  the  Great  Continent  of  America  was  discovered  by  Columbus  j 
Ibe  above  observations  were  made  by  Foxe,  about  15(56.— Ed.  (2)  Acts  ii.  (,'i)  Ibid.  xvi. 

1  ''  Apami  i  is  a  ciiv  in  P.ithynin,  ;i1m>  another  in  Mesopotamia,  Apamea  Cybotus ;  alsoacityin 
Great  Phr\j;i;»,  and  another  also  in  Parthia.  (5)  Acts  xvi. 

(6)   \i,  ii.    Phrygia  Minor  in  Ptolomy  is  called  Troas.  (7)  Acts  xx. 

t«x»i.  (9)Ibid.  ii.  (10)  Isa.  lwi.  (11)  1  Mace.  xv. 

(H)  Acts  \w.  (18)  ibid.  xx. 






Pi  tan  e 













Thus  far  reacheth  the  compass  of  Natolia ;   next  follow  : 

Lycia.13  Paraphilia. 1-> 

Galatia,velGallogra?cia.14    Pisidia. 
Paphlagonia.  Cappadocia.1 























Comana  Pontica. 

Amasia  vcl  Eupatoria.s 

Masa  vel  Caesarea. 


Comana  Cappadocia 



Armenia  Minor. 







Solimuntis,  vel   Trajano- 

Issus,  vel  Iaiassa. 
Antiochia  Pisidia3.31 

Syria  comprehendcth  in  it  divers  particular  Provinces,  with    their 
Cities,  as  followeth : 


Palestina  Judea. 





Cassarea  Stratonis.38 


Joppe,42  or  Japheth.43 
















Sydon,  vel  Sichem. 

(1)  Acts  xxvii.  (2)  Col.  iv.  (3)  Apoc.  ii.  (4)  Ibid  iii. 

(5)  At  Carina,  a  certain  man  with  a  company  of  harlots  being  there  lodged,  suddenly  happened 
an  earthquake  in  the  city,  wherein  he,  and  all  they  were  swallowed  up.  Pius  2  Papa,  lib.  de 
Descriptione  cap.  16.  (6)  Apoc.  ii.  (71  Ibid.  iii. 

(S)  Apoc.  ii.  (9)  Ibid.  (10)  Ibid.  iii.  (1 1)  1  Mace.  xv.  (121  Acts  xx. 

(1,1)  Acts  xxvii.        (H)Ibid.xvi.  (1.5)  Ibid.  ii.  (16)  Ibid.  (17)  Col.  i. 

(18)  Acts  xxi.  (19)  Ibid.  xiii.  (20)  Ibid.  (21)  Ibid.  xiv.  (22)  Mace.  xv. 

(23)  Here  Badlina  Magnus  was  bishop.  (24)  Here  Gregorius  Nazianzenus  was  bishop 

(25)  Acts  xxii.     The  country  where  St.  Paul  was  born. 

(26)  Another  Coricus  is  also  in  the  isle  of  Creta  (27)  Acts  xxvii. 
(29)  Acta  xvi.          (SO)  Ibid.  xiv.           (31)  Ibid.  xi.         (324  Ibid.  xv. 
(34)  Matt.  iii.          (35)  Acts  xi.               (36)  Mark  iii.        (37)  Acts  i. 
(39)  Matt.  ii.           (40)  Mark  i.               (Ill  Matt.  xx.        (12)  Josh.  xv. 
(44)  John  vi.           (45)  Josh.  xiH            (46)  Actaviil.        (47)  Jurlg.  ii. 

(49)  Josh.  xix.     Bersabee  is  a  city  in  Jury,  also  another  in  [dumea. 

(50)  Acts  xxiii.         (51)  Ibid.  ix.  (52)   Mark  xi.  (53)   Acts  (x. 
(55)  Matt.  iv.           (56)  John  ii.            (57)  Luke  vi.  (58)  Ibid. 

(2S)  Ibid  xiv. 

(33)  Ibid. 

(?8)  Ibid.  viii. 

i43)  Acts  ix. 

(48)  Acts  viii. 

(54)  Matt.  iv. 

90  THE    HISTORY    OF    THE    TLRIiS. 


Ptolomais.1  Antiochia,  sub  Tauro.  Paradisu 

Cjesarea  I'hilippi."  Alexandria  apud  Issum.  Jabruda. 

Damascus.3  Nicopolis.o  Nazamm 

Philadelphia.4  Gephyra.  Apamia. 

Buthis,  vel  Pella.  Gindarus.  Besannna,  vel  Bersabee. 

Antiochia  apud  Orontem,  Seleucia.7  Eulc 

vel  Theophilis.5  Imma.  Ma 

Samosata.  Laodicsea.8 




vel  Hur  Cbaldaeorum, 

which   is    now    ci 

where    Abraham    was 








Gerusa.  S.  Georgius. 



Getara,  vel  Gangara. 

Dioscuria    vel     Sebastia, 


Thus  far  rcachcth  the  compass  of  Syria. 
Asia  Minor. 


Arabia.9  Carra,  or  Charan,  where  Sarmatia 

Arabia  Petaea,  or  Naba-       Abraham  dwelt.  Colchis, 

tjea.  Selucia.10  Iberia. 

Arabia   Felix.  Mesopotamia.  Albania,  and  Armenia.13 

Arabia  Deserta.  Babylonia.12 

Sahara.  vel  Hur  Cbaldaeorum,         which   is    now    called 

Edessa,14   which    is   now 

railed    Orpha,    and   in 

the    story    of    Tobias, 

called  Rages. 

Babylon,  vel  Baldach.15 
Orchoe,       vel      Urchoa, 

And  thus  far  reaeheth  the  compass  of  Asia  Minor,  with  the 
countries  and  provinces  to  the  same  pertaining,  which  being  once 
brought  to  the  faith  of  Christ,  are  now  in  a  manner  all  subdued  to 
the  Turks. 

Islands  belonging  to  Asia  Minor. 

The  islands  belonging  to  the  regions  of  Asia  Minor  aforesaid,  gotten 
by  the  Turk,  are  these  • 

Thinias,  belonging  to  Bi-  Possidium  to  iEolis.  Carpathus  to  Doris 

tliynia.  Samos  to  Ionia.19  Rhodus  to  Lycia.23 

Tenedoa  to  Troaa.  Trogyllium.20  Cyprus.-4 

Chios  to  Lydia."  ("nidus,  to  Doris.21  Pancluea. 

Patmns."  Cos.-* 

(1)  Acts  xxi.  (2)  Matt.  xvi.  (8)  Sal.  i.  (■!)  Apoc.  i. 

(5)  Antiochia,  apud  Orontem,  a  chief  ci!y  in  Syria,  where  the  disciples  of  Christ  were  first  named 
Christians,  Acts  xi. 

8)  Nicopolis,  is  a  city  also  in  Macedonia,  mentioned  in  the  epistle  of  Saint  Paul  to  Titus, 
chap.  iii. 

(7)  Acts  xiii.  Seleucia,  is  a  city  in  Syria.  Also  another  in  l'amphylia,  another  in  Cilicia  Pisidia, 
another  in  Ctt-lo-Syria,  and  in  Mesopotamia  another. 

II,   In  this  Laodioeawas  the  council  kept,  which  is  called  Concilium  Laodicense.    There 
is  aimiher  l.aodicea   in  Lydia,   near  to  Colossac  in  Asia  Minor.  Colos.  iv.  15.  Laodicea  also  is  the 
ii  I'hrvgia  1'acatiana,  near  to  Galatia,  Acts  xviii.  1  Tim.  vi. 
Qal    1.4.  (10)  Acts  vii.  (1 1)  Psalm  lix. 

ih  'ii,  Hi.   Babylon  in  Chaldaea,  where  Nebuchadnezzar  reigned.     It  was  alter  destroyed,  and 
by  Seleucua  Nicanor.     Another  is  in  Egypt  called  Alcayrus.     In  the  country  of  Baby- 
lonia, is  alsu  a  certain  region  appointed  for  philosophers  and  astronomers,  called  Chaldea.  Jer.  1. 

i    \  i i l .    Armenia  Major  is  divided  from   Armenia  Minor  by  the  river  Euphrates.     This 
Armenia  Major  and  Minor,  this  day  he  both  under  the  Turks. 

(Ill  In  Edessa  reigned  king  Ahgatus,  mentioned  in  Eusch.  lib.  i.  cap.  15,  to  whom  Christ  wrote, 
promising  to  send  onto  him  alter  his  death.  (15)  Acts  vii.  (lfi)  Gen.  xi.  15. 

(17)  Actixx.       (lS)Apoc.i.       (1!))  Acts  xx.       (20)  Ibid.  (21 )  Ibid,  xxvii. 

cj'Ji  ibid   nd.  (38)  ibid. 

21)  Acts  xi.     This  Cyprus  king  UK-hard  I.  did  once  subdue,  limiting  against  the  Saracens. 

THE    HISTORY    OF    THE    TUBKB.  91 

^neas    Sylvius,    otherwise  pope    Pius  II.,    in    describing   Asia  Soiynwn. 
Minor,1  reciteth  a   certain  fact   of  a   worthy  virgin ;  who  at  that  A  memo- 
time  the  Turks  were  besieging  a  certain  town  in   Lesbos,  and  had  ™bale  fact 
cast  down  a  great  part  of  the  walls,  so  that  all  the  townsmen  had  virgin,  in 
given  over,  putting  on  man's  harness,  stepped  forth  into  the  breach,  0f  her* 
where  not  only  she  kept  the  Turks  from  entering  in,  but  also  slew  of  cuuutry- 
them  a  great  sort.     The  citizens  seeing  the  rare  courage,  and  good 
success  of  the  maiden,  took  to  them  again  their  hearts  and  harness, 
and  so  lustily  laid  about  them,  that  an  incredible  number  of  the  Turks 
were  slain.    The  rest  being  repulsed  from  the  land,  rcculed  into  their 
ships  ;  who  being  then  pursued  by  a  navy  of  Calisa,  were  worthily 
discomfited  likewise  upon  the  sea.     And  thus  was  the  isle  of  Lesbos 
at   that  time  by  a  poor  virgin,  that  is  by  the  strong  hand   of  the 
Lord  working  in  a  weak  creature,  preserved  from  the  Turks. 

Beside  these  regions  and  countries  of  Asia  Minor  above  described, 
Sebastian  Munster,  in  the  fifth  book  of  his  Cosmography,  declareth 
moreover,  that  the  Turks  and  Sultans  have  under  their  subjection 
both  Arabia,  Persia,  and  also  India  Exterior,  wherein  is  Calcutta. 
The  which  Persia,  although  it  be  under  the  Sophi,  who  is  an 
enemy  to  the  Turk,  yet  it  is  to  be  thought,  that  he  is  a  Sultan, 
one  of  the  Turkish  and  Mahometan  religion.  This  Persia  and  India 
were  once  seasoned  with  Christ's  gospel,  as  may  appear  by  the  primi- 
tive church.  And  thus  have  you  the  parts  of  Asia  described,  which  in 
times  past  being  almost  all  christened,  do  now  serve  under  the  Turk. 

After  the  description  of  Asia,  let  us  next  consider  the  parts  and 
countries  of  Africa.  Where,  although  the  greatest  part  either  con- 
sisteth  in  deserts  desolate,  or  is  possessed  by  Prester  John,  who 
professeth  Christ  and  his  gospel ;  yet  the  Turk  hath  there  also  no 
little  portion  under  his  dominion,  as  these  . 

Regnum  Tunece. 




Africa  Minor. 




Hippo.  Here    Saint  Au- 
gustine was  bishop. 

A  description  of  the  Countries  and  Cities  in  Europe,  which  were 
before  christened,  and  now  are  subdued  and  subject  to  the  Turk. 
























(1)  Ex  Mne.  Sylv.  lib.  De  Orbis  Descrin.  rap.  74.    El  Sob.  Munst.  lib.  5. 

(2)  Matt.  ii.  (3)  Acts  ii.  (1)  Ibid.  .\vi.        |  (5)  Ibid,  xx.  (B)  Rpin.  JV.  (7)  Ibid. 




Constantinople,  or  Bizan-  Actum. 


IK  nutrias. 
Apollonia  Mygdonia?. 













Lacedsemon,  or  Sparta.9 













Islands  bordering  about  Greece,10  won  likewise  by  the  Turk  from 
the  Christians. 

Eubcea,  or  Nigropontus.     Cyclades.14 
Creta.11  Cephalenia. 





Zacynthus,  or  Zanthus.       Corcyra, 

Corsica  16 





Pulchri  Portus." 



After  the  Turk  had  subdued  Thrace  and  Greece,  proceeding 
farther  into  Europe,  he  invaded  other  regions  and  cities,  which  als< 
he  added  to  his  dominions :  as, 


Mysia  Superior.21 

Mysia  Inferior 











Transylvania,  or  Septem  Austria. 




Sigindunum,  or  Singet. 

Triballorum  (Escus. 


Axiuni,  or  Chilia. 

Labacus,  Metropoli 

;l)  Arts  xvii.  (2)  Tbid.  xvi.  '3)  Ibid.  (i)  Ibid.  xvii.  (5)  Ibid.  (C)  Ibid. 

(T|  Argot,  Is  a  city  Id  Amphilochis,  and  another  also  in  Peloponnesus. 

ii    (il  Corinth  Strabo  writeth,  that  more  than  a  thousand  virgins  there  in  the  temple 
'<   Venui,  used  yearly  to  be   set  out  as  common;  and  therefore  not  without   cause  Saint   Paul 
Eratli  icortatorei,  Idolatne,'  &c.  l  Cor.vL  (9)  2  Mace.  v. 

(10)  i  be  lalanda  about  Gratia  i  Bee  above. 
illj  Actl  wii.   in  Creta  St  Paul  ordained  Titus  to  he  bishop  and  overseer. 

'    «vil.  (Hi)  Ibid.  (14)  Fifty  three  islands.  (15)Actsxx. 

(Ill)  Corsica,  is  an  island  beyond  Italy,  which  the  Turk's  navy  joining  with  the  French,  did  ovcr- 
oome,  a  .  n.  I8S8. 
(17)  An  (18)  Ibid.  (19)  Ibid.  xvii.  (20)  1  Mace.  xv. 

(21)  The  rip. in  of  Mysia  is  divided  into  two  parts;  whereof  the  one  is  in  Asia,  and  is  divided  into 
or,  and   Mysia  Minor.     The  other  is  in  Europe,  and  is  divided  into  Mysia  (or   Mcesla} 
Superior,  and  Myaia  Inferior.  (22)  1  Tim.  iv. 


Epidaurus,1  or  Ragusium.  Tergovistus,  or  Tervifl.        Walpe. 

Milea,  or  Meleda.  Huniad.3  Novigradum. 

Senia,  or  Segna.  flermenstat.  Varna.5 

Enona,  or  Hona.  Cfonestat  Buda,  or  Ofen 

Jadra,  or  Zara.  Saltzburg.  Alba  regalia. 

Sebenica.  Alba   Julia,  or  Wessen-  Belgradum,  or  Taurinum. 

Stridon,  where  St.  Jerome       burge.  Strigonium. 

was  born.  Cyula.  Varadinum. 

Quinque  Ecclesiae.  Samandria.  Neopolis,  Major,  et  Minor 

Jaitza,  Metropolis  of  Columbetz.*  Pestum. 

Bulgaria. - 

As  I  was  writing  hereof,  a  certain  sound  of  lamentable  news  was 
brought  unto  us,  how  the  Turk,  whom  we  had  hoped  before  to  have 
been  repulsed  by  the  emperor  Maximilian  out  of  Christendom,  hath 
now  of  late,  this  present  year  1566,  got  the  town  of  Gyula  about 
Transylvania,  after  they  had  sustained  sixteen  of  his  most  forcible 
assaults,  destroying  in  the  same  most  cruelly  many  thousands  of  our 
Christian  brethren,  men,  women,  and  children ;  but  because  we  have 
no  full  certainty,  we  will  refer  the  story  thereof  to  further  in- 


aToucfjinn,  tfje  comma  up,  anb  final  ftuin  and  destruction,  of  tljr? 
toiefceo  fiintjDom  of  tlje  Cutrtf, 


Forasmuch  as  you  have  hitherto  sufficiently  heard,  to  what 
quantity  and  largeness  the  dominion  of  the  Turks  hath  increased, 
and  do  understand  what  cruel  tyranny  these  wretched  miscreants 
have  and  do  daily  practise  most  heinously  wheresoever  they  come, 
against  the  servants  and  professors  of  Christ;  it  shall  not  be  unprofit- 
able, but  rather  necessary,  and  to  our  great  comfort,  to  consider  and 
examine  in  the  Scriptures,  with  what  prophecies  the  Holy  Spirit  of  the 
Lord  hath  premonished  and  forewarned  us  before,  of  these  heavy  per- 
secutions to  come  upon  his  people  by  this  horrible  Antichrist.  For 
as  the  government  and  constitution  of  times,  and  states  of  monarchies 
and  policies,  fall  not  to  us  by  blind  chance,  but  be  administered  and 
allotted  unto  us  from  above;  so  it  is  not  to  be  supposed,  that  such 
a  great  alteration  and  mutation  of  kingdoms,  such  a  terrible  and 
general  persecution  of  God's  people  almost  through  all  Christendom, 
and  such  a  terror  of  the  whole  earth  as  is  now  moved  and  engendered 
by   these   Turks,    cometh  without  the  knowledge,  sufferance,  and 

(1)  Epidaurus,  is  a  city  in  Illyria,  and  also  another  in  Peloponnesus.  These  regions  were  in 
former  times  called  by  the  name  of  Illyria  or  Illyricum,  and  afterward,  by  reason  of  certain  Scy- 
thians coming  thither,  they  were  also  called  Sclavonia.  Stephanus,  king  of  Bosnia,  and  afterward 
of  Rascia  and  Mysia,  was  by  subtle  train  allured  to  come  and  speak  with  Mahomet  the  Turk, 
■who,  being  come,  was  taken  and  his  skin  flayed  off. 

(2)  All  this  tract  of  Bulgaria,  Wallachia,  Transylvania,  Servia,  Rascia,  and  Moldavia,  was  wont 
to  be  called  Dacia,  but  afterward  was  severed  into  divers  lands  and  dominions.  Bulgaria  was  won 
of  Bajazet  the  Turk  from  the  crown  of  Hungary,  through  the  unprospiTous  war  of  Sigfamund, 
at  the  field  of  Nicopolis,  a.d.  1395.  This  Sigismund  was  the  burner  of  John  Huss,  and  the 
persecutor  of  his  doctrine. 

(3)  Where  Johannes  Huniades  was  horn. 

(4)  At  Columbetz,  Sigismund  lost  the  field,  fighting  against  the  Turks. 

(5)  in  Varna,  a  city  in  Rascia,  .Ladislaus,  king  of  Hungary,  fought  with  the  Turk,  and  was 
overcome,  a.d.  1444.  Vide  supra. 


9  J,  THE    HISTOID    OF    THE    TURKS. 

proPhco  determination  of  the  Lord  before,  for  such  ends  and  purposes  as  his 
divine  wisdom  dotli  best  know.     For  the  better  evidence  and  testi- 
mony whereof,  he  hath  left  in  his  Scriptures  sufficient  instruction 
and  declaration,  whereby  we  may  plainly  see,  to  our  great  comfort, 
how  these  grievous   afflictions  and  troubles  of  the  church,  though 
thev  be  sharp  and  heavy  unto  us,  yet  they  come  not  by  chance  or 
by  man's  working  only,  but  even  as  the  Lord  himself  hath  appointed 
it,  and  doth  permit  the  same. 
Two  And  first  to  begin  with  the  time  of  the   Old  Testament,  let  us 
,M"um  t0  seriously  advise  and  ponder,  not  only  the  scriptures  and  prophecies 
■idered     therein  contained,  but  also  let  us  consider  the  whole  state,  order,  and 
!",,!!•  and  regiment  of  that  people;  the  church,  I  mean,  of  the  Israelites.    For 
ttoow    although    the  scriptures  and  prophets  of  the  Old  Testament  were 
Testa,      properly  sent  to  that  people,  and  have  their  relation  properly  to 
things  done,  or  that  should  be  clone  in  that  commonwealth,  of  which 
prophets  John  Baptist  was  the  last  and  made  an  end,  as  our  Saviour 
himself  witncsseth,  saying,  the  law  and  prophets  be  unto  the  time  of 
John,  &c. ;  yet,  notwithstanding,  the  said  people  of  that  Old  Testa- 
ment bear  a  lively  image  and  resemblance  of  the  universal  church 
which  should  follow,  planted  by  the  Son  of  God  through  the  whole 
earth.     So  that  as  the  prophets  of  God,  speaking  to  them  from  the 
mouth  and  word  of  God,  prophesied  what  should  come  to  pass  in 
that  people ;  so,  likewise,  the  whole  course  and   history  of  those 
Israelites  exemplified  and  beareth  a  prophetical  image  to  us,  declaring 
what  is  to  be  looked  for  in  the  universal  church  of  God  dispersed 
through  the  world,  planted  in   Christ  Jesus  his  Son,  according  as 
Philip  Melancthon,  gravely  gathering  upon  the  same,  testifieth  in 
divers  places  in  his  commentary  upon  the  prophet  Daniel. 

As  first  the  history  of  godly  Abel,  slain  by  wicked  Cain,  what 
doth  it  import  or  prophesy,  but  the  condition  of  the  people  and 
servants  of  God,  who  commonly  go  to  wrack  in  this  world,  and  are 
oppressed  by  the  contrary  part,  which  belongeth  not  to  God  ? 

The  like  may  be  said  also  of  Isaac  and  Ishmael ;  of  Jacob  and 

Esau :  of  whom  those  two  who  were  the  children  of  promise,  and 

belonged  to  the   election  of  God,  were  persecuted  in  this  world  by 

The        the  others  who  were  rejected.    Where,  moreover,  is  to  be  noted  con- 

Mna'of     cerning  Ishmael,  that  of  his  stock,  after  the  flesh,  came  the  Saracens, 

iabmaei,  whose  sect  the  Turks  do  now  profess  and  maintain.  And  as  Ishmael 

through    had  but  twelve  sons ;  so  it  were  to  be  wished  of  God,  that  this  Soly- 

oTtoman  nian  who  is  the  twelfth  of  the  Turkish  generation,  may  be  the  last. 

uuikb.     I3nt  of  this,  better  occasion  shall  follow  (the  Lord  willing)  hereafter. 

Furthermore,  of  the  twelve  tribes  of  Israel,  the  sacred  history  so 

reporteth,1  that  after  they  had  a  long  season  continued  together  by 

the  space  of  eight  or  nine  hundred  years,  at  length,  for  their  idolatry 

and  transgression  of  their  forefathers,  ten  tribes  of  them  were  cut  off, 

and  dispersed  among  the  Gentiles  a  hundred  and  thirty  years  before 

The  old    the  captivity  of  Babylon  ;  so  that  but  two  tribes  only  remained  free, 

the '  °   an<I  they  also  at  last,  after  a  hundred  and  thirty  years,  were  captived 

imeHtoj  under  the  Babylonians  for  a  certain  time.     No  otherwise  hath  it 

public      happened  with  the  church  of  Christ  almost  in  the  universal  world,  of 

ChrtK.      which  church  the  greatest  part,  both  in  Asia,  in  Africa,  and  almost  in 

(1)  5  Kings  xvii. 

THE    HISTORY    OF    THE    TURKS.  95 

Europe  (where  the  holy  apostles  so  laboured  and  travailed),  wc  ?ee  Prophecy. 
now  to  be  disparkled  among  the  Turks,  and  their  candlesticks  re-  — 
moved :  the  Lord  of  his  great  grace  reduce  them  again,  Amen  !  So 
that  of  twelve  parts  of  Christendom,  which  were  once  planted  in 
Christ,  scarce  two  parts  remain  clear,  and  they,  how  long  they  shall 
so  continue,  the  Lord  knoweth.  And,  albeit  through  the  mercy  of 
the  Lord  they  escape  the  danger  of  the  Turks,  yet  have  they  been 
so  beaten  by  the  pope,  that  they  had  been"  better  almost  to  have  been 
in  the  Turks1  hands. 

Again,  after  the  said  Israelites  returned,  being  restored  by  Cyrus, 
let  us  consider  well  their  story,  the  continuance  of  time,  the  manner 
of  their  regiments,  and  what  afflictions  they  sustained  in  the  time  of 
the  Maccabees ;  and  we  shall  see  a  lively  representation  of  these  our 
days  expressed  in  that  prophetical  people,  according  as  St.  Paul, 
writing  of  them,  showeth  how  all  things  happened  to  them  in  figures,1 
that  is,  the  actions  and  doings  of  that  one  nation,  be  as  figures  and 
types  of  greater  matters,  what  shall  happen  in  the  latter  times  of  the 
whole  church  universally  in  Christ  collected. 

So  the  transmigration  and  deliverance  again  of  those  two  tribes,  The 
declareth  to  us  the  affliction  of  Christ's  church  for  sin ;  and  yet  that  ae  Jew. 
God  will  not  utterly  reject  his  people  for  his  Sons  sake  :  as  by  mani-  cUSS.0' 
fold  examples  of  the  church  hitherto  may  well  appear. 

Again,  the  continuance  of  the  law  first  given  by  Moses,  unto  the 
destruction  of  the  said  people  by  Titus,  amounteth  to  one  thousand 
five  hundred  and  sixty-four  years ;  so  we,  counting  the  age  of  the 
New  Testament,  and  reckoning  from  the  day  of  our  redemption 
unto  this  present,  be  come  now  to  the  year  1534,  lacking  but  only 
three  and  thirty  years  of  the  full  number.2 

Likewise,  in  counting  the  years  from  their  deliverance  out  of  cap-  Times  or 
tivity  to  the  end  of  their  dissolution,  we  find  five  hundred  and  sixty-  ehur°ch, 
four  years,  during  which  years,  as  the  church  of  the  Jews  was  not  ^^ 
governed  under  the  authority  of  kings,  but  the  high  priests  took  all  new. 
the  power  and  authority  to  themselves ;  so  we  Christians,  for  the  priestfin 
space  especially  of  these  latter  five  hundred  and  sixty-four 'years,  *J*J2J[ 
what  have  we  seen  and  felt,  but  only  the  jurisdiction  and  domination  wealth, 
of  the  pope  and  high  priests  playing  the  '  Rex1  in  all  countries,  and  prelates 
ruling  the  whole  ?  whereby,  by  the  count  of  these  years,  it  is  to  be  compared, 
thought  the  day  of  the  Lord's  coming  not  to  be  far  off. 

Furthermore,  in  those  latter  years  of  the  Jews1  kingdom,  what 
troubles  and  afflictions  that  people  sustained  three  hundred  years 
together,  but  chiefly  the  last  hundred  and  sixty-six  years  before  the 
coming  of  Christ,  by  Antiochus  and  his  fellows,  the  history  of  the  ^ 
Maccabees    can    report;    wherein   we    have    also    notoriously    to  odulSi ;, 
understand  the  miserable  vexations   and  persecutions  of  christian  *&£ ot 
churches,  in  these  latter  ends  of  the  world,  by  Antichrist ;  for,  by  chrf* 
Antiochus,  Antichrist  no  doubt  is  figured  and  represented.     This  m!iv.' 
Antiochus  surnamed  Magnus,  and  Antiochus  Epiphancs,  his  son,  *™Uyot 
came  of  the  stock  of  Scleuchus  Nicanor  ;   much  like  as  Mahomet  Tm*«. 
the  Turk,  and  Solyman,  came  of  the  stock  of  Ottoman. 

Wherein  this  is  to  be  noted  and  pondered,  that,  like  as  of  the  said 
Seleucus  issued  twelve  Syrian  kings  one  after  another,  of  that  gene- 

(1)  1  Cor.  x.  (2)  Ex  Phi.  Melanct.  in  Dan  cap.  9. 

(JC)  THE    HISTORY    OF    THE    TURKS. 

rmphtcy.  ration,  wild  reigned  over  the  Israelites  with  much  severity  and 
—  tvmnnv;  so,  of  this  devilish  generation  of  Ottoman,  have  come 
twelve  Turkish  tyrants,  whereof  this  Solyman  is  now  the  twelfth  ; 
God  o-rant  he  may  be  the  last !  And  as  the  two  last  Antiochi,  being 
sons  of  the  two  brethren,  did  fight  together  for  the  kingdom,  and  in 
fighting  were  both  slain,  and  shortly  after  the  kingdom  fell  to  the 
[tomans  ;  bo  the  Lord  grant,  for  Christ's  sake,  that  the  bloody  brood 
of  this  old  Solyman  (who  hath  reigned  now  six  and  forty  years)  may 
BO  fight  together,  and  perish  in  their  own  blood,  that  this  bloody 
tyranny  of  theirs  may  come  to  a  final  end  for  ever.  Amen. 

And  that  the  truth  hereof  may  the  better  appear  to  such  as  be 
disposed  to  meditate  more  upon  the  matter,  I  thought  good  and 
profitable  for  the  reader,  to  set  before  his  eyes,  in  table-wise,  the 
catalogue  of  both  these  Antichristian  families,  with  the  names  and 
succession  of  the  persons,  first  of  the  twelve  Syrian  kings,  then  of 
the  twelve  Ottomans,  in  like  number  and  order. 


The  Syrians. 


1.  Seleucus reigned     .     33 

2.  Antiochus  Soter 19 

3.  Antiochus  Theos,  who  killed  Bernice  hv:  mother-in-law,  and  his  young 

brother         15 

4.  Seleucus  Callinicus,  with  Antiochus  Hierax  his  brother ;  which  two 

brethren  warred  one  against  the  other 20 

5.  Antiochus  Magnus 3G 

(i.   Seleucus  I'hilopater        12 

7.  Antiochus  Epiphanes,  or  rather  Epimanes 

8.  Antiochus  Eupater 

9.  Demetrius,  brother  of  Epiphanes,  who  killed  Eupater  his  cousin     . 

10.  Demetrius  Nicanor,  whom  Antiochus  Sedetes,  his  brother,  expulsed 

from  his  kingdom 

1 1.  Antiochus  Sedetes.     These  two  last  being  brethren  had  two  sons  .     . 
•12.  Antiochus  Gripus,  and  Antiochus   Ciricenus.      These    two,   striving 

together  for  the  kingdom,  were  both  slain,  and  so,  not  long  after, 
the  kingdom  of  Syria  came  to  the  hands  of  Tygranes  king  of  Arme- 
nia, and  so  being  taken  from  him  came  to  the  Romans  in  the  time 
of  Pompey 

The  Turks. 


1.  Ottoman reigned     .     28 

2.  Orehan  :  he  slew  his  two  brethren 22 

3.  Amurath  :  he  put  out  the  eyes  of  Sauces,  his  own  son 23 

4.  Bajazet :  he  slew  Solyman,  his  brother 

5.  Calepine:  the  Greek  stories  make  no  mention  of  this  Calepine.     The 

Latin  stories  say  that  Calepine  and  Orehan  were  both  one,  and  that 

he  was  slain  by  Mahomet  his  brother 6 

6.  Orehan,  whom  Moses  his  uncle  did  slay 

7.  Mahomet  the  First :  he  slew  Mustapha,  his  brother 14 

8.  Amurath  the  Second  :  he  slew  Mustapha,  his  brother 34 

■9.  Mahomet  the  Second  :  he  slew  his  two  brethren,  Turcine,  an  infant, 

.Hid  Calepine 37 

10.    Bajazet   the   Second:  he   warred   against  his   brother  Denies,  which 

Deme8  was  afterwards  poisoned  by  pope  Alexander  VI 33 

1  1.   S.lini  ;  h'e  poisoned  Bajazet  bis  father,  and  his  two  brethren  Acomates 

and  Corcuthufl,  with  all  their  children,  his  own  cousins     ....       7 

12.  Solyman  :  he  slew   Mustapha,  his  own  son,  and  was  also  the  death  of 

(■ianvrr,  his  second  son 10 

of  Anti- 
hrist  ex- 

THE    HISTORY    OF    THE    TURKS.  97 

These  two  pestilent  families  and  generations,  rising  out,  doubtless,  Prophecy. 
from  the  bottomless  pit,  to  plague  the  people  of  God,  as  in  Dumber 

of  succession  they  do  not  much  differ,  so  in  manner  of  their  doings 
and  wicked  abominations,  they  be  as  near  agreeing,  being  both  ene- 
mies alike  to  the  people  and  church  of  Christ,  both  murderers  and 
parricides  of  their  own  brethren  and  kindred,  both  blasphemers  of 
God,  and  troublers  of  the  whole  world.  Wherein  we  have  all  to 
learn  and  note,  by  the  way,  the  terrible  anger  of  Almighty  God 
against  the  sin  and  wickedness  of  men. 

Furthermore,  whoso  is  disposed  to  consider  and  cast  the  course  of 
times,  and  to  mark  how  things  be  disposed  by  the  marvellous  opera-  " 
tion  of  God's  providence,  shall  find  the  times  also  of  these  two  adver- 
saries in  much  like  sort  to  concur  and  agree.  For,  in  considering 
with  ourselves  both  the  testaments  and  churches  of  God,  the  first 
of  the  Jews,  the  second  of  the  Christians,  look  what  time  the  Syrian 
kings  had  to  rage  then  in  Jerusalem,  the  same  proportion  of  time 
hath  now  the  tyranny  of  the  Turks  to  murder  the  Christians  ;  so  that  oneAnti- 
the  one  Antichrist  may  well  represent  and  prefigure  the  other.  For,  prenWes 
as  by  the  book  of  Maccabees  may  appear,  Antiochus  Epiphanes  a,,other- 
was  about  the  hundred  and  ninety-first  year  before  the  Passion  of  our 
Saviour,  and  day  of  our  redemption  ;  so  now  casting  the  same  number 
from  this  present  year  backward,  we  shall  find  it  to  be  about  the 
6ame  year  and  time,  when  Bajazet,  the  fourth  Turk  after  Ottoman, 
began  to  remove  his  imperial  seat  fiom  Bursa  in  Bithynia  to  Adria- 
nople  in  Europe,  which  is  a  city  of  Thrace  ;  in  which  year  and  time 
began  all  the  mischief  in  Europe,  as  is  to  be  seen  before,  and  this 
was  a.d.  1375,  unto  which  year,  if  we  add  191,  it  maketh  1566', 
according  to  the  prophecy  of  the  Apocalypse,  chap,  xx.,  where  it  is 
prophesied  of  Gog  and  Magog,  that  they  shall  compass  about  the 
tents  of  the  saints,  and  the  welb-beloved  city,  by  which  well-beloved 
city  is  meant,  no  doubt,  Europe ;  and  this  was  in  the  year  abovesaid, 
1375.  Although  touching  the  precise  points  of  years  and  times,  it 
is  not  for  us  greatly  to  be  exquisite  therein  ;  but  yet  where  diligence, 
and  studious  meditation  may  help  to  knowledge,  I  would  not  wish 
negligence  to  be  a  pretence  to  ignorance.  And  thus  much  for  the 
times  of  Antiochus  and  his  fellows. 

Now  what  cruelty  this  Antiochus  exercised  against  the  people  of  Furious 
God,  it  is  manifest  in  the  history  of  the  Maccabees ; '  where  we  ofAn'uo- 
read  that  this  Antiochus,  in  the  eighth  year  of  his  reign,  in  his  second  Jj™^ 
coming  to  Jerusalem,  first  gave  forth  in  commandment,  that  all  the  o«d's 
Jews  should  relinquish  the  law  of  Moses,  and  worship  the  idol  of VC01"' 
Jupiter  Olympus,  which  he  set  up  in  the  temple  of  Jerusalem.    The 
books  of  Moses  and  of  the  prophets  he  burned.    He  set  garrisons  of 
soldiers  to  ward  the  idol.     In  the  city  of  Jerusalem  he  caused  the 
feasts  and  revels  of  Bacchus  to  be  kept,  full  of  all  filth  and  wicked- 
ness.   Old  men,  women,  and  virgins,  such  as  would  not  leave  the  law 
of  Moses,   with  cruel  torments  he  murdered.     The  mothers  that 
would  not  circumcise  their  children,  he  slew.    The  children  that  were 
circumcised,  he  hanged  up  by  the  necks.     The  temple  he  spoiled 
and  wasted.     The  altar  of  God,  and  the  candlestick  of  gold,  with  the 
other  ornaments  and  furniture  of  the  temple,  partly   he  cast  out, 

(1)  Mac.  lib.  i.  cap.  1. 
VOL.  IV.  H 

93  THE    HISTORY    OF    THE    TURKS, 

mm*  partly  he  carried  away.    Contrary  to  the  law  of  God,  he  caused  them 

to  offer  and  to  eat  swine's  flesh.     Great  murder  and  slaughter  he 

made  of  the  people,  causing  them  cither  to  leave  their  law,  or  to  lose 
their  lives.  Among  whom," besides  many  others,  with  cruel  torments, 
he  put  to  death  a  godly  mother  with  her  seven  sons,  sending  his 
cruel  proclamations  through  all  the  land,  that  whosoever  kept  the 
observances  of  the  sabbath,  and  other  rites  of  the  law,  and  refused  to 
condescend  to  his  abominations,  should  be  executed  :  by  reason 
whereof  the  city  of  Jerusalem  was  left  void  and  desolate  of  all  good 
men,  hut  there  were  a  great  number  who  were  contented  to  follow 
and  obey  his  idolatrous  proceedings,  and  to  flatter  with  the  king,  and 
became  enemies  unto  their  brethren.  Briefly,  no  kind  of  calamity, 
nor  face  of  misery  could  be  showed  in  any  place,  which  was  not  there 
seen.  Of  the  tyranny  of  this  Antiochus  it  is  historied  at  large  in  the 
book  of  Maccahees ;'  and  Daniel,  prophesying2  before  of  the  same, 
dcclareth  that  the  people  of  the  Jews  deserved  no  less  for  their  sins 
and  transgressions. 
Antio-  By  consent  of  all  writers,  this  Antiochus  beareth  a  figure  of  the 

^ur'eof  great  Antichrist,  who  was  to  follow  in  the  latter  end  of  the  world, 
the  Turk.  anci  jg  aire;uiy  come,  and  worketh  what  he  can  against  us.    Although, 
as  St.  John  saith,  there  have  been,  and  be  many  Antichrists,  as  parts 
and  members  of  the  body  of  Antichrist,  who  are  forerunners,  yet,  to 
speak  of  the  head  and  principal  Antichrist,  and  great  enemy  of  Christ's 
church,  he  is  to  come  in  the  latter  end  of  the  world,  at  which  time 
shall  be  such  tribulation  as  never  was  seen  before ;  whereby  is  meant, 
no  doubt,  the  Turk,  prefigured  by  this  Antiochus.3     By  this  Anti- 
christ I  do  also  mean  all  such  as,  following  the  same  doctrine  of  the 
Name  of  Turks,  think  to  be  saved  by  their  works  and  demerits,  and  not  by 
duist,      their  faith  only  in  the  Son  of  God,  of  what  title  and  profession  eke 
romain-    SOL'vcr  they  be  ;   especially  if  they  use  the  like  force  and  violence  for 
eti>  the  same,  as  he  doth,  &c. 

Of  the  tyranny  of  this  Antiochus  aforesaid,  and  of  the  tribulations 

of  the  church  in  the  latter  times,  both  of  the  Jews'  church,  and  also 

*   of  the  christian  church  to  come,  let  us  hear  and  consider  the  words  of 

Daniel  in  the  nineteenth,  and  also  in  his  seventh  chapter,  prophesying 

of  the  same  as  i'olloweth  : 

'  lie  shall  return,  and  fret  against  the  holy  covenant ;  so  shall  he  do :  lie  shall 
even  return,  and  have  intelligence  with  them  that  forsake  the  holy  covenant. 
And  arms  shall  stand  on  his  part,  and  they  shall  pollute  the  sanctuary  of  strength, 
and  shall  take  away  the  daily  sacrifice,  and  they  shall  set  up  the  abominable 
desolation.  And  such  as  wickedly  break  the  covenant,  shall  flatter  with  him 
deceitfully  ;  but  the  people  that  do  know  their  God,  shall  prevail  and  prosper. 
And  they  that  understand  among  the  people,  shall  instruct  many  ;  yet  they  shall 
fall  by  sword  and  by  flame,  by  captivity  and  by  spoil,  many  days. 

4  Now  when  they  shall  fall,  they  shall  be  holpen  with  a  little  help,  but  many 
shall  cleave  unto  them  feignedly.  And  some  of  them  of  understanding  shall 
tall  to  be  tried,  and  to  be  purged,  and  to  make  them  white,  till  the  time  be  out : 
fur  there  is  a  time  appointed.  And  the  king  shall  do  what  him  listeth  :  he  shall 
exalt  himself,  and  magnify  himself  against  all  that  is  God,  and  shall  speak 
marvellous  things  against  the  God  of  gods,  and  shall  prosper  till  the  wrath  be 
accomplished  ;  for  the  determination  is  made.  Neither  shall  he  regard  the  God 
of  his  fathers,  nor  the  desires  of  women,  nor  care  for  any  God;  for  he  shall 
magnify  himself  above  all.  But  in  his  place  shall  he  honour  the  god  Mauzziin, 
(1)1  Mac.  L  (2)  Dan.  ix.  (3)  Ex  Lyra  in  Gloss.  Ordin.  c.  1  Mac. 

THE    HISTORY    OP    THE    TURKS.  99 

and  the  god  whom  his  fathers  knew  not,  dial]  he  honour  with  gold,  and  with  Prophecy 

silver,  and  with  precious  stones  and  pleasant  things*.  

'  Thus  shall  he  do  in  the  holds  of  Mauzzim  with  a  strange  god,  whom  he  shall 
acknowledge;  he  shall  increase  his  glory,  and  shall  cause  them  to  rule  over 
many,  and  shall  divide  the  land  for  gain.  And  at  the  end  of  time  shall  the 
king  of  the  south  push  at  him,  and  the  king  of  the  north  shall  come  against 
him  like  a  whirlwind,  with  chariots  and  with  horsemen,  and  with  many  ships, 
and  he  shall  enter  into  the  countries,  and  shall  overflow  and  pass  through.  He 
shall  enter  also  into  the  pleasant  land,  and  many  countries  shall  he  overthrown; 
hut  these  shall  escape  out  of  his  hand,  even  Edom  and  Moab,  and  the  chief  of 
the  children  of  Ammon.  He  shall  stretch  forth  his  hands  also  upon  the  coun- 
tries, and  the  land  of  Egypt  shall  not  escape ;  but  he  shall  have  power  over  the 
treasures  of  gold  and  of  silver,  and  over  all  the  precious  things  of  Egypt,  and  of 
the  Lybians,  and  of  the  black  Moors  where  he  shall  pass.  Bui  the  'tidings  out 
of  the  east  and  the  north  shall  trouble  him  ;  therefore  he  shall  go  forth  with 
great  wrath,  to  destroy  and  root  out  many.  And  hi!  shall  plant  the  tabernacles 
of  his  palace  between  the  seas,  in  the  glorious  and  holy  mountain  ;  yet  he  shall 
come  to  his  end,  and  none  shall  help  him.' 

To  this  place  of  Daniel  above  prefixed,  might  also  be  added  the 
prophecy  of  the  said  Daniel  written  in  the  seventh  chapter,  and  much 
tending  to  the  like  effect ;  where  he,  treating  of  his  vision  of  four 
beasts  (which  signify  the  four  monarchies),  and  speaking  now  of  the 
fourth  monarchy,  hath  these  words  : 

'  After  this,  I  saw  in  the  visions  by  night,  and  behold  the  fourth  beast  was 
grim  and  horrible,  and  marvellous  strong.  It  had  great  iron  teeth;  it  devoured 
and  brake  in  pieces,  and  stamped  the  residue  under  its  feet;  and  it  was  unlike 
the  other  beasts  that  were  before  it,  for  it  had  ten  horns.  As  I  considered  the 
horns,  behold,  there  came  up  among  them  another  little  horn,  before  whom 
there  were  three  of  the  first  horns  plucked  away.  And  behold,  in  this  horn 
were  eyes  like  the  eyes  of  a  man,  and  a  mouth  speaking  presumptuous  things, 
and  it  seemed  more  stout  than  the  others.  Which  horn  also,  when  I  looked  on, 
made  battle  with  the  saints,  and  prevailed  against  them ;  until  the  Old  Aged 
came,  and  judgment  was  given  to  the  saints  of  the  Highest,  and  till  the  appointed 
time  was  come,  that  the  saints  should  have  the  kingdom.' 

Thus  have  ye  heard  the  plain  words  of  Daniel ;  in  which  as  he  doth 
manifestly  describe  the  coming  of  Antiochus,  the  great  adversary, 
toward  the  latter  end  of  the  Jews  ;  so  by  the  same  Antiochus  is  figured 
also  to  us  the  great  adversary  of  Christ,  who  is  the  Turk. 

Although  some  there  be,  notwithstanding,  who,  with  great  learning 
and  judgment,  do  apply  this  place  of  Daniel  above  recited,  not  to  the 
Turk,  but  rather  to  the  pope  ;  and  that  for  six  or  seven  special 
causes  herein  touched  and  noted.1 

The  first  is  this :  that  the  wicked  transgressors  of  the  covenant 
shall  join  with  him  deceitfully  and  hypocritically,  who  shall  pollute 
the  tabernacle  of  strength,  and  take  away  the  perpetual  sacrifice,  and 
bring  in  the  abomination  of  desolation.  ' 

The  second  note  is,  that  the  prophet  declareth,  how  the  learned 
among  the  people  shall  teach  many,  and  that  they  shall  fall  upon  the 
sword,  into  fire  and  captivity,  and  shall  be  ban'ished,  whereby  they 
shall  be  tried,  chosen,  and  made  bright  and  pure,  ccc.  ;  all  which,  say 
they,  is  not  among  the  Turks  to  be  seen,  but  only  in  the  pope's 
church  ;  where  the  faithful  preachers  and  teachers  of  the  people  arc 
slain  and  burned,  and  go  to  wrack,  &C. :  where,  likewise,  it  followeth, 
that  they  shall  be  holpen  against  Antichrist,  and  that  many  false 

())  Vide  Rodul.  Gunlf.  <"x-  AntichristO. 
H    2 

100  THE    HISTORY    OF    THE    TURKS. 

prophecy,  brethren  should  join   unto  them  disscmblingly,  &c      To  this  they 

allege  that  the  Christians  have  no  such  help  against  the  Turk,  where- 

unto  Buch  false  brethren  should  join  themselves,  as  is  and  hath  been 

commonly  Been  among  the  Christians  against  the  pope,  from  time  to 

„el  10f   time,  almost  in  all  countries  ;  as  in  Germany,  by  the  Protestants  and 

"••auto-  frrt.  citieg  ;  in  England,  in  king  Henry's  time,  by  the  lord  Cromwell, 

SLi     and  afterwards  by  king  Edward,  and  now  by  queen  Elizabeth;  in 

tiu- pope.  St.()t]an([  i,y  ti,e  godly  nobility  |  in  France,  by  the  queen  of  Navarre 

and  her  son  ;  and  also  by  the  prince  of  Conde  and  the  worthy  admiral, 

and  his  two  brethren,  and  many  others  ;  in  Flanders  by  those  whom 

the  regent  called  beggars;  so  as  was  in  the  time  of  the  Maccabees, 

against  Antiochus. 

Thirdly,  that  the  king  shall  exalt  himself  above  all  that  hath  the 
name  of  God,  and  shall  lift  up  his  mouth  to  speak  presumptuously 
against  God. 

"  Fourthly,  that  he  careth  not  for  the  desires  of  women ;  which  may 
seem  to  note  how  the  pope's  doctrine  shall  forbid  the  honest  and 
lawful  marriage  in  churchmen. 

The  fifth  specialty  which  they  apply  to  the  pope,  is  that  which 
followeth  in  the  prophet,  saying,  "  Neither  shall  he  regard  the  God 
of  his  fathers,  nor  any  god ;  but,  instead  of  him,  shall  set  up  his  god 
Mansim  Mauzzim,  and  shall  worship  him  with  silver  and  gold,  and  precious 
»wpope'a  stone5"  &c-i  -which  they  do  apply  to  the  pope,  setting  up  his  god  of 
bread,  and  worshipping  him  with  glistering  golden  ornaments,  and 
most  solemn  service. 

Sixthly,  it  followeth,  "  and  he  shall  increase  them  with  much  glory 

and  riches,  and  shall  divide  unto  them  lands  and  possessions,""  &e. ; 

meaning  that  the  pope,  having  dominion  over  treasures  of  gold  and 

silver,  and  all  precious  things  of  the  land,  shall  endue  his  cardinals, 

prelates,  his  flattering  doctors,  with  friars,  monks,  and  priests,  and  all 

such  as  shall  take  his  part,  with  great  privileges,  liberties,  revenues,  and 

possessions.    And  thus,  I  say,  some  there  be  who  apply  this  prophecy 

The        of  the  seventh  and  eleventh  chapters  of  Daniel,  unto  the  bishop  of 

and         Rome  ;  whom,  although  I  take  to  be  an  extreme  persecutor  of  Christ's 

chnptew   church,  yet  I  judge  rather  those  two  chapters  of  Daniel  concerning 

"'  Daniel,  tin-  little  horn  in  the  middle  of  the  ten  horns,  and  the  great  destroyer 
mean  the  .  '    .  o  j  , 

great  An-  of  the  pleasant  land  and  glorious  holy  mountain,  to  mean  first  Anti- 
theTurk.  ochus,  and  by  him,  secondly,  to  mean  the  great  Antichrist,  the  Turk ; 
who  hath  now  set  already  the  tabernacles  of  his  palace  between  the 
seas,  according  to  the  prophecies  of  Daniel,  as  is  above  said. 

Over  and  besides  these  prophecies  above  alleged,  may  be  added 
also  the  prophecy  of  Ezekiel  [chap,  xxxix.],  speaking  of  Gog  and  Ma- 
gog, which,  as  it  maybe  applied  to  the  oppression  of  the  Jews  under 
the  heathen  multitude  which  stopped  the  building  of  the  city,  and 
mulct-  the  Syrian  kings,  &c. ;  yet  in  the  same  also  arc  expressed  the 
calamities  and  afflictions  of  Christ's  church  in  these  latter  times,  under 
the  Saracens  and  the  Turks,  &c. 

Proceeding  further  in  this  matter,  let  us  come  now  to  the  prophecies 
"I  Iji'  Nt -w  Testament,  and  mark  the  words  of  St.  Paul,  writing  to 
the  Thessalonians,1  who  then  were  christened,  and  now  arc  cither 
Turkish,  or  under  the  Turk,  which  words  be  these:  "Be  ye  not 

(1)  2  Tltess.  ii. 

THE    HISTOEY    OK    THE    TUKKS  101 

suddenly  moved  in  your  mind,  nor  troubled,  neither  by  spirit,  nor  Prophecy. 
by  word,  nor  by  letter  as  sent  from  us,  as  though  the  day  of  Christ 
■were  at  hand.  Let  no  man  deceive  you  by  any  means,  for  the  Lord 
will  not  come  before  there  come  a  detection,  or  a  departing  first,  and 
that  wicked  man  be  revealed,  the  son  of  perdition,  which  is  an  adver- 
sary, and  is  extolled  above  all  power,  and  that  which  is  called  God; 
so  that  he  shall  sit  in  the  temple  of  God,  boasting  himself  to  be 
God,1*'  &c.  Although  this  defection  and  departing  may  have  a  double  Defection 
understanding, as  well  of  the  pope's  sect  (which  is  gone  and  departed  A,ui"eof 
from  the  free  justification  by  faith  only  in  Christ,  through  the  pro-  jc'^ed 
mise  of  grace)  as  of  the  Turks  ;  yet,  leaving  a  while  to  speak  of  the 
pope,  because  it  appeareth  more  notoriously  in  the  Turk,  we  will 
chiefly  apply  it  to  him,  in  whom  so  aptly  it  doth  agree,  that  unless 
this  great  defection  from  faith  in  so  many  churches  had  happened  by 
the  Turk,  it  had  been  hard  to  understand  the  apostle's  mind,  which 
now,  by  the  history  of  these  Turks,  is  easy  and  evident  to  be  known, 
considering  what  a  ruin  hath  happened  to  the  church  of  Christ  by 
these  miserable  Turks ;  what  empires,  nations,  kingdoms,  countries, 
towns,  and  cities,  be  removed  from  the  name  and  profession  of 
Christ ;  how  many  thousands  and  infinite  multitudes  of  christian 
men  and  children,  in  Asia,  in  Africa,  and  in  Europe,  are  carried 
away  from  Christ's  church  to  Mahomet's  religion,  some  to  serve 
for  the  Turk's  guard  among  the  Janizaries,  some  for  soldiers, 
some  for  miners,  some  for  gunners,  to  fight  and  war  against  the 
Christians  ;  so  that  the  most  part  of  all  the  churches,  planted  once 
by  the  apostles,  are  now  degenerated  into  Turks,  only  a  small  hand- 
ful of  Christians  reserved  yet  in  these  west  parts  of  Europe,  of 
which  small  residue  what  shall  also  become  shortly,  except  Christ 
himself  do  help,  Christ  only  himself  doth  know.  How  great  this 
defection  spoken  of  by  St.  Paul  hath  been,  thou  mayest  sec,  gentle 
reader,  in  the  table  above  described. 

Notwithstanding  this  text  of  the  holy  apostle,  as  I  said  before, 
may  be  verified  also  with  no  less  reason  upon  the  bishop  of  Rome, 
than  upon  the  Turk,  both  for  that  he  is  a  man  of  sin,  that  is,  his  seat 
and  city  is  a  great  maintainer  of  wickedness,  and  also  for  that  he  is  an 
adversary,  that  is,  contrary,  in  all  his  doings  and  proceedings,  to  Christ. 

Thirdly,  For  that  he  sitteth  in  the  temple  of  God,  and  so  did 
not  Mahomet. 

Fourthly,  Because  he  is  an  exalter  of  himself,  and  sitteth  more 
like  a  god  than  a  man  in  Rome,  whereof  see  more  in  the  book  set 
forth  in  English,  called,  '  The  Contestations  of  the  Popes.' 

Fifthly,  For  that  he  seduccth,  and  hath  seduced,  by  his  apostasy, 
the  most"  part  of  all  Christendom  from  the  doctrine  and  free  promises 
of  God,  into  a  wrong  and  strange  way  of  salvation,  which  is,  not  to 
be  justified  freely  before  God  only  by  our  faith  in  Christ  his  well- 
beloved  Son  (unto  which  faith  the'  promise  of  God  freely  and  gra- 
ciously  hath  annexed  all  our  salvation  only,  and  to  no  other  thing), 
but  hath  taught  us  to  work  out  our  salvation  by  an  infinite  number 
of  other  things  ;  insomuch  that  he  bindcth  the  necessity  of  our  salva- 
tion also  to  this,  that  we  must  believe,  if  we  will  be  saved,  and  re- 
ceive him  to  be  the  vicar  of  Christ  on  earth,  &c.' 

',1)  Ex  Bonifaeis  extravag. 

Seal  ex- 

•102  THE    HISTORY    OF    THE    TURKS. 

i-r.yhcni.      But  to  return  again  to  the  Turks,  among  all  the  prophecies  botli 

"  of  the  Old  Testament  and  of  the  New,  there  is  none  that  painteth 

out  the  Antiehristian  kingdom  of  the  Turks  better  than  doth  the 
Revelation  of  St.  John,  whose  words  let  us  weigh  and  consider,  who, 
in  Apocalypse  ix.,  where  he  speaketh  of  opening  the  seventh  and 
last  seal  (which  signifieth  the  last  age  of  the  world),  and  there,  writing 
of  the  seven  trumpets  of  the  seven  angels,  at  the  sounding  of  the 
sixth  angel  saith : 

'  Loose  the  four  angels  which  are  hound  in  the  great  river  Euphrates.  And 
the  four  angels  were  loosed,  which  were  ready  both  day,  and  hour,  and  month, 
and  year,  to  slay  the  third  part  of  men.  And  the  number  of  horsemen  were 
twenty  thousand  times  ten  thousand :  and  I  heard  the  number  of  them.  And 
thus  I  saw  in  a  vision  horses,  and  them  that  sat  on  them,  having  fiery  haber- 
geons, and  of  jacinth-stone,  and  of  brimstone,  and  the  heads  of  the  horses  were 
as  the  heads  of  lions,  and  out  of  their  mouths  went  forth  fire,  and  smoke,  and 
brimstone  :  of  these  three  plagues  was  the  third  part  of  men  killed,  that  is,  ot 
the  fire,  smoke,  and  brimstone,  which  proceeded  out  of  their  mouth,'  &c. 

By  the  seventh  seal,  is  meant  the  seventh  and  last  age  of  the 
world,  which  last  age  of  the  world  is  from  Christ  to  the  judgment 
pounded.  an(}  resurrection  of  the  dead. 

By  the  seven  angels  with  their  seven  trumpets,  is  signified  the 
seven  plagues  that  come  in  this  seventh  and  last  age  of  the  world. 
The  swth       By  the  sixth  trumpet  of  the  sixth  angel,  is  meant  the  sixth  plague 
trumpet.  commo.  ]ast  and  next  before  the  plague  of  the  great  judgment  day, 
which  sixth  plague  is  here  described  to  come  by  the  east  kings,  that 
is,  by  the  Turks,  as  followeth  to  be  seen. 
loosing        By  loosing  the  angels  who  had  rule  of  the  great  river  Euphrates, 
angefa      is  signified  the  letting  out  of  the  east  kings,  that  is,  the  Turks,  out 
3ve* iuC-  °f  Scytbia,  Tartary,  Persia,  and  Arabia,  by  whom  the  third  part  of 
phiates.    Christendom  shall  be  destroyed,  as"  we  see  it  this  day  hath  come  to 

It  followeth  in  the  prophecy,  "  Their  power  shall  be  in  their 
mouths,  and  in  their  tails.  For  their  tails  be  like  serpents,  having 
heads,  and  with  them  they  hurt,1'  &c. ;  meaning  that  these  Turks, 
with  the  words  of  their  mouths,  shall  threaten  great  destruction  of 
fire  and  sword  to  them  that  will  not  yield  unto  them  ;  and  in  the  end, 
when  the  Christians  shall  yield  unto  them,  trusting  to  their  promises, 
they,  like  serpents,  shall  deceive  them  in  the  end,  and  kill  them  ;  as 
appeareth  by  the  story  of  the  Turks  above  past. 

The  like  prophecy  also,  after  the  like   words  and  sense,  is  to  be 

seen  and  read  in  Apocalypse  xvi.,  where  St.  John,  treating  of  seven 

cups  filled  with  the  wrath  of  the  living  God,  given  to  the  hands  of 

seven  angels  by  one  of  the  four  beasts  (that  is,  in  the  time  of  one  of 

The  tarn   the  four  monarchies,  which  was  the  monarchy  of  Rome),  speaketh 

mean       likewise  of  the  sixth  angel,  who  poured  his  vial  of  God's  wrath  upon 

roonar-     ^1C  grcat  river  Euphrates,  and  the  waters  thereof  dried  up,  that  the 

chics.       Way  of  the  kings  of  the  cast  should  be  prepared,  &c. 

By  the  sixth  angel  with  the  sixth  vial,  is  meant,  as  before,  the  last 
plague  save  one,  that  shall  come  upon  the  Christians.  By  the  kings 
of  the  east  are  meant  the  Saracens,  and  twelve  Ottoman  Turks.  By 
drying  up  the  river  Euphrates,  is  signified  the  way  of  these  Turks  to  be 
prepared  by  the  Lord's  appointment,  to  come  out  of  the  east  to  the 

THE    HISTORY'    OK    THE    TURKS.  103 

west  parts  of  the  world,  to  molest  and  afflict  the   Christians.     It  Pr»P><ecV. 
followeth  more  in  the  text :   "  And  I  saw  three  unclean  spirits  like  K~i^~o7 
frogs,  come  out  of  the  mouth  of  the  dragon,  and  out  of  the  mouth  of  ^eeart> 
the  beast,  and  out  of  the  mouth  of  the  false  prophet,  for   they  are  Euphr* 
the  spirits  of  devils,  doing  wonders,  to  go  unto  the  kings  of  the  tes' 
whole   earth,  to  assemble  and  gather  them    together   to   the  battle, 
against  the  day  of  the  great  God  Omnipotent,"  &c.  And  it  followeth 
shortly  after,  "And  he  assembled  them  together  into  a  place  which 
is  called  in  Hebrew  Armageddon,  that  is,  a   trap  or  train  of  destruc- 
tion.""     And   immediately  it  followeth  in  the  same  place,  "And  the 
seventh  angel  poured  out  his  vial  in  the   air,   and  a  mighty  voice 
came  from  heaven,  out  of  the  throne,  saying,   '  factum  est,1    it   is 
done,  or  finished,"  &c. :   whereby  it  is  to  be  understood,  that  toward 
the  last  consummation  of  the  world,  great  force  shall   be    seen,  and 
a    mighty   army  of  the  enemies    shall  be  collected   and   gathered 
against  the  people  and  saints   of  the  highest,  and   then  conieth  the 
consummation,  with  '  factum  est,-1  &e. 

Wherefore   it   is   not   for  nought  that  the  Holy  Spirit  of  God  in  An  ex 
the  same  place,  a  little  before  the  sixth  angel  doth  pour  out  his  vial,  of  the  " 
doth  exhort  all  the  faithful,  saying  :   "Behold,  I  come  like  a  thief  in  q^Js1  10 
the  night ;  blessed  is  he  that  watcheth  and  keepeth  his  garments,  lest  {** faith" 
he  walk  naked,  and  men  sec  his  filthiness,*"  &c, 

Nicholas  de  Lyra,  and  Paul,  bishop  of  Burdens,  and   Matthias 
Dorinkc,  writing  upon  Apocalypse  xiii.  and  expounding  the  mystery 
of  the  second  beast  rising  out  of  the  earth,  having  the  horns  of  a 
lamb,  &c,  do  apply  the  same  to   Mahomet  and  the  Turks,  with  a 
solemn  declaration   made  upon   the  same.     Which  interpretation  of 
theirs,  although  in  some  points  it  may  seem  to  have  some  appearance 
of  probability,  neither  can  it  be  denied  but  that  Mahomet  and  the 
Turk  be  pestilent  and  wicked  enemies  of  Christ  our  Lord,  and  most 
bitter  persecutors   of  his   church ;   yet,  as  touching  the  proper  and 
natural  meaning  of  the  apostle  in  ihat  place,  speaking  of  the  false 
lamb,  Sec,  if  we  consider  well  all   the  circumstances   of  that  beast,  The  beast 
and   mark  the  consequence  of  the  text,  both  of  that  which  goeth  hormifike 
before  and  followeth  after,  we   must   needs   grant,  that  Nicholas  de  tlie  lamb- 
Lyra  with  his  fellows,  and  with  all  such-like  of  the  pope's  school  the' pope, 
that   follow  that  school,  be   deceived,  and   that   the  description  and 
interpretation  of  that  false  horned   lamb  must  necessarily  be  applied 
only  to  the  bishop  of  Rome,  and  none  other;   which  is  to  be  proved 
by  six  principal  causes  or  arguments  : 

The  first  is,  for  that  this  beast  is  described  to  bear  the  horns  of  a  The  first 
lamb;  bv  which  lamb,  no  doubt,  is  meant  Christ.  By  the  horns  ^hy.'1' 
of  the  lamb  is  signified  the  outward  show  or  resemblance  of  Christ 
our  Saviour;  which  show  or  resemblance  can  have  no  relation  to 
Mahomet,  for  that  he  taketh  himself  to  be  above  Christ,  and  Christ, 
as  an  excellent  prophet  of  God  sitting  at  his  feet.  Wherefore  seeing 
Mahomet  cometh  neither  as  equal  to  Christ,  nor  as  vicar  under 
Christ,  this  prophecy  cannot  agree  in  him,  but  only  in  him  who 
openly,  in  plain  words,  protested),  that  all  Christ's  lambs  and  sheep 
not  singularly,  but  universally  through  the  whole  world,  arc  committed 
to  him  as  vicar  of  Christ,  and  successor  of  Peter;  and  that  all  men 
must  confess  the  same  of  necessity,  or  else  they  arc  none  of  Christ's 

rem  n. 

](>4  THE    HISTORY    OF    THE    TIRKS. 

Prophet*,  sheep,'  &c. :  wherein  it  is  easy  to  see  where  the  pretenseel  horns  of 

the  lamb  do  grow. 
The  The  second  argument ;  "  And  he  spake  like  the  dragon,"  &c. 

A  lamb's  horns  and  the  mouth  of  a  dragon  do  not  agree  together. 
And  as  they  do  not  agree  together  in  nature,  so  neither  can  they  be 
found  in  any  one  person,  either  Turk  or  other  (if  we  will  judge 
trul v)  so  lively,  as  in  the  bishop  of  Rome.  When  thou  hearest  him 
call  himself  the  apostolical  bishop,  the  vicar  of  Christ,  the  successor 
of  Peter,  the  servant  of  God's  servants,  &c. ;  thou  seest  in  him  the 
two  horns  of  a  lamb,  and  wouldst  think  him  to  be  a  lamb  indeed, 
and  such  a  one  as  would  wash  your  feet  for  humility ;  but  hear  him 
Bpeak,  and  you  shall  find  him  a  dragon.  See  and  read  the  epistle 
of  pope  Martin  V.,  above-mentioned,  charging,  commanding,  and 
threatening  emperors,  kings,  dukes,  princes,  marquises,  earls,  barons, 
knights,  rectors,  consuls,  proconsuls,  with  their  shires,  their  counties, 
and  the  universities  of  their  kingdoms ;  provinces,  cities,  towns, 
castles,  villages,  and  other  places.  See  the  answer  of  pope  Urban  II., 
and  his  message  to  king  William  Rufus.  Behold  the  works  and 
doings  of  pope  Innocent  against  king  John. 
The  imre  Note  also  the  answer  of  another  pope  to  the  king  of  England,  who, 
hora»'of  for  the  price  of  the  king's  head,  would  not  grant  unto  him  the  in- 
:.  imiih,  yt.sting  of  his  bishops.  Mark  well  the  Avords  and  doings  of  pope 
mouth  oi  Hildebrand  against  the  emperor  Henry  IV. ;  also  of  pope  Alex- 
ander II.,  treading  upon  the  neck  of  Frederic  Barbarossa,  not  like  a 
lamb  treading  upon  a  dragon,  but  like  a  dragon  treading  upon  a  lamb ; 
so  that  his  own  verse  might  be  turned  upon  himself,  "  Tanquam  aspis 
et  basiliscus  super  oviculam  ambulans,  et  tanquam  leo  et  draco  con- 
eulcans  agnum."  Consider  moreover  the  behaviour,  manner,  condi- 
tion, and  property  of  almost  all  the  popes  who  have  been  these  six 
hundred  years,  and  what  dragon  or  serpent  could  be  more  viperous 
than  their  own  doings  and  words  can  speak  and  give  testimony  against 
Thw  It  followeth,  moreover,  in  the  same  prophecy  of  the  Apocalypse 

for  the  third  argument,  "  And  he  doth  all  the  power  of  the  first  beast 
presently  before  his  face,  and  causeth  the  earth,  and  all  the  inhabitants 
therein,  to  honour  the  first  beast,  the  stripe  of  whose  deadly  wound 
was  cured,'"  &c. 
rhetwo  [n  this  prophecy  two  things  are  to  be  noted;  first,  what  the  first 
H  '  Ih!,"i,  beast  is,  whose  power  the  second  beast  doth  execute.  Secondly,  what 
this  second  beast  is,  which  so  doth  exercise  its  power  in  its  sight.  The 


first  of  these  beasts  described  here  in  the  Apocalypse,  having  seven 
luads  and  ten  horns,  must  needs  signify  the  city  of  Rome,  which  may 
easily  be  proved  by  two  demonstrations.  First,  by  the  exposition  of 
the  same  Apocalypse  xvii.,  where  is  declared  and  described  the  said 

D  beast  to  stand  on  seven  hills,  and  to  contain  ten  kings,  having  the 

whole  power  of  the  dragon  given;  and  also  the  same  city  to  be 
named  'The  whore  of  Babylon,   drunken  with   the  blood  of  the 

"•""•  saints :'  all  which  properties  joined  together,  can  agree  in  no  wise 
QUt  only  to  the  heathen  empire  of  Rome,  which  city,  at  that  time  of 
H  rit in-  these  prophecies,  had  the  government  of  the  whole  world.  The 
second  demonstration  or  evidence  may  be  deduced  out  of  the  number 

0)  K.\  Uonilac   VIII    Extra,  ilc  Majorit,  ct  Obcil. 

THE    HISTORY    OF    THE    TURKS.  105 

of  the  months  assigned  to  this  beast  [Apoc.  xiii.],  for  so  it  is  written,  Prophecy. 
that  this  beast  had  power  to  make,  that  is,  to  work  his  malice  against 
Christ's  people,  forty-two  months,  which  months,  counted  by  sabbaths 
of  years  (that  is,  every  month  for  seven  years),  make  up  the  just  number 
of  those  years  in  which  the  primitive  church  was  under  the  terrible 
persecutions  of  the  heathen  emperors  of  Rome,  as  is  afore  specified. 

Which  thing  thus  standing,  proved  and  confessed,  that  the  first  The  beast 
beast  must  needs  signify  the  empire  and  city  of  Rome;  then  must  it  JwohSni 
necessarily  follow  that  the  second  beast,  with  the  lamb's  horns,  must  °™* 
signify  the  bishop  and  pope  of  the  same  city  of  Rome.     The  reason 
hereof  is  evident  and  apparent  by  that  which  followcth  in  the  pro- 
phecy,1 where  it  is  declared,  that  the  second  beast,  having  two  horns 
of  a  lamb,  received  and  exercised  all  the  power  of  the  first  beast, 
before   or  in  the  sight  of  the  said  beast,  which  cannot  be  verified 
either  in  the  Turk  or  in  any  other,  but  only  in  the  pope  of  Rome, 
who,  as  you  see,  receiveth,  usurpeth,  and  deriveth  to  himself  all  the  The  pope 
power  of  that  city  and  monarchy  of  Rome ;  insomuch  that  he  saith,  ]^"J 
that  when  Constantine  or  Ludovicus  yielded  unto  him  the  rule  and  rule  a,ld 
kingdom  of  that  city,  he  gave  him  but  his  own,  and  that,  which  of  Rome, 
right  and  duty  belonged  to  him  before. 

And  this  authority  or  power  over  all  the  empire  of  Rome,  he 
worketh  not  in  Asia,  nor  in  Constantinople  as  the  Turk  doth,  but  in 
the  sight  of  the  beast  which  gave  him  the  power ;  that  is,  in  the  city 
of  Rome  itself,  which  is  the  first  beast  here  in  this  prophecy  of  the 
Apocalypse  described. 

Fourthly,  It  followcth  moreover,  "  And  he  causeth  the  earth  and  Fourth 
all  the  inhabitants  therein,  to  worship  and  honour  the  first  beast,2  reason- 
which  had  a  deadly  wound,  and  was  cured,1''  &c.  The  interpretation 
of  this  part,  as  also  of  all  the  other  parts  of  the  same  chapter,  standeth 
upon  the  definition  of  the  first  beast :  for,  it  being  granted,  as  cannot 
be  denied,  that  the  first  beast  signifieth  the  city  and  empire  of  Rome, 
it  must  consequently  follow,  that  the  bishop  (whom  we  call  the 
pope)  of  the  said  city  of  Rome,  must  be  understood  by  the  second 
beast,  forasmuch  as  neither  Turk  nor  any  other,  but  only  the  bishop 
of  Rome,  hath  holden  up  the  estimation  and  dignity  of  that  city, 
which  began  to  be  in  ruin  and  decay  by  the  Vandals,  Goths,  Heru- 
lians,  and  Lombards,  about  a.  d.  456 ;  but  afterwards  by  the  bishop 
of  Rome,  the  pristine  state  and  honour  of  that  city  revived  again,  and 
flourished  in  as  great  veneration  as  ever  it  did  before.  And  this  it 
is  which  the  Holy  Ghost  seemeth  here  to  mean  of  the  first  beast, 
saying,  "  That  he  had  a  wound  of  the  sword,  and  was  cured ;"  for  so 
it  followeth. 

Fifthly,  "  And  he  caused  all  the  inhabitants  of  the  earth  to  make  Fifth 
the  image  of  the  beast,  which  had  the  stripe  of  the  sword  and  lived. 
And  it  was  given  to  him  to  give  life  to  the  image  of  the  beast,  and 
to  make  the  image  thereof  to  speak,  and  to  cause  all  them  that 
worshipped  not  the  image  of  the  beast,  to  be  killed ;  forcing  all 
persons,  both  little  and  great,  rich  and  poor,  bond  and  free,  to  take 
the  mark  of  the  beast  in  their  right  hand,  or  in  their  foreheads,  and 
that  none  might  buy  or  sell,  but  they  which  had  the  mark,  or  the 
name  of  the  beast,  or  the  number  of  his  name,'"  fee. 

(1)  Aroc.  xiii.  (2)  'Engine*  rur  Otiyiov.    Apoc.  xiii. 

n  .(miii. 


Prophecy.      By  giving  life  to  the  image  of  the  beast,  and  making  it  to  speak, 

J^       is  to  be  presupposed  that  the  beast  was  at  a  near  point  of  death,  and 

lie™1     Kv  speechless  before,  insomuch  that  the  city  of  Rome  began  to  lose 

rliied      and  change  its  name,  and  was  called  awhile  Odacria,  of  Odacer,  king 

odacria.   Qf  tuc  Herulians,  who,  by  dint  of  sword,  surprised  the  Romans;  and 

yet,  notwithstanding,  by  means  of  this  Roman  prelate,  the  said  city 

of  Rome,  which  was  then  ready  to  give  up  the  ghost,  so  recovered  her 

majesty  and  strength  again,  that  it  is  hard  to  say  whether  Rome  did 

ever  ruffle  and  rage  in  her  tyranny  before,  in  the  time  of  Nero, 

Domitian,  Dioclesian,  and  other  emperors,  more  tragically  than  she 

hath  done  under  the  pope;  or  whether  that  Rome  had  all  kings, 

queens,  princes,  dukes,  lords,  and  all  subjects  more  under  obedience 

and  subjection,  when  the  emperors  reigned,  or  now  in  the  reign 

i.ifc  in     of  the   pope.     And  therefore  it  is  said  not  without  cause  by  the 

the  image  jj^  q^^  t]lat  jt  js  given  to  him,  "  to  give  life  and  speech  to  the 




again  as 
cruelly  as 

image  of  the  beast,  causing  all  them  to  be  slain  which  will  not  worship 
of  the  image  of  the  beast,111  Sec.  As  for  example  hereof,  who  seeth  not 
I'eaketh  what  numbers  and  multitudes  of  christian  men,  women,  and  children 
in  all  countries  have  been  put  to  fire  and  sword?  Stories  of  all  times 
will  declare,  what  havoc  hath  been  made  of  christian  blood  about 
the  pre-eminence  and  majority  of  the  see  of  Rome.  What  churches 
and  countries,  both  Greek  and  Latin,  have  been  excommunicated  ? 
what  kings  have  been  deposed,  and  emperors  stripped  from  their 
imperial  seat  ?  and  all  because  they  would  not  stoop  and  bend  to  the 
image  of  the  beast,  that  is,  to  the  majesty  raid  title  of  Rome,  advanced 
up  so  highly  now  by  the  bishop  thereof,  as  it  was  never  higher  before 
in  the  reign  of  Nero  or  Dioclesian.  Wherefore,  taking  the  first  beast 
to  signify  the  empire  of  Rome,  which  cannot  be  denied,  it  is  plain 
that  the  second  beast  must  necessarily  be  applied  to  the  pope,  and 
not  to  the  Turk,  forasmuch  as  the  Turk  seeketh  nothing  less  than 
the  advancement  of  that  empire,  but  rather  striveth  against  it  to 
pluck  it  down. 
Sixth  The  sixth  and  last  argument  is  grounded  upon  the  number  of  .the 

Number    name  of  the  beast,  expressed  by  the  Holy  Ghost  in  the  same  prophecy, 
nameeof    '*>'  tnc  u'tters  X^  E>  *>  m  which  letters,  although  there  lieth  great  dark- 
I'"  '-'st   ness  and  difficulty  to  be  understood,  yet  certain  ancient  Fathers  who 
were  disciples  and   hearers  of  those    who  heard  St.  John  himself, 
as  IienaMis  and  others,  do  expound  the  said  letters,  conjecturally,  to 
contain  the  name  of  the  beast,  and  to  be  the  name  of  a  man  under 
this  word  XorcTvos  :'-   whereas  else,  no  other  name  lightly  of  any  per- 
son, either  in  Greek  or  Latin,  will  agree  to  the  same,  save  only  the 
foresaid  name  Xartlvo;  ;    although  some   later  writers,  giving  their 
conjectures  upon  the  same,  do  find  the  name  of  Lateranus,  in  Hebrew 
letters,  to  answer  to  the  same  number.     Some  feign  other  names,  as, 
avTB/MOS  or  retroi/,  made  words,  which  signify  nothing,  as  Diclux,  or 
Luduuic,  by  Roman  letters,  &c.     lint  of  all  names  properly  signifv- 
j,,',',i,',!"     rag  any  man,  none  eometh  so  near  to  the  number  of  this  mystery  (if 
chajlter     "  S°  ty  order  of  letters)  as  doth  the  word  XaTELVog  aforesaid.     And 
thus  much  by  the  way  and  occasion  of  Nicholas  dc  Lyra,  Paulus 
Burgen,  Matthias  Dorinke,  the  author  of  Fortalilium  Fidci,  and  other 

-  ;  "i'  '"I  non  udoraverin)  imaginem  bestias.'    Apoc. 

raaketb  the  full  numbex  oi'OGfi. 

THE    IIISTOUY    OK    THE    TUKKS.  107 

commentators  more,  of  the  same  faction  ;  who,  writing  upon  tliis  xiiitli  Pnphetg. 
chapter  of  the  Apocalypse,  and  not  considering  the  circumstances 
thereof,  both  are  deceived  themselves,  and  deceive  many  others,  ap- 
plying that  to  the  Turk,  which  cannot  otherwise  be  verified,  but  only 
upon  the  pope,  as  may  appear  sufficiently  by  the  premises.  Not  that 
I  write  this  of  any  mood  or  malice,  cither  to  the  city  of  Rome,  or  to 
the  person  of  the  bishop,  as  being  God's  creature  ;  but  being  occa- 
sioned here  to  treat  of  the  prophecies  against  the  Turks,  I  would  wish 
the  readers  not  to  be  deceived,  but  rightly  to  understand  the  simple 
Scriptures  according  as  they  lie,  to  the  intent  that  the  true  meaning 
thereof,  being  bolted  out,  it  may  be  better  known  what  prophecies 
directly  make  against  these  Turks ;  what  otherwise. 

In  the  which  prophecies  against  the  Turks,  now  to  proceed,  let  us 
come  to  Apocalypse  xx.,  wherein  the  holy  Scripture  seemeth  plainly 
and  directly  to  notify  the  said  Turks.  The  words  of  the  prophecy  be 
these :  "  And  I  saw  an  angel  descending  from  heaven,  having  the 
key  of  the  bottomless  pit,  and  a  great  chain  in  his  hand ;  and  he  took 
the  dragon,  the  old  serpent,  which  is  the  devil  and  Satanas,  and  bound 
him  up  for  a  thousand  years,  and  cast  him  into  the  pit,  and  sealed 
him  up,  that  he  should  not  seduce  the  people  any  more,  till  the  thou- 
sand years  were  expired :  and,  after  that,  he  must  be  let  loose  for  a 
little  while,"  &c.  And  it  followeth  after,  "And  when  the  thousand 
years' shall  be  complete,  Satanas  shall  be  let  out  of  his  dungeon,  and 
shall  go  abroad  to  seduce  the  people,  which  are  on  the  four  corners  of 
the  land  of  Gog  and  Magog,  to  assemble  them  to  battle;  whose  num- 
ber is  like  to  the  sands  of  the  sea.  And  they  Avent  up  upon  the 
latitude  or  breadth  of  the  earth,  and  compassed  about  the  tents  of  the 
saints,  and  the  well-beloved  cities,""  &c. 

To  the  perfect  understanding  of  this  prophecy,  three  things  are  Thwe 
necessary  to  be  known.     First,  what  is  meant  by  the  binding  up  and  be'noted 
loosing  out  of  Satan  as  the  old  dragon.     Secondly,  at  what  time  and  jj»  "*• 
year  he  was  first  chained  up  and  sealed  for  a  thousand  years.   Thirdly,  and  i«w- 
at  what  year  and  time  these  thousand  years  did  end,  when  he  should  staton?*0' 
be  loosed  out  again  for  a  little  season.     Which  three  points  being 
well  examined  and  marked,  the  prophecy  may  easily  be  understood 
directly  to  be  meant  of  the  Turk :  albeit  analogically,  some  part 
thereof  may  also  be  referred,  not  improperly,  unto  the  pope,  as  is 
above  notified. 

First,  by  binding  and  loosing  of  Satan  seemeth  to  be  meant,  the  what  is 
ceasing  and  staying  of  the  cruel  and  horrible  persecution  of  the  hea-  Mnd"ngb' 
then  emperors  of  Koine  against  the  true  Christians,  as  is  to  be  seen  in  g*j£ 
the  ten  first  persecutions  in  the  primitive  church  above  described  in 
the  former  part  of  these  Acts  and  Monuments;  in  which  most  bloody 
persecutions  Satan  the  devil  then  raged  without  all  measure,  till  the 
time  it  pleased  Almighty  God  to  stop  this  old  serpent,  and  to  tic  him 
shorter.     And  thus  have  you  to  understand  what  is  meant  by  the 
binding  up  of  Satan  for  a  thousand  years;   whereby  is  signified,  that 
the  persecution  against  the  Christians,  stirred  up  by  the  beast  (that  is, 
in  the  empire  of  Rome,  through  the  instigation  of  Satan),  shall  not 
always  continue,  but  shall  break  up  after  a  certain  time,  and  shall 
cease  for  a  thousand  years,  &c. 

Now  at  what  time  and  year  this  persecution,  that  is,  the  fury  and 

K),^  THE    HISTORY    OF    THE    TURKS. 

p,n,,hec,j  rage  of  Satan  should  cease,  is  also  declared  in  the  Apocalypse  before ; 

r  uf'  where,  in  the  xith  and  xiiith  chapters,  we  read,  that  the  beast  afore- 

Mnding    mentioned  shall  have  power  to  work  his  malice  and  mischief  the  space 

a"'  of  forty-two  months,  and  no  more  ;  and  then  that  Satan  should  be 

locked  up  for  a  thousand  years.     The  computation  of  which  months, 

tat;  two  being  counted  by  sabbaths  of  years  (after  the  example  of  the  sixty- 

"•JjJJ"    nine  weeks  of  Daniel,  chapter  xi.),  it  doth  bring  us  to  the  just  year 

Ap«»-     and  time,  when  that  terrible  persecution  in  the  primitive   church 

,ypM'      should  end  ;  and  so  it  did.     For,  give  to  every  month  a  sabbath  of 

years,  that  is,  reckon  every  month  for  seven  years,  and  that  maketh 

two  hundred  and  ninety-four  years,  which  was  the  full  time  between 

the  18th  year  of  Tiberius  (under  whom  Christ  suffered)  and  the 

death  of  Maxentius,  the  last  persecutor  of  the  primitive  church  in 

Suppuu-  Europe,  subdued  by  Constantino,  as  may  appear  by  calculating  the 

''■.'.'rs'iR-  years,   months,   and  days  between  the  said    year  of  the  reign  of 

tween  the  Tiberius,  and  the  latter  end  of  Maxentius :  and  so  have  you  the 

lI'in-'.iiKi  supputation  of  the  year  and  time  when  Satan  was  first  bound  up, 

!,',  u!,'.'"     after  he  had  raged  in  the  primitive  church  two  and  forty  months  ; 

li'ms'in"   which  months,  as  is  said,  being  counted  by  sabbaths  of  years,  after 

thepri-    the  usual   manner  of  the  Scripture,  amount  to  two  hundred   and 

church,     ninety-four   years  ;  and  so  much,  was  the  full  time   between  the 

passion  of  our  Lord,  which  was  in  the  18th  year  of  Tiberius,  unto 

the  last  year  of  Maxentius. 

Tiiepope       And  here,  by  the  way,  cometh  a  note  to  be  observed,  that  for- 

Becond     asnmch  as  by  the  number  of  these  forty-two  months  specified  in  the 

,"'"t.      Apocalypse,  the  empire  of  Rome  must  necessarily  be  confessed  to 

mention-        l  •  ■  r     >  I  .  J       M 

ed.  be  the  first  beast;   therefore  it  must  by  like  necessity  follow,  the 

bishop  of  Rome  to  be  the  second  beast,  with  the  two  horns  of 
the  lamb,  for  that  he  only  hath  and  doth  cause  the  said  empire 
of  Rome  to  revive  and  to  be  magnified,  and  so  doth  not  the  Turk, 
but  rather  laboureth  to  the  contrary.  Wherefore,  let  every  chris- 
tian man  be  wise,  and  beware  betimes  how  he  taketh  the  mark  of 
the  beast,  lest  peradventure  it  follow  upon  him,  that  he  drink 
of  that  terrible  cup  of  wrath  mentioned  in  the  xivth  chapter  of 
the  Apocalypse.1 
Third  Thirdly,  it  remaincth  to  be  discussed  touching  the  third  point 

tV,'.rt,.'ro-    m   tn's  aforesaid  prophecy,  that  as  we  have  found  out   (through 
i '" •'•>'•      the  help  of  Christ)  the  year  and  time  of  Satan's  binding,  so  we 
search  out  likewise  the  time  and  season  of  his  loosing  out,  which, 
by  the  testimony  of  Scripture,  was  proved  to  be  a  thousand  years 
after  his  binding  up  ;  and  so  rightly,  according  to  the  time  appointed, 
Begin-     it  came  to  pass.     For  if  we  number  well  by  the  Scripture  the  year 
',',",'. '"r     of  his  binding  up,  which  was  from  the  passion  of  our  Lord  two 
hundred  and  ninety-four  years,  and  add  thereto  a  thousand  years,  it 
mounteth  to  one  thousand  two  hundred  and  ninety-four  ;  which  was 
the  very  year  when  Ottoman,  the  first  Turk,  began  his  reign  ;  which 
was  the  first  spring  and  wellhead  of  all  these  woful  calamities  that 
the  church  of  Christ  hath  felt,  both  in  Asia,  Africa,  and  Europe, 
almost,  these  three  hundred  years  past.     For  so  we  find  in  chronicles, 
that  the  kingdom  of  the  Turks  being  first  divided  into  four  families. 
A.D.  1280,  at  length   the  family  of  Ottoman  prevailed,  and  therc- 

1)  '  Kt.  Uic  bibet  do  vino  toe  lJci  '     Apo.  xiv. 


THE    HISTORY    OF    THE    TURKS.  109 

upon  came  these,   whom  we  now  call  Turks ;  which  was  about  the  Proptteg. 
same  time  when  pope  Boniface  VIII.  was  bishop  of  Rome. 

Here  by  the  way,  this  is  again  to  be  noted,  that  after  the  decree  Time  of 
of  transubstantiation  was  enacted  in  the  council  of  Latcran  by  pope  sta"tiab" 
Innocent  III.,  a.d.  1251,  not  long  after,  about  a.d.  1260,  were  stirred  Jg,™- 
up  the  power  and  arms  of  the  Oguzians,  and  of  Orthogule,  father  of  Turks. 
Ottoman,  who,  about  a.d.  1294,  began  first  to  vex  the  Christians 
about  Pontus  and  Bithynia;  and  so  beginning  his  kingdom,  a.d. 
1300,  reigned  twenty-eight  years,  as  is  afore-mentioned.1 

Mention  was  made  before  of  Ezekiel  prophesying  against  Gog,  j^ffiff* 
whose  words  divers  expositors  do  apply  against  the  Turk,  and  are  xxxviu. 
these : 

'  Thou  shalt  come  from  thy  place  out  of  the  North  parts,  thou  and  much 
people  with  thee,  all  riding  upon  horses,  a  great  and  a  mighty  army  ;  and  thou 
shalt  come  up  against  my  people  of  Israel  as  a  cloud,  to  cover  the  land.  Thou 
shalt  be  in  the  latter  days,  and  I  will  bring  thee  upon  my  land,  that  the  heathen 
may  know  me,  when  I  shall  be  sanctified  in  thee,  O  Gog !  before  their  eyes. 
Thus  saith  the  Lord  God,  Art  not  thou  he,  of  whom  I  have  spoken  in  the  old 
time  by  the  hand  of  my  servants  the  prophets  of  Israel,  that  prophesied  in  those 
days  and  years,  that  I  would  bring  thee  upon  them  ?  At  the  same  time  also 
when  Gog  shall  come  against  the  land  of  Israel,  saith  the  Lord  God,  my  wrath 
shall  arise  in  mine  anger ;  for  in  mine  indignation,  and  in  the  fire  of  my  wrath 
have  I  spoken  it.  Surely  at  that  time  there  shall  be  a  great  shaking  in  the 
land  of  Israel,  so  that  the  fishes  of  the  sea,  the  fowls  of  the  heaven,  the  beasts 
of  the  field,  and  all  that  move  and  creep  upon  the  earth,  and  all  the  men  that 
are  upon  the  earth  shall  tremble  at  my  presence ;  the  mountains  shall  be  over- 
thrown ;  the  stars  shall  fall;  and  every  man  shall  fall  to  the  ground,'  &c. 


Unto  these  testimonies  above  excerpted  out  of  the  holy  Scriptures,  Metho- 
let  us  add  also  the  prophetical  revelations  of  Methodius,  Hildegard,  ph^ieT' 
Sibylla,  and  others.     This  Methodius  is  thought  of  some  to  be  the 
same  Methodius  of  whom  Jerome  and  Suidas  make  mention  ;  who 
was  bishop  first  of  Olympus  in  Lycia,  then  of  Tyre,  and  suffered 
martyrdom  in  the  last  persecution  of  the  primitive  church  under 
Dioclesian  ;  unto  whom  also  Trithemius  attributeth  the  book  entitled  His  boot 
'  De  quatuor  novissimis  temporalis.''    But  that  cannot  be,  forasmuch  mistaken- 
as  the  said  Methodius  doth  cite  and  allege  the  master  of  sentences, 
namely,  in  his  second  book  and  sixth  distinction,  which  master  of 
sentences  followed  more  than  a  thousand  years  after  Christ ;  besides 
certain  other  fabulous  matters  contained  in  the  same  book.     Albeit, 
because  he  speaketh  there  of  many  things  concerning  the  state  of  the 
church  under  Antichrist,  and  the  reformation  of  religion,  as  seemcth 
rightly  to  come  to  pass,  and  more  is  like  to  follow,  I  thought  not 
to  defraud  the  reader  thereof,  leaving  the  credit  of  the  author  to  his 
arbitrement,  to  esteem  and  judge  of  him,  as  he  seeth  cause.2   Among 

(1)  Ex  Leonico  Chalcondyla,  lib.  i. 

(2)  The  prophecies  of  Methodius  have  not  been  fulfilled  ;  a  specimen  of  the  strange  effusions  of 
Hildegard  will  be  seen  in  vol.  ii.  p.  353.  Justin  laid  great  stress  apqn  the  few  remaining  works  of  the 
Sibyllte,  and  some  of  the  Christians  of  the  early  church  were  so  prejudiced  in  their  favour  that  ir 
gave  occasion  to  Celsus  to  stigmatize  them  with  the  name  of  "  Sibyllists."  The  christian  reader 
may  peruse  these  prophecies  with  curiosity,  but  he  will  return,  with  firmer  confidence,  to  that 

\\{)  THE    HISTORY    OF    THE    TURKS. 

rrophtcy.  divers  other  places  of  Methodius,  prophesying  of  the  latter  time, 
these  words  do  follow  : 

His  pro-        «  After  the  children  of  Ishmael  had  multiplied  in  their  generations  to  an  infi- 

phe.-ies     njte  anj  innumerable  multitude  in  the  desert  aforesaid,  they  came  out  of  the 

Jngth?"    wilderness  of  Araby,  and  entered  into  the  habitable  land,  and  fought  with  the 

Turk*.       kings  of  the  Gentiles,  who  were  in  the  land  of  promise,  and  the  land  was  filled 

witii  them.     And  after  seventy  weeks  and  a  half  of  their  power,  wherewith 

they  have  subdued  all  the  kingdoms  of  the  Gentiles,  their  heart  was  exalted  ; 

seeing  themselves  so  to  have  prevailed,  and  to  have  conquered  all  things,'  &c. 

And  afterwards  it  followeth  of  the  same  matter  in  this  sort : 

'  It  shall  come  to  pass  that  the  said  seed  of  Ishmael  shall  issue  out  and  obtain 

the  whole  world,  with  the  regions  thereof,  in  the  entering  of  peace,  from  the 

land  of  Egypt  unto  Ethiopia ;  and  from  the  flood  Euphrates  unto  India ;  and 

from  the  river  Tigris  to  the  entering  of  Nabaot,  the  kingdom  of  Jonithus,  the 

The  first    son  of  Noah  ;  and  from  the  North  unto  Rome  and  Illyricum,  Egypt  and  Thes- 

itate  of     s.-Jonica  and  Albania,  and  so  forth  to  the  sea  Ponticum,  which  divideth  the 

'"riling"    said  kingdoms  from  Germany  and  France  ;  and  their  yoke  shall  be  double  upon 

'he  the  necks  of  all  nations  and  Gentiles;  neither  shall  there  be  nation  nor  kingdom 

the'safa^  under  heaven,  which  shall  be  able  to  stand  against  them  in  battle,  until  the 

cens.         number  of  eight  weeks  of  years,'1  &c. 

Briefly,  as  in  a  gross  sum,  this  shall  suffice  to  admonish  the  reader 
touching  the  meaning  and  method  of  the  prophecies  of  Methodius, 
which  Methodius,  first  describing  the  long  and  tedious  afflictions  of 
Christ's  church,  thus  maketh  mention  of  the  seed  of  Ishmael : 

'  The  seed  of  Ishmael,  coming  out  of  the  parts  and  deserts  of  Araby,  shall 

destroy,'  saith  he,  '  and  vanquish  the  whole  earth,  so  that  the  Christians  shall 

be  given  of  God  to  the  hands  of  the  filthy  barbarians,  to  be  slain,  polluted,  and 

Chris-       captived  :  Persia,  Armenia,  Cappadocia,  Cilicia,  Syria,  Egypt,  the  east  parts, 

UJS  ri     Asia,  Spain,   all  Greece,   France,  Germany,  Agathonia,  Sicily,   the  Romans 

by  them,    also,  shall  be  slain  and  put  to  flight ;  also  the  islands  of  the  seas  shall  be  brought 

to  desolation  and  captivity,  and  put  to  the  sword.     Which  tribulation  of  the 

Christians  shall  be  without  mercy  or  measure;  the  ransom  of  gold  and  silver 

and  other  exaction.-:  intolerable ;  but  especially  the  dwellers  in  Egypt  and  Syria 

shall  be  most  in  the  affliction  of  those  times.     And  Jerusalem  shall  be  filled 

with  multitudes  of  people  brought  thither  in  captivity,  from  the  four  winds 

which  are  under  heaven  ;  so  that  boasts  also,  and  fowls,  and  fish  in  the  water, 

and  the  waters  of  the  sea,  shall  be  to  them  obedient.     Cities  and  towns,  which 

were  before  full  of  people,  shall  be  laid  waste.     Women  with  child  shall  be 

\       smitten;  their  children  sticked ;  infants  taken  from  their  mothers,  and  cast  in 

the  streets,  and  none  shall  bury  them.    The  riders  and  sage  of  the  people  shall 

be  slain,  ond  thrown  out  to  the  beasts.     Churches  shall  be  spoiled;  the  priests 

destroyed;  virgins  abused,  and  men  compelled  to  sell  their  children;  and  the 

coining  of  them  shall  be  chastisement  without  mercy ;  and  with  them  shall  go 

these  four  plagues,  captivity,  destruction,  perdition,  and  desolation.' 

Me  addeth  much  more,  which  for  brevity  I  overpass.  "And  this 
affliction,11  saith  he,  "  shall  last  eight  weeks,  or  sabbaths  of  years ;"" 
which  I  take  to  signily  eight  hundred  years,  &c. 

Secondly,  After  these  terrible  plagues  thus  described  by  Metho- 
dius upon  the  Christians,  which  he  saith  shall  fall  upon  them  for  their 

•more  sure  word  of  prophecy,'  which  rarae  'not  by  the  will  of  man,'  but  in  which  '  holy  men  of 
old  «pakc  as  llicv  wire  moved  by  the  Holy  Ghost.'— Ed. 

(H  Btffbl  weeks  „i  years,  counting  every  week  for  a  sabbath  of  years,  that  is,  every  dav  for  a 
>roj,  i  oiiu-tl-  to  lilt v  six  years. 


wicked  abominations  recited  in  the  first  and  second  chapters  of  St.  Prophecy 
Paul   to  the  Romans  ;   the  said  Methodius  afterward,  in  this  great  second ~ 
distress  of  the  Christians,  being  out  of  all  hope  and  comfort  of  relief,  "",'}' .[[\-Xf. 
declareth  and  speaketh  of  a  certain  king  of  the  Greeks  or  Romans,  Jiang,  re- 
who  sliall  restore  peace  again  to  the  Christians ;   in  which  peace  they  theit 
shall  re-edify  their  cities  and  mansions  again,  the  priests  shall  be  deli-  ijlat'ues- 
vered  from  their  grievances,  and  men  at  that  time  shall  rest  from  their 
tribulations  ;  and  then  shall  the  king  of  the  Romans  dwell  in  the  city 
of  Jerusalem  a  week  or  sabbath,  and  a  half  of  times,  Sec. 

Thirdly,   During  the  time  of  this  peace  the  said  Methodius  saith,  JSSof" 
that  men  shall  fall  into  licentious  security,  and  careless  life;    and  by  the' 
then,    according    to    the   words   of  the    apostle,    saying,    "  When  of"!!"" 
they  shall  say,  Peace,   peace,  sudden  destruction    shall  .fall   upon  Turks 
them  :" 

'Then,'  saith  he,  '  shall  be  opened  the  gates  of  the  North,  and  the  beastly 
people  shall  break  in,  which  king  Alexander  the  Great  did  close  up  within  two 
mountains,  making  his  prayer  unto  the  Lord  God,  that  he  would  bind  up  that 
bestial  and  execrable  people,  lest  with  their  filthy  and  detestable  pollutions  they 
should  come  out  and  pollute  the  Holy  Land.  Whose  intercession  being  heard, 
the  Lord  commanded  them  to  be  inclosed  within  two  mountains  in  the  north 
parts,  to  the  deepness  of  twelve  cubits,'  which  signifieth,  peradventure,  twelve 
hundred  years,  '  so  that  neither  by  witchcraft,  nor  by  any  means,  they  could 
get  out,  or  any  might  come  unto  them,  until  the  time  of  the  Lord  appointed, 
which  is,'  saith  he,  'the  latter  times;  and  then,  according  to  the  prophecy  of 
Ezekiel,  in  the  latter  time  of  the  consummation  of  the  world,  Gog  and  Magog, 
out  from  the  North,  shall  come  forth  into  the  land  of  Israel,  and  shall  work  all 
this  mischief  against  the  Christians,  above  recited.  And  then,'  saith  Metho- 
dius, proceeding  in  his  prophecies,  '  shall  the  king  of  the  Romans,  after  he  hath 
reigned  in  Jerusalem  a  sabbath  of  times,  and  a  half,1  that  is,'  saith  Methodius, 
1  ten  years  and  a  half,  take  the  crown  from  his  head,2  and  yield  it  up  to  the  cross 
in  Golgotha,  where  Christ  was  crucified,  and  shall  die.  And  the  cross  with 
the  crown  shall  be  taken  into  heaven,  which  shall  not  appear  again  before  the 
coming  of  the  Lord.' 

Fourthly,  It  followeth  then,  moreover,  in  the  prophecies  of  Me- 
thodius, who  declareth  that  when  the  week  or  sabbath  and  half  week 
of  times  sliall  end,  and  when  the  king  of  Romans  shall  give  up  his 
crown  in  Jerusalem,  and  die  : 

'  Then  immediately  shall  Antichrist,  the  son  of  perdition,  begin  to  appear,  and 
be  born  in  Jewry,  of  the  tribe  of  Dan,  whereof  also  came  Judas  Iscariot ;  and 
he  sliall  be  born,'  saith  Methodius,  '  in  Chorazin,  and  shall  be  bred  in  IJcthsaida, 
and  shall  reign  in  Capernaum ;  to  which  three  cities,  Christ  the  Lord  gave  his 
third  '  Vac.'  And  when  great  tribulation  shall  increase  and  multiply  in  the  days 
of  this  Antichrist,  and  all  lordship  and  dominion  shall  be  destroyed,  the  Lord  shall 
send  his  two  faithful  and  dear  servants,  Enoch  and  Elias,  to  reprove  and  detect 
the  false,  seducing,  and  lying  forgeries  of  this  Antichrist,  openly  before  all  men  ; 
so  that  the  people,  seeing  themselves  falsely  beguiled  and  seduced  by  this  son  of 
perdition,  coming  out  of  the  temple  dissemblingly,  to  the  destruction  of  many, 
shall  leave  and  flee  from  him,  and  join  themselves  to  the  said  two  holy  prophets  : 
which  son  of  perdition  and  Antichrist,  seeing  his  proceedings  so  to  be  reproved,  Oestruc- 
and  brought  into  contempt,  in  his  fury  and  anger  shall  kill  the  two  prophets  rf^^J" 
God.  And  then  sliall  appear,'  saith  Methodius,  'the  sign  of  the  coming  of  the 
Son  of  Man  ;  and  he  shall  come  in  the  clouds  of  heavenly  glory,  and  shall  destroy 
the  enemy  with  the  spirit  of  his  mouth,'  &c. 

(T)  The  reign  of  christian  kings  in  Jerusalem  lasted  eighty-eight  years.  A.  n.  1187. 

(2)  By  this  resigning  up  the  crown  to  the  crucifix  in  Grjlgotha,  is  signified  the  ceasing  of  tho 
Christians  in  Jerusalem  till  the  coming  of  Christ.  By  this  tribe  of  Dan,  and  the  cities  Chorazin, 
Bethsaida,  and  Capernaum,  are  signified  God's  great  malediction  upon  Antichrist. 




To  these  prophecies  and  testimonies  of  Methodius,  what  credit  is 
to  be  given,  I  leave  it  to  the  reader.  But  if  the  meaning  of  his 
prophecies  go  by  such  order  of  times  as  is  set  and  disposed  in  his 
book,  he  seemeth  to  describe  unto  us  four  principal  states  and  altera- 
tions of  times  to  come. 
The  com-  The  first  state  and  alteration  is  by  Mahomet  and  the  Saracens, 
Itaacena?  who  be  the  offspring  and  sons  of  Ishmael,  coming  out  of  Araby,  in 
the  time  of  Heraclius,  emperor  of  Constantinople,  a.d.  630,  Avho, 
rebelling  against  Heraclius,  increased  and  prevailed  still  more  and 
more  against  the  Christians,  both  in  Asia  and  Africa,  and  also  in 
many  places  in  Europe ;  especially  in  Spain  and  Italy. 
The  com-  The  second  state  and  alteration  he  prophesieth  to  come  by  the 
Turkl.tlie  Turk,  who,  first  coming  out  of  the  far  parts  of  Scythia,  that  is,  out  of 
the  north,  first  overcame  the  Saracens,  subdued  the  Persians,  and 
afterwards,  joining  together  with  the  Saracens,  conquered  the  king- 
dom of  Jerusalem,  about  a.d.  1187;  then  subdued  Syria  and  most 
part  of  Asia,  &c.  And  these  be  they  whom  Methodius  seemeth  to 
mean,  speaking  of  the  vile  and  miserable  people  closed  up  of  the 
Lord  God,  at  the  intercession  of  Alexander  the  great  captain  in  the 
north,  between  two  mountains  the  deepness  of  twelve  cubits,  lest  that 
filthy  corrupt  nation  should  pollute  the  earth  with  their  wickedness  : 
whereby  are  meant  these  Turks,  who  coming  out  from  the  uttermost 
scythia  parts  of  the  north,  that  is,  out  of  Scythia,  and  the  mountains  of  Cau- 
i'l.^m.'111  casus,  or  else  Imaus,  were  withholden  and  kept  back  of  Almighty 
God,  for  Christ's  cause,  that  they  might  not  harm  his  church  a  long 
space,  during  the  time  of  twelve  hundred  years:  yea,  and  then  the 
sins  of  the  Christians  so  deserving,  they  were  permitted  of  Almighty 
God  to  break  out,  and  to  invade  the  church  ;  who,  now  joining 
together  with  the  Saracens,  have  wrought,  and  daily  do  work,  all  these 
grievances  against  our  christian  brethren,  as  we  see  this  day  is  come 
to  pass  :  and  more  is  like  to  follow,  except  the  hand  of  the  Lord,  which 
let  them  out,  do  pluck  them  in  again. 

Moreover,  in  the  same  space,  between  the  reign  of  the  Saracens 
and  the  Turks,  where  Methodius  speaketh  of  the  king  of  Romans, 
who  should  restore  quietness  to  the  church,  and  should  reign  in  Jeru- 
salem a  sabbath  of  times,  and  half  a  sabbath ;  thereby  seemeth  to  be 
understood  the  voyage  of  christian  princes  out  of  the  west  parts  oi 
y  Europe,  under  Godfrcd,  duke  of  Lotharing,  and  his  two  brethren, 
and  many  other  christian  princes,  with  three  hundred  thousand  foot- 

of  Jeru- 


i,y  the      men,  and  one  hundred  thousand  horsemen  ;  who,  fighting  against  the 
Saracens,  recovered  again  from  them  the  city  of  Jerusalem,  a.d.  1099, 
cen/"8"  wm('n  city  before  had  been  in  their  possession  the  term  of  four  hun- 


ti. ins  from 

I.)-  died  and  ninety  years.1  After  which  victory  got,  first  Godfrcd,  then 
eighty-  Baldwin,  his  brother,  and  others  after  them,  to  the  number  of  nine 

yiarv  ; 
.•mil  won 

christian  kings,  reigned  in  Jerusalem  the  space  of  eighty-eight  years; 

and  alter  that,  through  the  discord  of  the  Christians'  not  agreeing 
tLra  amongst  themselves,  both  Jerusalem  and  Syria,  with  other  parts  or 
■£>■*»   Asia  besides,  were  Bubdued  ami  won  of  the  Turks,  which  yet  to  this 

day  they  still  keep.     And  this  was  a.d.  1187. 

(1)  Ex  Paulo  Jovio. 


THE    HISTORY    OF    THE    TURKS'.  \\  .', 

About  which  year  and  time  (as  followeth  in  Methodius),  when  the  w<v,/„,?/. 
city  of  Jerusalem  shall  be  won  of  the  Turks,  then  shall  Antichrist  vimil„, 
begin  to  be  born  of  the  tribe  of  Dan,  of  whom  came  Judas  Iscariot,  ^k 
and  shall  be  born  in  Chorazin,  and  bred  in  Bcthsaida,  and  reign  in  Ami 
Capernaum :  meaning  that  this  Antichrist,  or  son  of  perdition,  shall  scX,!.' " 
be  full  of  God's  malediction,  noted  by  Judas  Iscariot,  and  these  three 
cities,  against  whom  was  spoken  thrice  '  Vse,1  ot  the  Lord. 

And  here  is  moreover  to  be  noted,  that  Methodius  saith,  not  that 
Antichrist  shall  be  born  among  the  Saracens  or  Turks,  but  among 
the  people  of  God,  and  of  the  tribe  of  Israel.  Whereby  is  to  be 
collected,  that  Antichrist  shall  not  come  of  the  Saracens,  nor  Turks, 
but  shall  spring  up  among  the  Christians,  and,  saith  Methodius, 
"  shall  seem  to  come  out  of  the  temple,  to  deceive  many,11  &c. 
Whereby  the  pope  may  seem,  rather  than  the  Saracen  or  the  Turk, 
to  be  described,  forasmuch  as  the  pope,  being  elected,  nourished,  and 
reigning,  in  the  midst  of  God's  people  at  Rome,  sitteth  in  the  temple, 
and  very  place  of  Christ ;  and,  no  doubt,  deceiveth  many,  &c. 

And  now,  to  come  to  the  time  assigned  of  Methodius,  here  is  to 
be  added  also,  that  which  we  read  in  Antoninus,  part  3,  that  about 
this  said  present  time,  a  certain  bishop  of  Florence  preached  that 
Antichrist  was  then  coming  :  but  the  pope  commanded  him  to  keep 
silence,  and  to  speak  no  more  thereof.  Now,  why  the  pope  so  did, 
and  why  he  could  not  abide  the  preaching  of  Antichrist,  I  refer  it  to 
those  who  list  to  muse  more  upon  the  matter.  This  is  certain,  that 
about  this  time  here  assigned  by  Methodius,  came  Peter  the  Lom- 
bard, Gratian,  and  pope  Innocent  III.,  the  first  authors  and  patrons 
of  transubstantiation.  At  which  time  also  began  the  first  persecution  Trangnb . 
by  the  church  of  Rome  against  the  Albigenses  or  Waldenses,  about  tton.15*- 
Toulouse,  Bourges,  and  Avignon,  of  whom  seventeen  thousand  the  The  lirsl 

•  i-iii  ill-  persecu- 

same  time  were  slam,  by  the  popes  crossed  soldiers,  among  whom  Bon. 
friar  Dominic  was  then  the  ehiefest  doer;  about  which  time  also  was  n'"!"'" 
friar  Francis,  of  which  two  came  the  two  orders  of  begging  friars  :  all  llancis- 
which  began  much  about  one  time  together,  a.d.  1215,  which  were 
nearly  within  twenty  years  after  the  kingdom  of  the  Christians  was 
taken  of  the  Turks,  according  to  the  prophecy  above-said.1 

It  followeth,  moreover,  in  Methodius,  "  In  his  time,  all  lordship  The  pope 
and  domination  shall  cease  and  give  over,11  &c. ;  the  verity  whereof  ^^ 
we  see  now  accomplished  in  the  pope,  for,  where  the  pope  with  his 
double  sword  and  triple  crown  doth  come,  there  all  secular  power 
must  give  place ;  both  emperors,  kings,  and  princes  must  stoop. 

So  king  John  yielded  up  his  crown  to  Pandulph,  the  pope's  legate,  Notes  of 
and  was  in  his  hands  five  days,  a.d.  1217.  ^SSit 

Childeric,  the  French  king,  had  his  crown  taken  from  him,  and 
given  to  Pepin,  a.d.  747. 

Henry  IV.,  emperor,  was  forced  to  submit  himself  and  his  sceptre 
to  pope  Hildebrand,  a.d.  1077. 

Frederic  Barbarossa,  emperor,  in  St.  Mark's  church  in  Venice,  was 
fain  to  lav  down  his  neck  under  pope  Alexander's  feet,  a.d.  1~77; 
which  Frederic  also  before  was  fain  to  hold  the  stirrup  to  pope 
Adrian,  Sec. 

What  should  I  speak  of  the  ambassador  of  Venice,  named  Fran- 

(1)  Ex  Antonin.  part  iii.  tit.  1!>,  cap.  I. 
VOL.    IV.  I 


p,,.ri,,r,,.  ciscus  Dandulus?  who,  being  sent  to  pope  Clement  V.,  was  made  to 
' lie  under  the   pope's  table  like  a  dog,  and  gather  up  the  crumbs; 

mentioned  in  Sabellicus  JEnn.  ix.  lib.  7. 

Henry  III.,  being  emperor,  had  his  diadem  first  set  on  with  the 

feet  of  the  pope,  and  afterwards  struck  off  from  his  head  with  the 

pope ! 

foot  again. 

of  the 

And  what  shall  T  speak  more  hereof,  when  Charlemagne  submit- 
ted himself  so  low  as  to  kiss  the  feet  of  pope  Leo,  a.d.  800? 
It  followeth  then  in  the  prophecy  of  Methodius  : 

'  In  the  tribulation  of  those  days  shall  be  sent  from  God  two  special  prophets, 
Enoch  and  Elias,  to  reprove  and  disclose  the  fraudulent  falsehood  of  Antichrist; 
and  many,  seeing  his  delusion,  shall  forsake  him,  and  follow  them  :  whereat 
Antichrist  being  grieved,  shall  kill  them,'  &c. 

We  never  read  yet,  in  any  story,  of  any  such  two  prophets  to  be 
sent  either  to  the  Saracens,  or  to  the  Turks  :  whereas,  against  the 
pope,  we  read  John  Huss  and  Jerome  of  Prague,  two  learned  martyrs 
and  prophets  of  God,  to  have  been  sent,  and  to  have  reproved  and 
described  the  anatomy  of  Antichrist;  and,  at  last,  to  have  been 
burned  for  their  labour.  And  what  prophet  can  speak  more  plainly, 
either  Enoch  or  Elias,  than  did  Jerome  of  Prague,  prophesying  of  the 
coming  of  Martin  Luther,  a  hundred  years  after  him  ?  when  the 
pope  and  his  fellows  should  answer  to  God  and  to  him.  The  time 
we  see  came  just.     Now  let  the  pope  with  his  fellows   see,  what 

i.ords      answer  thev  can   make.      It  followeth  further  ill    Methodius,  con- 

ment.      eluding  Ins  prophecy  : 

'  And  then  shall  appear  the  coming  of  the  Son  of  man  in  the  clouds  of  heaven, 
with  celestial  glory,'  &c. 

Wherefore  after  the  burning  of  these  two  notable  prophets,  with 
many  other  thousands  burned  also  since  their  time  by  the  bishop  of 
Home,  it  is  to  be  thought  that  the  coming  of  Christ's  judgment  in 
the  clouds,  is  not  far  off.     "  Veni  cito  Domine."  Amen  ! 

And  thus  much  touching  Methodius,  of  whose  prophecies,  how 
much  or  how  little  is  to  be  esteemed,  I  leave  it  indifferent  unto  the 
reader.  For  me  it  shall  suffice  simply  to  have  recited  his  words,  as 
I  find  them  in  his  book  contained ;  noting  this  by  the  way,  that  of 
this  book  of  Methodius,  c  Dc  novissimis  temporibus,'  neither  Jerome 
in  his  catalogue,  nor  Suidas,  nor  yet  Aventinus,  in  the  place  where 

Prophecy  he  treateth  purposely  of  such  prophecies,  maketh  any  mention.     As 
(i  touching  Hildegard  and  Briget,  and  others,  whom  the  French  call 

Briget.  Bardi,  for  their  songs  and  prophetical  verses,  sufficient  hath  been 
alleged,  before  out  of  Aventinus:2  who,  in  his  third  book  of 
Chronicles,  writing  of  the  testimonies  of  Hildegard,  Briget,  and  the 
Bardi,  seemeth  to  ground  upon  them,  that  the  Turks,  whether  we 

A  caveat  will  or  not,  shall  have  their  imperial  seat  at  Cologne;  and  I  pray  God 

Had?8"  ,,nt  't  come  not  to  pass,  that  the  Turk  do  give  some  attempt  against 
England  by  the  seas,  before  that  he  come  to  Cologne  by  land.3 

Brevity  causeth  me  to  cut  off  many  testimonies  and  revelations  of 
these  above  said,  or  else  1  could  here  rehearse  the  prophetical  words 

in  Vid.  Inprlmo  Tom.  operum  Julian. Hus.  deAnatomia. 

''     A\cntin.  lib.  iii.  Annalium.  (8)  Ex  Brigltta.  lib.  iv.  c.  57. 



of  Briget,  lib.  iv.  c.  57,  concerning  the  city  and  church  of  Rome,  of  r™v>^>.i- 
which  she  saith  thus  ■ 

'  It  must  be  purged  and  scoured  with  three  tilings,  to  wit,  with  sharp  sword,  Prophe- 
with  fire,  and  with  the  plough,  and  that  God  will  do  with  that  city,  as  one  that  g"  "[ 
removeth  plants  out  of  one  place  unto  another  :  and,  finally,  that  the  city  of 
Rome  shall  sustain  the  sentence,  as  if  a  judge  should  command  the  skin  to  be 
flayed  oft',  the  blood  to  be  drawn  from  the  flesh,  and  the  flesh  to  be  cut  in  small 
pieces,  and  the  bones  thereof  to  be  broken ;  so  that  all  the  marrow  may  be 
squeezed  from  the  same,'  &c. 

But  for  brevity  I  let  Briget  pass,  and  will   declare  something  out  Prophe- 
of  Erythrea  Sibylla,  in  her  book  of  prophecies  found  in  St.  George's  E^tSrea 
church  in  Venice  ;  where  she,  prophesying  many  things  of  the  birth  ^£a 
of  Christ  under  Augustus,  and  of  the  birth  of  John  Baptist,  and  of  EnpaUa. 
baptism,  of  the  apostles,   of  the  conversion  of  the  Gentiles,  and  of 
Constantine,  &c.  hath  these  words  :l 

'After  the  peaceable  bull  shall  conclude  all  the  climes  of  the  world  under 
tribute,  in  those  days  a  heavenly  lamb  shall  come.  And  the  days  shall  conic, 
when  the  power  of  the  flowing  stream  shall  be  magnified  in  water,  and  the  lion, 
the  monarch,  shall  be  converted  to  the  lamb,  which  shall  shine  to  all  men,  and 
subvert  kingdoms.' 

Moreover  saith  Sibylla  : 

'  In  the  latter  age  God  shall  be  humbled,  and  the  divine  offspring  shall  be  Prophe- 
abased,  and  deity  shall  be  joined  with  humanity,  the  lamb  shall  lie  in  hay,  and  ^.jf  af 
God  and  man  shall  be  bred  up  under  a  maiden's  attendance  :  signs  and  won-  Christ. 
ders  shall  go  before  amongst  the  circumcised,'  &c.     Also,   'An  aged  woman 
shall  conceive  a  child,  having  knowledge  of  things  to  come.     The  world  shall 
marvel  at  Bootes  'the  star,'  which  shall  be  a  leader  to  his  birth;  he  having 
thirty-two  feet,  and  six  thumbs,  shall  choose  to  himself  out  of  fishers  and 
abjects,  the  number  of  twelve,  and  one  devil,  not  with  sword,  nor  with  battle,'  &c. 

Afterwards  thus  it  followeth,  moreover,  in  Sibylla,  saying : 

'The  health  of  the  lamb  lying5  shall  be  clothed  with  a  few  spoils  of  the  lion. 
Black  shall  be  turned  into  red.  He  shall  subdue  the  city  of  /Eneas,  and  kings, 
but  in  the  book  of  the  fisher:  In  dejection  and  poverty  he  shall  conquer  riches, 
and  shall  tread  down  pride  with  his  own  death.  In  the  night  he  shall  rise  up, 
and  be  changed,  he  shall  live  and  reign,  and  all  these  things  shall  be  consum- 
mated, and  regeneration  or  'new  things'  be  made  :  at  last  he  shall  judge  both 
good  and  evil,'  &c. 

And  thus  much  briefly  collected  out  of  Sibylla  Erythrea,  concern- 
ing Christ  our  Lord. 

Furthermore,  touching  the  state  and  course  of  the  church,  and  of 
Antichrist,  it  followeth  in  the  said  Sibylla,  saying: 

1  Then  shall  four  winged  beasts3  rise  up  in  testimony ;  they  shall  sound  out 
with  trumpets  the  name  of  the  lamb,  sowing  righteousness,  and  the  law  irre- 
prehensible;  against  which  law  the  beast  shall  gainstand,  and  tin-  abomination 
and  froth  of  the  dragon.  But  a  marvellous  star  -hall  rise,  having  the  image  of 
the  four  beasts,  and  shall  be  in  a  marvellous  multitude ;  it  shall  bring  light  to 
the  Greeks,  and  shall  illustrate  the  world.     The  lake  of  the  fishes  shall  bring 

(1)  Ex  Erythrea  Sibylla  in  suo  Nazilographo.  i.  Imperiali  soripto. 

(2)  The  lamb  lying,  that  is,  the  church,  without  travail  shall  be  maintained  with  some  living  or 
possessions  of  the  chief  rulers. 

(3)  By  these  four  beasts  is  meant  the  four  monarchies  of  the  world,  that  is,  the  multitude  of  all 
the  kingdom  of  the  Gentiles,  as  in  the  Apocal      Jiy  the  city  of  .Eneas  is  meant  Home. 

i  2 

116  THE    llf STORY    OF    THE    TUltKS. 

Prophecy,  the  name  of  the  lamb  with  power  into  the  city  of  iEneas,  unto  the  end  of  the 
"  world  or  time.'     'Then  in  the  city  of  JEneas  the  star  joined  shall  loose  such  as 

wore  bound  of  the  devil,  and  thereof  he  shall  rejoice  and  glory,  and  glorious 

-hall  be  his  end,'  &c. 

After  this  Sibylla  writing,  as  it  seemeth,  of  Antichrist,  importeth 
these  words : 

Prophecy  '  And  it  shall  come  to  pass,  that  an  horrible  beast  shall  come  out  of  the  east, 
of  Sibylla  whose  roaring  shall  be  heard  to  Africa,  to  the  people  of  Carthage,  which  hath 
ciirut"  seven  heads,  and  sceptres  innumerable,  feet  six  hundred  and  sixty-three.1  He 
shall  gainstand  the  lamb,  to  blaspheme  his  testament,  increasing  the  waters  of 
the  dragon.  The  kings  and  princes  of  the  world  he  shall  burn  in  intolerable 
swat,  and  they  shall  not  diminish  his  feet.  And  then  two  stars,  like  to  the 
first  star,  shall  arise  against  the  beast,  and  shall  not  prevail,  till  the  abomination 
shall  be  come,  and  the  will  of  the  Lord  shall  be  consummated.' 

And  again,  speaking  of  the  same  matter,  he  inferreth  these  words 
of  the  aforesaid  two  stars  above  mentioned  : 

'  And  towards  the  latter  days  two  bright  stars  shall  arise,3  raising  up  men 
lying  dead  in  their  sins,  being  like  to  the  first  star,  having  the  face  of  the  four 
beasts,  which  shall  resist  the  beast,  and  the  waters  of  the  dragon,  testifying  [or 
preaching]  the  name  and  law  of  the  lamb,  the  destruction  of  abomination  and 
judgment,  and  shall  diminish  his  waters ;  but  they  shall  be  weakened  in  the 
bread  of  affliction,  and  they  shall  rise  again  in  stronger  force,'  &c. 

And  it  followeth  moreover : 

1  After  the  abomination,  then  shall  truth  be  revealed,  and  the  lamb  shall  be 
known,  to  whom  regions  and  countries  shall  submit  their  necks,  and  all  earthly 
men  shall  agree  together  in  one,  to  come  into  one  fold,  and  to  be  ruled  under 
one  discipline ;  and  after  this  shall  be  but  a  small  time,'  &c. 

And  shortly  after,  the  said  Sibylla  speaking  of  the  latter  judgment 
to  come,  declareth  how  all  the  abominations  of  sins  shall  come  before 
l he  Lamb;  and  that  terrible  fire  shall  fall  from  heaven,  which  shall 
consume  all  earthly  things  created  unto  the  top  of  heaven,  &c. 

And  thus  much  out  of  Sibylla,  touching  her  prophecies  of  Christ 
and  Antichrist,  according  as  I  found  them  alleged  by  a  certain  ca- 
tholic Romish  writer,  in  his  book  entitled  '  Onus  Ecclesise,''  ex- 
cerpted, as  he  saith,  out  of  the  library  of  St.  George,  in  the  city  o. 

Philip  Mclancthon,  in  his  preface  upon  '  Bartholomams  Georgienitz 
Peregrinus,1  writing  of  the  origin  and  manners  of  the  Turks,  allegeth 
a  certain  prophecy  of  Hiltcnus,  mentioned  hereafter,  which  foresaid 
that  the  Turks  should  bear  rule  in  Italy  and  in  Germany,  a.d.  1600. 

Now  it  remaineth,  in  conclusion  of  these  prophecies  of  the  Turks, 
something  to  say  of  the  Turks1  own  prophecies,  concerning  the  en- 
during  and  ending  of  their  own  kingdom,  whose  prophetical  prog- 
nostication, being  taken  out  of  their  own  language,  and  their  own 
books,  I  though!  here  to  insert,  as  I  find  it  alleged  in  the  book  of  the 
aforesaid  Bartnolomseus  Georgienitz,  as  followeth  : 

(1)  The  six  hundred  and  sixty-three  feet  do  mean  the  years  of  his  reign. 

(2)  These  two  Stan  seem  to  mean  lluss  and  Jerome,  who  being  put  to  death  by  the  pope, 
theii  doetrine  rose  again  more  strongly  than  before. 

THE    HISTORY    OF    THE    TURKS.  117 

A  Turkish  Prophecy  in  the  Persian  Tongue,  of  the  Reign  and  Ruin  Pr"i',u'c!f- 
of  the  Turks. 

Patissahomoz  ghelur,  Ciafcrum  memleketi  alur,  kcuzul  alniai  alnr,  Kapzeiler 
iediy  ladegh  Gyaur  keleci  csikmasse,  on  ikiyladogh  onlaron  beghlig  eder :  eufi 
iapar,  baglii  diker  bahesai  baghlar,  uglikczi  olur,  onichi  yldensora  Hristianon 
Keleci  csichar,  ol  Turchi  gerestine  tus  cluire. 

The  same  in  Latin. 

Imperator  noster  veniet,  ethnici  principis '  regnum  capiet,  rubrum  quoque 
pomum  capiet,  in  suam  potestatem  rediget:  quod  si  septinunn  usque  annum 
Christianorum  gladius  non  insurrexit,  usque  ad  duodecimum  annum  eis  domi- 
nabiUir.  Domos  aedificabit,  vineas  plantabit,  hortos  sepibus  muniet,  liberos 
procreabit,  et  post  duodecimum  annum  apparebit  Christianorum  gladius,  qui 
Turcam  quaqua  versum  in  fugam  aget. 

The  same  in  English. 

Our  emperor  shall  come ;  he  shall  get  the  kingdom  of  the  Gentiles'  prince  ; 
also  he  shall  take  the  red  apple,  and  shall  bring  it  under  his  subjection  :  and  if 
the  sword  of  the  Christians  shall  not  rise  unto  the  seventh  year,  he  shall  have  domi- 
nion over  them  unto  the  twelfth  year.  He  shall  build  houses,  plant  vinevards,  shall 
hedge  about  his  orchards,  shall  procreate  children ;  and  after  the  twelfth  year  shall 
appear  the  sword  of  the  Christians,  which  shall  put  the  Turk  to  flight  every  where. 

Those  who  make  declaration  of  this  Turkish  prophecy,  do  expound 
this  twelfth  year  to  signify  the  twelfth  year  after  the  winning  of  Con- 
stantinople ;  which  Constantinople,  say  they,  is  meant  by  the  red 
apple :  and  after  that  twelfth  year,  say  they,  shall  rise  the  sword  of 
the  Christians,  &c.    And  this  prophecy,  being  written  and  translated 
out  of  the  Persian  tongue,  with  this  exposition  upon  the  same,  is  to  Exposi- 
be  found  in  the  book  of  Bartholoniseus  Georgienitz.  Albeit,  concern-  tu"^1116 
ing  the  exposition  thereof,  it  seemeth  not  to  be  true,  which  is  there  prophecy. 
spoken  of  the  twelfth  year  after  the  winning  of  Constantinople,  being 
now  one  hundred  years  since  the  winning  thereof. 

Wherefore  it  may  rather  seem  probable,  that  by  the  seventh  and 
twelfth  years  of  the  Turks,  this  to  be  the  meaning;  that  if  the  seventh 
of  the  Ottoman  Turks  do  escape  the  sword  of  the  Christians,  they 
shall  continue,  build,  and  plant,  &c,  until  the  twelfth  Turk,  who  is 
this  Solyman ;  and  then,  after  that,  shall  rise  the  Christian's  sword, 
which  shall  put  them  to  flight,  and  vanquish  them  in  all  quarters. 
And  this  exposition  may  seem  to  accord  with  the  place  of  Genesis 
xxv. ;  wherein  is  written  of  Ishmael,  that  he  had  twelve  sons,  and  no  Another 
more :  so,  that  this  Solyman,  being  the  twelfth  Turk  after  Ottoman,  ^osl" 
may  (by  the  grace  of  Christ)  be  the  last ;  whom  we  heard  credibly  to 
be  reported,  at  the  printing  hereof,2  to  be  dead.  But,  howsoever 
this  prophecy  is  to  be  taken,  it  appeared]  by  their  own  oracles,  that  at 
length  they  shall  be  overcome  by  the  Christians. 

A  Table  describing  the  times  and  years  of  the  Saracens,  Turks,  and 
Tartarians,  for  the  better  explaining  of  the  Story  above  prefixed. 

A.  D.  632.     The  kingdom  of  the  Saracens  or  Arabians,  began  after  the  death  Saracens 
of  Mahomet,  the  first  ringleader  of  the  mischief;  which  Saracens,  reigning  in  bcei»- 

(1)  By  the  prince  of  the  Gentiles,  the  Turks  do  here  mean  the  kingdoms  and  dominions  of  the 
Christians,  whom  they  call  Gentiles,  because  they  are  not  circumcised  after  their  manner. 

(2)  Solyman  died  in  1566.  The  Second  Edition  of  the  Acts  and  Monuments  was  printed  in 
London  in  1570,  at  which  period  the  above  report  of  Solyman'l  deatu  arrived.— Ed. 

118  THE    HISTOKY    01<    TIIK    TUItKS. 

Propha*.  Babylon  over  Persia  and  Asia,  continued  abovit  one  hundred  and  ninety-eight 

A.  D.  GG7.  Jerusalem  was  taken  by  the  Saracens.  These  Saracens,  after 
they  had  subdued  Ormisda  king  of  Persia,  set  up  to  themselves  a  new  king- 
dom, calling  tbeir  chief  prince  Caliph,  which  signifieth  a  general  lord ;  and 
under  him  Seriphes,  that  is  an  under  prince  ;  and  again,  under  him  their  Soldan, 
w'uo  is  a  ruler  or  captain  ;  under  which  soldans  all  the  provinces  were  divided. 
And  thus  ruled  they  the  space  above  said,  of  one  hundred  and  ninety-eight 

A.  D.  703.     The  Egyptians  being  weary  of  their  subjection  under  the  Ro- 

Egyptian  mans,  called  for  help  of  the  Saracen  caliph ;  and  so,  casting  off  the  Romans, 

Saracens,  submitted  themselves   to  the  law  of  the  Saracens,  and  had  also  their  caliph, 

o*Snl-      iin(]  (heir  Babylon  called  Cairo,  where  their  caliphs  continued  unto  Saraco  or 

Syracinus,  four  hundred  and  forty-seven  years. 

A.  D.  810.     Mauginet,  or  Muchumet,  the  chief  sultan  of  Persia,  being  at 

cent'  arV  variance  with  Imbraell,  the  sultan  of  Babylon,  sent  for  the  aid  of  the  Turks  out 

1    of  Scythia  ;  by  whom  when  he  had  got  the  victory  against  the  Babylonians, 

ceaaeth.     ^  ^  Turks  sjlortiy  after  conquered  the  Persians,  and  subdued  their  country 

within  the  space  of  twenty  years. 

A.  D.  830.  The  Saracens,  being  expidsed  out  of  Asia  by  the  Turks,  wan- 
dered about  Africa,  Spain,  and  Italy,  and  were  in  divers  places  dispersed,  and 
so  remain. 

A.  D.  830.  The  Turks,  after  they  had  expulsed  the  Saracens  out  of  Asia, 
Turk's  began  to  reign  in  Asia,  in  Persia,  and  in  Arabia;  and  there  reigned  without 
kingdom  interruption,  till  the  coming  of  the  Tartarians,  the  space  of  one  hundred  and 
neth!"       ninety-two  years. 

A.  D.  1009.  The  Turks  won  the  city  of  "Jerusalem  from  the  Saracens;  which 
city  the  sultan  of  Egypt  won  again  from  the  Turks  shortly  after,  and  possessed 
the  same  till  the  coming  of  Godfred. 

A.  1).  1051.  The  first  king  of  the  Turks,  called  Zaduke,  began  to  reign  in 
Asia,  and  joined  league  with  the  caliph  of  Egypt,  and  there  reigned  till  the 
conquest  of  Godfred  and  the  Christians  the  space  of  forty-six  years. 

A.  D.  1078.  Solyman,  nephew  to  Aspasalcm,  the  Turkish  king  in  Asia, 
otherwise  called  Tarquinia,  subdued  Cappadocia,  which  hath  continued  now, 
,  the  space  of  live  hundred  years. 
A.  J).  1099.  Godfred  Bulion,  duke  of  Lotharing,  a  christian  prince,  taking 
his  viage  into  Asia  with  seven  hundred  thousand  christian  soldiers,  first  got 
the  city  of  Nice  against  the  sultan  of  the  Turks;  then  Lycaonia,  Silicia,  Syria; 
afterwards  Mesopotamia,  and  Comagena :  then  Antioch,  a.  d.  1098,  and  the 
next  year  recovered  Jerusalem,  being  then  in  the  hands  of  the  Saracens,  which 
they,  a  little  before,  had  won  from  the  Turks,  as  is  aforesaid.  After  this 
Godfred.  succeeded  eight  christian  kings,  who  kept  the  kingdom  of  Jerusa- 
lem and  Asia,  both  from  the  Turks  and  Saracens,  the  space  of  eighty-eight 

A.  I).  1 100.  The  Georgians,  who  be  a  people  of  Armenia  the  greater,  van- 
quished tlie  Turks  out  of  the  kingdom  of  Persia,  after  they  had  cut  their  king 
in  pieces:  whereby  the  Turks,  Hying  to  Cappadocia,  there  remained  under  So- 
lyman,  and  joined  themselves  to  the  soldan  of  Egypt,  and  waxed  then  strong  in 
Asia  .Minor,  called  HOW  Turquinia. 

A.  1).  1170.  When  Almeric,  the  seventh  king  of  Jerusalem  after  Godfred 
had  overcome  the  caliph,  or  sultan  of  Egypt,  the  sultan  being  overcome,  called 
for  the  help  of  Saraeon,  the  sultan  of  Syria.  This  Saraeon,  after  he  had  expulsed 
the  Christians  out  of  Egypt,  turned  his  power  against  the  sultan  of  Egypt,  and 
vanquishing  him,  took  to  himself  the  kingdom  of  Egypt:  which  kingdom  he 
with  his  posterity  did  hold  till  the  coming  of  the  Tartarians  and  the  Mamalukes 
ahniit  the  Bpace  of  eighty-eight  years. 

A.  1).  1 187.  Saladine,  the  nephew  of  Saraeon  the  sultan  of  Egypt,  perceiv- 
ing the  dissension  among  the  christian  states  of  Palestine,  got  Antioch,  where 
I  lew  Raymuud  the  prince  with  his  own  hands :  then  he  got  Tiberias.  From 
tie  nee  he  weui  In  Acre,  where  be  took  Guido  king  of  Jerusalem,  and  the  master 
of  the  Templars,  prisoners;  for  whose  ransom  the  Turk  had  Ascalon  yielded 
up  to  liim  by  the  Christians.  That  done,  he  subdued  Jerusalem,  which  had 
bei  n  in  tin-  hands  of  the  Christians  before,  the  space  of  eighty-eight  years. 

THE    HISTORY    OF    THE    TURKS.  119 

A.  D.  1189.     Frederic  the  emperor,  Philip  the  French  king,  and  Richard  Prophec,,. 

king  of  England,  made   their  viage  into  Asia,  where  Frederic,  washing  in  a 

river  in  Cilicia,  died.  In  this  viage,  at  the  siege  of  Acre,  Saladine  won  the 
field  of  our  men,  of  whom  two  thousand  were  slain  in  ihe  chase.  Achre  at 
length  was  got  hy  the  Christians.  King  Richard  got  Cyprus.  The  two  kings 
fell  at  strife.  Philip  retired  home  without  any  good  doing.  King  Richard  laid 
siege  to  Jerusalem,  hut  in  vain,  and  so  returning  homeward,  was  taken  near  to 
Vienna  in  Austria,  after  he  had  taken  truce  before  with  the  soldan,  upon  such 
condition  as  pleased  him.  And  this  good  speed,  had  the  pope's  sending  out 
against  the  Turks. 

A.  D.  1215.  There  was  another  council  holden  at  Rome  by  pope  Innocent  Transub 
III.,  where  was  enacted  a  new  article  of  our  faith,  for  transubstantiation  of  stantia- 
bread  and  wine,  to  be  turned  into  the  body  and  blood  of  our  Saviour.  In  this 
council  also  great  excitation  was  made  by  the  pope,  and  great  preparation  was 
through  all  Christendom,  to  set  forward  for  recovery  of  the  Holy  Land.  A 
mighty  army  was  collected  of  dukes,  lords,  knights,  bishops,  and  prelates,  that, 
if  God's  blessing  bad  gone  with  them,  they  might  have  gone  throughout  all 
Asia  and  India. 

A.  D.  1219.  The  Christians  after  eighteen  months'  siege,  got  a  certain  town 
in  Egypt,  called  Damietta,  or  Elipolis,  with  much  ado,  hut  not  much  to  the  pur- 
pose. For  afterwards,  as  the  christian  army  of  the  pope's  sending  went  about 
to  besiege  the  city  of  Cairo,  or  Babylon,  the  sultan,  through  his  subtle  train,  so 
entrapped  and  inclosed  them  within  the  danger  of  the  Nile,  that  they  were 
constrained  to  render  again  the  city  of  Damietta,  with  their  prisoners,  and  all 
the  furniture  thereof  as  they  found  it,  into  the  soldan 's  hand;  and  glad  so  with 
their  lives  to  pass  forward  to  Tyre.     A.  D.  1221. 

In  the  mean  time  the  Egyptian  Turk  caused  the  city  of  Jerusalem  to  be 
rased,  that  it  should  serve  for  no  use  to  the  Christians.  What  great  thing 
else  was  done  in  that  viage,  it  doth  not  greatly  appear  in  stories.  Albeit 
Frederic  II.,  emperor,  was  not  unfruitfully  there  occupied;  and  much  more 
-night  have  done,  had  it  not  been  for  the  violence  and  persecution  of  the  bishop 
of  Rome  against  him ;  whereby  he  was  enforced  to  take  truce  with  the  sultan 
for  ten  years,  and  so  returned.  After  which  things  done,  not  many  years  after, 
at  length  the  last  city  of  all  belonging  to  the  Christians,  which  was  Ptolomais, 
or  Acre,  was  also  taken  from  them  by  the  sultan,  so  that  now  the  Christians 
had  not  one  foot  left  in  all  Asia. 

A.  D.  1230.     Thus  the  Christians  being  driven  out  of  Asia  by  the  sultans 
and  Turks,  yet  the  said  Turks  and  sultans  did  not  long  enjoy  their  victory. 
For  eftsoons  the  Lord  stirred  up  against  them  the  Tartarians,  who,  breaking  into  Tartari- 
Asia  by  the  ports  of  Caspius,  subdued  divers  parts  of  Asia,  namely  about  Co-  a»s. 
mana,  Colchis,  Iberia,  Albania,  &c.     These  Tartarians,  as  they  had  got  many 
captives  in  their  wars,  so  for  gain  they  used  to  ship  them  over  customably  to 
Alexandria  in  Egypt,  to  be  sold;  which  servants  and  captives  Melechsala,  the 
great  sultan,  was  glad  to  buy,  to  serve  him  in  his  wars.     Which  captives  and 
"servants  after  they  had  continued  a  certain  space  in  Egypt,  and  through  their 
valiant  service  grew  in  favour  and  estimation  with   the   said  Melechsala,  and 
began  more  to  increase  in  number  and  strength ;  at  length  they  slew  him,  and  Satadinrt 
took  to  themselves  the  name  and  kingdom  of  the  sultan.     And  thus  ceased  the  £^m 
stock  of  Saracon  and  Saladine  aforementioned,  which  continued  in  Egypt  about  ceaseth. 
the  space,  as  is  said,  of  one  hundred  years. 

A.  D.  1240.     After  the  "death  of  Melechsala,  the  army  of  these  aforesaid 
rascals  and  captives  set  up  to  themselves  a  king  of  their  own  company,  whom 
they  called  Turquemenius :  who,  to  fdl  up  the  number  of  their  company,  that 
it  should  not  diminish,  devised  this   order,    to  get  or  to   buy  christian  men's 
children,  taken  young  from  their  parents,  and   the  mother's  lap;  whom   they 
used  so  to  bring  up,  as  to  make  them  to  deny  Christ,   and  to  be  circumcised, 
and  instructed  in  Mahomet's  law,  and  afterwards   to  be  trained    in  the  feats  of 
war;  and  these  were  called   Mainalukes  :  among  whom  this  was  their  order,  Mama- 
that  none  might  be  advanced  to  be  king  but  out  "of  their  own  number,  or  else  |?^?"in 
chosen   by  them  ;  neither  that  any  should  be   made  knights  or  horsemen,  but    "  v  ' 
only  the  children  of  Christians  who  should  deny  Christ  before,  called  Mama- 

lukcs.  Also  it  was  among  them  provided,  that  to  this  dignity  neither  Saracens 
nor  Jews  should  be  admitted.      Item,  that  the   succession  thereof  should  m. 

I    .  I  TIIK    HISTOKY    OF    THE    TURKS. 

Prophecy  descend  to  the  children  and  offspring  of  these  Mamalukes.     Also  that  the  suc- 

__1 cession  of  the  crown  should  not  descend  to  the  children  of  the  aforesaid  sultans, 

but  should  go  by  voice  and  election. 

'flu-  Tartarian*  with  Turquemenius  their  king,  about  this  time  obtained  Tur- 
quia,  that  is,  Asia  Minor,  from  the  Turks,  and  within  two  years  after,  prevail- 
ing against  the  Turks,  expelled  them  from  their  kingdom ;  and  so  continued 
these  Mamalukes  reigning  over  Egypt,  and  a  great  part  of  Asia,  till  the  time  of 
Tomumbeiua  their  last  king,  who  was  destroyed  and  hanged  at  the  gates  of 
Memphis,  by  Selim  the  Turk,  father  to  this  Solyman,  as  in  his  history  is 
declared.  These  Mamalukes  continued  the  space  of  two  hundred  and  sixty 

A.  D.  1245.  These  Tartarians,  ranging  through  the  countries  of  the  Geor- 
gians, and  all  Armenia,  came  as  far  as  Iconium,  which  was  then  the  imperial 
city  of  the  Turks. 

A.  D.  1289.  The  soldan  of  Egypt  and  Babylon  got  from  the  Christians 
Trtpolis,  Tyre,  Sidon,  and  Berithus  in  Syria. 

A.  D.  1291.  Lastly,  Ptolomais,  which  also  is  called  Acre,  was  surprised  by  the 
said  soldan,  rased,  and  cast  down  to  the  ground,  and  all  the  Christians  therein 
(who  were  not  many  left)  were  slain.  And  this  was  the  last  city  which  the 
Christiana  had  in  Asia;  so  that  now  the  Christians  have  not  one  foot  (as  is  said 
before)  left  in  all  Asia.  Thus  the  Egyptian  soldans,  and  the  Tartarians,  reigned 
and  ranged  over  the  most  part  of  Asia  above  the  Turks,  till  the  reign  of  Otto- 
man the  great  Turk,  about  the  space  of  eighty  years. 

And  thus  have  ye  the  whole  discourse  of  the  Turkish  story,  with 
their  names,  countries,  towns,  dominions ;  also  with  their  times,  con- 
tinuance,  interruptions,  and  alterations,  in  order  described,  and  in 
years  distinguished  :  which,  otherwise,  in  most  authors  and  writers  be 
so  confused,  that  it  is  hard  to  know  distinctly,  what  difference  is  be- 
tween the  Saracens,  Turks,  Tartarians,  the  Sultans  or  Soldans,  Mama- 
lukes, or  Janizaries ;  what  is  their  Caliph,  their  Seriphes,  their  Sultan, 
or  Bassa ;  in  what  times  they  began,  and  how  long,  and  in  what  order 
of  years  they  reigned.  All  which,  in  this  present  Table,  manifestly  to 
thine  eve  may  appear. 
why  the       Wherein  this  thou  hast  moreover,  gentle  reader!  to  consider  (which 
nX>ru-"  's  worthy  the  noting),  how  the  bishop  of  Rome  all  this  season,  from 
vail         the  first  beginning  of  the  Turk's  reign,  hath  not  ceased  from  time  to 
tbe         time  continually,  calling  upon  christian  princes  and  subjects  to  take 
lurks,      the  cross,  and   to  war  against  the  Turks ;   whereupon   so  many  great 
viages  have  been  made  to  the  Holy  Land,  and  so  many  battles  fought 
against  the  Turk  and  Soldan  for  winning  the  holy  cross ;  and  yet  no 
lucky  success  hath  followed  thereof  hitherto,  nor  ever  came  it  pro- 
sperously forward,  whatsoever  through  the  exciting  of  that  bishop  hath 
been  attempted  against  that  great  enemy  of  the  Lord  :   insomuch  that 
the  Christians  have  lost  not  only  all  that  they  had  in  Asia,  but  also 
are  scarce  able  to  defend  that  little  they  have  in  Europe  against  his 
violence.    What  the  cause  is  of  this  hard  luck  of  the  bishop's  doings, 
it  is  hard  for  man  to  define.     Let  men  muse  as  their  mind  leadeth, 
and  as  the  gospel  saith,  "  He  that   hath  eyes  to  see,  let  him  see." 
This  is  certain,  that  as  there  hath  lacked  no  care  nor  diligence  in  the 
bishop  of  Rome,  to  stir  men  up  to  that  business;  so  on  the  princes"' 
behalf,  there  hath  lacked  no  courage  nor  strength  of  men,  no  contri- 
bution of  expenses,  no  supportation  of  charges,  no  furniture  or  habili- 
ment of  war;  only  the  blessing  of  God  seemeth  to  have  lacked!   The 
reason  and  cause  whereof  I  would  it  were  as  easy  to  be  reformed,  as 
it  may  be  quickly  construed.     For  what  man,  beholding  the  life  of 

THE    HISTORY    OF    THE    TURKS.  121 

us  Christians,  will  greatly  marvel,  why  the  Lord  goeth  not  with  our  Prophecy. 
army  to  fight  against  the  Turks !     And  if  my  verdict  might  here  ~~ 
have  place,  for  me  to  add  my  censure,  there  appeareth  to  me  another 
cause  in  this  matter,  yet  greater  than  this  aforesaid :  which,  to  make 
plain  and  evident,  in  full  discourse  of  words,  leisure  now  doth  not 
permit.     Briefly  to  touch  what  I  conceive,  my  opinion  is  this,  that  if 
the  sincere  doctrine  of  christian  faith,  delivered  and  left  unto  us  in 
the  word  of  God,  had  not  been  so  corrupted  in  the  church  of  Rome  ; 
or,  if  the  bishop  of  Rome  would  yet  reclaim  his  impure  idolatry  and  God  <>r- 
profanations,  and  admit  Christ  the  Lamb  of  God  to  stand  alone,  with-  w,"hed 
out  our  impure  additions,  to  be  our  only  justification,  according  to  ^°^Uy 
the  free  promise  of  God's  grace ;  I  nothing  doubt,  but  the  power  of  wrong 
this  faith,  grounding  only  upon  Christ  the  Son  of  God,  had  both  theChiii- 
framed  our  lives  into  a  better  disposition,  and  also  soon  would,  or  yet tians- 
will,  bring  down  the  pride  of  that  proud  Holofernes.    But  otherwise, 
if  the  bishop  of  Rome  will  not  gently  give  place  to  the  mild  voice  of 
God's  word,  I  think  not  contrary,  but  he  shall  be  compelled  at  last 
to  give  place  and  room  to  the  Turk,  whether  he  will  or  not.     And 
yet  notwithstanding,  when   both  the   Turk  and  the  pope  shall  do 
against  it  what  they  can,  the  truth  and  grace  of  God's  testament  shall 
fructify  and  increase  by  such  means  as  the  Lord  shall  work,  which  be- 
ginneth  already  (praise  to  the  Lord)  to  come  graciously  and  luckily 
forward,  as  in  most  places. 

A  Prayer  against  the  Turks. 

O  eternal  Lord  God !  Father  of  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ ;  Creator  and  disposer 
of  all  things  ;  just,  gracious,  and  wise  only ;  in  the  name  and  reverence  of  thy 
Son  Jesus,  we  prostrate  ourselves,  desiring  thine  Omnipotent  Majesty  to  look 
down  upon  these  afflicted  times  of  thy  poor  creatures  and  servants  :  relieve  thy 
church,  increase  our  faith,  and  confound  our  enemies  :  and  as  thou  hast  given 
thine  only-begotten  Son  unto  us,  promising  with  him  life  to  all  that  shall  believe  Gal.  iv.  7. 
upon  his  name,  so  incline  the  obedience  of  our  faith  to  thy  promises  in  him, 
that  our  hearts  may  be  far  off  from  all  other  sinful  additions  and  profane  inven- 
tions, which  are  beside  him,  and  not  in  him,  grounded  upon  thy  will  and 
promise.     And  grant,  we  beseech  thee,  to  thy  church,  more  and  more  to  see 
how  terrible  a  thing  it  is,  to  set  up  any  other  means  or  help  of  salvation,  but 
only  in  him  whom  thou  only  hast  sent  and  sealed.     Reform  thy  church  with 
perfect  doctrine  and  faithful  teachers,  that  we,  seeing  our  own  weakness,  may 
put  off  ourselves,  and  put  on  him,  without  whom  we  can  do  nothing.     So  shall 
we  stand  strong,  when  nothing  standeth  in  us,  but  thy  Son  alone,  in  whom  thou 
art  only  pleased.     Renew  in  this  thy  church  again  the  decayed  faith  of  thy 
Son  Jesus,  which  may  plentifully  bring  forth  in  us,  not  leaves  only,  but  fruits 
of  christian  life ;  and  forgive  our  wretched  idolatry,  and  blind  fantasies  past, 
wherewith  we  have  provoked  manifold  ways  thy  deserved  indignation  against  Wisd.v.6. 
us.     For  our  hearts  have  been  full  of  idols,  our  temples  full  of  images,  our  ways 
full  of  hypocrisy  :  thy  sacraments  profaned,  and  thy  religion  turned  to  super- 
stition  :  because  the  lantern  of  thy  word  went  not  before  us,  therefore  we  have  Psa.cxix. 
stumbled.     Miserably  we  have  walked  hitherto,  like  sons,  not  of  Sarah,  but  of  los- 
Hagar,  and  therefore  these  Turkish  Hagarenes  have  risen  up  against  us.  Many 
hard  and  strait  ways  we  have  passed,  but  the  ways  of  the  Lord  we  have  not 
found.   Much  cost  we  have  bestowed  on  bread  that  assuageth  no  hunger,  but  that 
bread  which  only  feedeth  and  cometh  freely  we   have  not  tasted.     We  have  Isa.  Iv.  2. 
sailed  far  and  near  in  barks  of  our  own  building,  but  have  not  kept  within  the 
ark  only  of  thy  promise;  and  therefore  these  floods  have  taken  us.     We  have 
prayed  much,   but  not  in  thine  appointed  temple  ;  and  therefore  we  have  not  Jud.  jrfv 
been  heard.      We  have  ploughed  and  tilled,  bill  without  thy  heifer;   and  there-  llS" 
fore   this  untidy  ground  of  ours  bringeth   forth  so  many  weeds.     We  do  fish  J°    1XI' 


n.ury     apace  and  that  all  night,  but  because  we  fish  not  on  the  right  side  of  the  boat, 
;//      in  our  fishing  we  catch  never  a  fin.     Our  buildings  be  full  of  good  intentions 
„      and  great  devotions,  but  because  the  groundwork  is  not  surely  laid  upon  the 
..'    rock  of  thy  promise  [Luke  vi.  48],  the  east  wind  riseth  and  shaketh  them  all 
to  shivers.     We  walk,  and  have  walked  along,  after  the  precepts  and  doctrines 
, .!' .     of  men  haying  a  show  of  wisdom,  but  not  as  holding  the  head  [Colos.  i.  19], 
,J    ''     where  lieth  all  our  strength ;  and  therefore  these  Philistine  Turks  have  hitherto 
so  prevailed  against  us.     Briefly,  all  the  parts  and  bones  of  the  body  be  shaken 
out  of  place.     Wherefore,  we  beseech  thee,  O  Lord,  put  to  thy  holy  hand,  and 
set  them  in  the  right  joint  again  :  and  finally,  reduce  this  same  thy  mystical 
body  again  to  its  perfect  and  natural  head,  which  is  thine  only  Son  Jesus  Christ, 
and  none  other:    for  him  only  hast  thou  anointed  and  appointed;  neither  is 
there  any  other  head,  that  can  minister  strength  and  nutriment  to  this  body, 
but  he  alone ;  forasmuch  as  all  other  heads  be  sinful,  and  are  not  able  to  stand 
in   thy  sight,  but  make  this  body  rather  worse  than  better.     Only   this  thy 
well-beloved  and  perfect  Son  is  he,  in  whom  only  dwelleth  all  our  strength  and 
fulness;  him  only  we  confess  and  acknowledge;  for  whom  and  with  whom,  we 
beseech  thee,  O  Lord  God  of  hosts,  grant  to  thy  church  strength  and  victory 
against  the  malicious  fury  of  these  Tm-ks,  Sai'acens,  Tartarians,  against  Gog  and 
Magog,  and  all  the  malignant  rabble  of  Antichrist,  enemies  to  thy  Son  Jesus, 
our  Lord  and  Saviour.     Prevent  their  devices,  overthrow  their  power,  and  dis- 
solve their  kingdom,  that  the  kingdom  of  thy  Son  so  long  oppressed,  may  recover 
and  flourish  over  all ;  and  that  they  who  wretchedly  be  fallen  from  thee,  may 
happily  be  reduced  again  into  the  fold  of  thy  salvation,  through  Jesus  Christ, 
our  only  Mediator  and  most  merciful  Advocate.     Amen. 

Tn  this  long  digression,  wherein  sufficiently  hath  been  described  the 
grievous  and  tedious  persecution  of  the  Saracens  and  Turks  against 
tin-  Christians,  thou  hast  to  understand,  good  reader  !  and  behold,  the 
bnage  of  a  terrible  Antichrist,  evidently  appearing  both  by  his  own 
(bungs,  and  also  by  the  Scriptures,  prophesied  and  declared  to  us  before. 
Now,  in  comparing  the  Turk  with  the  pope,  if  a  question  be  asked, 
whether  of  them  is  the  truer  or  greater  Antichrist,  it  were  easy  to  see 
ami  judge,  that  the  Turk  is  the  more  open  and  manifest  enemy  against 
Christ  and  his  church.  But,  if  it  be  asked  whether  of  them  two  hath 
been  the  more  bloody  and  pernicious  adversary  to  Christ  and  his  mem- 
bers ;  or  whether  of  them  hath  consumed  and  spilt  more  christian 
liliHid,  lie  with  sword,  or  this  with  fire  and  sword  together,  neither  is 
it  a  light  matter  to  discern,  neither  is  it  my  part  here  to  discuss,  who 
do  only  write  the  history,  and  the  acts  of  them  both.  Wherefore, 
after  the  story  of  the  Turks  thus  finished,  now  to  re-enter  again  there, 
where  we  lei't  off,  in  describing  the  domestical  troubles  and  persecutions 
here  at  home  under  the  bishop  of  Rome ;  after  the  burning  of  Bahrain 
in  Norfolk  above  declared. 
Troubles  I  signified  also  of  another  certain  aged  man,  mentioned  in  an  old 
!a,ni."R  written  chronicle  borrowed  of  one  in  the  Tower,  entitled  ■Polychroni- 
con,1  (although  I  find  not  his  name  in  the  said  chronicle  expressed,) 
who  suffered  the  pains  of  burning  in  Smithfield,  about  the  same  time, 
which  was  a.  o.  1500.  This  aged  father,  I.  suppose,  is  he  of  whom 
1  find  mention  made  in  certain  old  papers  and  records  of  William 
Can,  citizen  (albeit  the  day  of  the  month  doth  a  little  differ),  wherein 
is  thus  testified,  that  on  the  20th  day  of  July,  \.  n.  1500,  upon  the 
day  of  St.  Margaret,  there  was  an  old  man  burned  in  Smithfield  for 
a  heretic  ;  and  the  same  person,  on  (lie  10th  day,  before  he  was  burnt, 
would  have  stolen  out  of  the  Lollards1  tower,  and  so  falling  out  of  the 


tower,  did  foully  imrt  himself ;  whereupon  be  was  earned  in  a  cart  to    #«■»» 

his  death,  as  he  went  to  his  burning.  VIL 

In  the  aforesaid  papers  of  ancient  record,  is  furthermore  declared,    A.D. 

how,  in  the  year  above  prefixed,  which  was  a.d.  1499,  in  the  time  of    l5°0 
one  Pcrsevel,  many  were  taken  for  heretics  in   Kent,  and  at  Paul's      *" 
cross  they  bear  the  faggots  and  were  abjured;   and  shortly  after,  the  — - — - 
same  year,  there  went  thirteen  Lollards  afore  the  procession  in  Paul's  ;  Kemish 
and  there  were  of  them  eight  women  and  a  young  lad,  and  the  lad's  ™nfbear~ 
mother  was  one  of  the  eight,  and  all  the  thirteen  bear  &ggotS  on  their  sots. 
necks  afore  the  procession. 

BDilliam  Cnlstoortf),  jaactnr,  burned  at  %mctfyam. 

Forasmuch  as  the  world  is  come  now  to  such  a  morosity  and  peevish 
insensibility  in  these  contentious  and  cavilling  days  of  ours,  that 
nothing  can  be  so  circumspectly  written  and  storied,  but  shall  lie  in 
danger  of  one  sycophant  or  another,  who  never  will  credit  there,  where 
they  list  not  to  like ;  neither  will  they  ever  like  that  which  seemeth 
prejudicial  to  their  faction,  or  not  to  serve  the  humour  wherewith 
their  fantasies  be  infected :  therefore,  to  stop  the  mouths  of  such 
carping  cavillers  with  as  much  possibility  as  I  may,  be  it  known  to  all 
and  singular  such  persons,  who,  by  evidence  of  truth  and  Avitness,  will 
be  satisfied,  that  in  the  town  of  Amersham  be  yet  alive  both  men  and 
women,  who  can  and  do  bear  witness  of  this  that  I  shall  declare.  Also 
there  is  of  the  said  company,  one  named  William  Page,  an  aged  father 
and  yet  alive,  witness  to  the  same.  Also  another,  named  Agnes 
Wetherly,  widow,  being  about  the  age  of  a  hundred  years,  yet  living 
and  witness  hereof;  that  in  the  days  of  king  Henry  VII.  a.  d.  1506, 
in  Buckinghamshire,  in  the  diocese  of  Lincoln  (William  Smith  being 
bishop  of  the  same  diocese),  one  William  Tylsworth  was  burned  in 
Amersham,  in  a  close  called  Stanley,  about  sixty  years  ago :  at  which 
time  one  Joan  Clerk,  being  a  married  woman,  who  was  the  only  Tho 
daughter  of  the  said  William  Tylsworth,  and  a  faithful  woman,  was  ^gen«i 
compelled  with  her  own  hands  to  set  fire  to  her  dear  father;  and  at  to  set  he 
the  same  time  her  husband  John  Clerk  did  penance  at  her  father's  iatiur. 
burning,  and  bare  a  faggot ;  as  did  also  these  : 

Robert  Bartlet.  John  Milsent,  and  his  William  Grinder. 

Richard  Bartlet.  wife.  Thomas  Homes. 

John  Bartlet.  William  White.  Yoniand  Dorman. 

Thomas  Harding,  and        John  Mumbc,  and  his  William  Scrivener. 

his  wife.  wife.  John  Scrivener. 

Henry  Harding.  Richard  Bennet.  Thomas  Chase. 

Richard  Harding.  Roger  Bennet.  John  Cracher. 

Robert  Harding.  John  Fip. 

All  these  bare  faggots,  and  afterwards  were  compelled  to  wear  ecr-  Amer- 
tain  badges,  and  went  abroad  to  certain  towns  to  do  penance;  as  to  Sen" 
Buckingham,  Avleshury,  and  other  towns  besides.      And  also  divers  ^'^"f 
of  these  men  were  afterwards  burned  in  the  cheek,  as  William  Page, 
who  at  this  present  is  alive,  and   likewise  did  bear  a  faggot   with  the 
aforesaid.      Furthermore,  the  aforesaid   Amies  Wetherly  testifieth, 
that  at  the  burning  of  this  "William  Tylsworth,  were  sixty  and  above, 
that  were  put  to  bear  (kggots  for  their  penance;  of  whom  divers  wen 



iienry  enjoined  to  bear  and  wear  faggots,  at  Lincoln,  the  space  of  seven  years* 
V1L  somc  at  one  time,  some  at  another,  &c.  In  which  number  was  also 
A.  D.  one  Robert  Bartlct,  a  rich  man,  who,  for  his  profession's  sake,  was  put 
1500  0U£  0f  jjjs  farm  an(J  goods,  and  was  condemned  to  be  kept  in  the  mo- 
-'",.  nastery  of  Ashridge,  where  he  wore  on  his  right  sleeve  a  square  piece 
—  of  cloth,  the  space  of  seven  years  together. 

It  followeth,  moreover,  in  the  testimony  of  the  aforenamed,  that 
about  the   same  time  of  the  burning  of  William   Tylsworth    (as 
the  Amersham  men  do  say),  or  the  next  day  after  (as  iecordeth 
Father      the  aforesaid  Agnes)  was  one  father  Roberts  burned  at  Bucking- 
Roberta,   }iam#     He  was  a  miller,  and  dwelled  at  Missenden  ;  and  at  his  burn- 
ing there  were  above  twenty  persons,  that  were  compelled  to  bear 
faggots,  and  to  do  such  penance  as  the  wicked  Pharisees  did  compel 
them.    After  that,  by  the  space  of  two  or  three  years,  were  burned  at 
Amersham,  Thomas  Barnard,  a  husbandman,  and  James  Mordon,  a 
labourer ;  they  two  were  burned  both  at  one  fire,  and  there  was  Wil- 
liam Littlcpage,  who  is  yet  alive,  compelled  to  be  burned  in  the  right 
Father     cheek,  and  father  Rogers,  and  father  Rever,  alias  Reive,  who  after 
was  burned.     This  father  Rogers  was  in  the  bishop's  prison  fourteen 
weeks  together,  night  and  day,  where  he  was  so  cruelly  handled  with 
cold,  hunger,  and  irons,  that  after  his  coming  out  of  the  said  prison, 
he  was  so  lame  in  his  back,  that  he  could  never  go  upright  as  long  as 
he  lived;  as  can  testify  divers  honest  men  that  be  now  living.     Also 
Men  of     there  were  thirty  more  burned  in  the  right  cheek,  and  who  bare  faggots 
at  the  same  time.    The  cause  was,  that  they  would  talk  against  super- 
stition and  idolatry,  and  were  desirous  to  hear  and  read  the  holy 
for  God's"  Scriptures.     The  manner  of  their  burning  in  the  cheek  was  this: 
word-       their  necks  were  tied  fast  to  a  post  or  stay,  with  towels,  and  their 
hands  holden  fast  that  they  might  not  stir;  and  so  the  iron,  being 
hot,  was  put  to  their  cheeks :  and  thus  bear  they  the  prints  and  marks 
of  the  Lord  Jesus  about  them. 

Cfje  cruel  ijantting  of  Chomfli*  «£ha£e  of  5tmet^am, 


Among  these  aforesaid,  who  were  so  cruelly  persecuted  fur  the 
gospel  and  word  of  Christ,  one  Thomas  Chase  of  Amersham  was  one 
of  them  that  was  thus  cruelly  handled  :  which  Thomas  Chase  by  the 
report  of  such  as  did  know  him,  was  a  man  of  a  godly,  sober,  and 
honest  behaviour  (whose  virtuous  doings  do  yet  remain  in  memory), 
and  who  could  not  abide  idolatry  and  superstition,  but  many  times 
would  speak  against  it.  Wherefore  the  ungodly  and  wicked  did  the 
more  hate  and  despise  him,  and  took  him  and  brought  him  before  the 
rXfthe  ,'1""1  ^hop,  being  at  that  time  at  Woburn,  in  the  county  of  Buck- 
ingham, ami,  as  it  is  written  in  Acts  xii.,  that  wicked  Herod  did  vex 
certain  of  the  congregation,  and  killed  James  the  brother  of  John 
with  the  sword  ;  and  because  he  saw  that  it  pleased  the  Jews,  &c,  he 
proceeded  further,  and  had  this  same  Thomas  Chase  before  him, 
asking  him  many  questions  touching  the  Romish  religion,  with  many 
taunts,  clucks,  and  rebukes  ;  but  what  answer  this  godly  man,  Thomas 



burnt  in 
the  cheek 


Chase,  made  them,  it  is  unknown.     Howbcit  it  is  to  be  supposed    nam 
that  his  answer  was  most  zealous  and  godly  in  professing  Christ's 

true  religion  and  gospel,  and  to  the  extirpation  of  idolatry,  and  super-    AD- 
stition,  and  hypocrisy,  for  the  said  Thomas  Chase  was  commanded  to    1,50° 
be  put  in  the  bishop's  prison,  called  'Little  Ease,1  in  the  bishop's       " 
house  at  Woburn  ;  which  prison  had  not  been  ministered  unto  him,  — - — - 
had  not  his  answers  been  sound  and  upright.     There  Thomas  Chase  jj°m"ne(l 
lay  bound  most  painfully  with  chains,  gyves,  manacles,  and  irons,  ".' ""' .. 
oftentimes  sore  pined   with  hunger,  where  the  bishop's  alms  were  prison8 
daily  brought  unto  him  by  his  chaplains  ;  which  alms  were  nothing  ™uuL 
else  but  checks,  taunts,  rebukes  and  thrcatenings,  floutings  and  mock-  Ease-' 
ings.     All  which  cruelty  the  godly  martyr  took  most  quietly  and  atasofa 
patiently,   remembering   and    having  respect    to   Christ's   promises  bish°i>- 
[Matt,  vii.]  :  "  Blessed  are  they  which  suffer  persecution  for  right-  pati 


Blessed  are  ye  when  men  revile  you  and  persecute  you ;"  &c.  Chase- 
When  the  bishop,  with  his  band  of  shavelings,  perceived  that  by  their 
daily  practices  of  cruelty  they   could  not  prevail  against  him,  but 
rather  that  he  was  the  more  fervent  and  earnest  in  professing  Christ's 
true  religion,  and  that  he  did  tolerate  and  bear  most  patiently  all 
their  wickedness  and  cruelty   ministered  unto  him,   they  imagined 
how  and  which  way  they  might  put  him  to  death,  lest  there  should 
be  a  tumult  or  an  uproar  among  the  people.     And  as  Richard  Hun 
shortly  after  was   hanged   or   strangled    in   Lollard's   tower,   about 
a.  d.  1511,  even   so  these  blood-suppers  most  cruelly  strangled  and  chase 
pressed  to  death  this  said  Thomas  Chase  in  prison,  who  most  heartily  murdJre.i 
called  upon  God  to  receive  his  spirit ;  as  witnesseth  a  certain  woman  in  frison- 
that  kept  him  in  prison. 

After  these  stinging  vipers,  being  of  the  wicked  brood  of  Anti- 
christ, had  thus  most  cruelly  and  impiously  murdered  this  faithful 
Christian,  they  were  at  their  wits'  end,  and  could  not  tell  what  shift 
to  make,  to  cloke  their  shameful  murder  withal  :  at  last  to  blind  the 
ignorant  silly  people,  these  bloody  butchers  most  slanderously  caused 
it  by  their  ministers  to  be  bruited  abroad,  that  the  aforesaid  Thomas  Falsely 
Chase  had  hanged  himself  in  prison ;    which  was  a  most  shameful  }l™ang'1 
and  abominable  lie,  for  the  prison  wras  such,  that  a  man  could  not  himself, 
stand  upright,  nor  lie  at  ease,  but  stooping,  as  they  do  report  that 
did  know  it.     And  besides  that,  this  man  had  so  many  manacles  and 
irons  upon  him,  that  he  could  not  well  move  either  hand  or  foot,  as 
the  women  did  declare  that  saw  him  dead ;  insomuch  that  they  con- 
fessed that  his  blood-bulk  was  broken,  by  reason  they  had  so  vilely 
beaten  him  and  bruised  him.     And  yet  these  holy  Catholics  had  not 
made  an  end  of  their  wicked  act  in  this  both  killing  and  slandering 
of  this  godly  martyr;    but,   to  put  out  the  remembrance  of  him, 
they  caused  him  to  be  buried  in  the  wood  called  Norland  Wood,  in 
the  highway  betwixt  Woburn  and  Little  Marlow,  to  the  intent  he 
should  not  be  taken  up  again  to  be  seen  :   and  thus  commonly  are 
innocent  men  laid  up,  by  these  clerkly  clergymen.     But  He  that  is  Go<i 
effectually  true  of  himself  hath  promised,  at  one  time  or  at  another  {^jS* 
to  clear  his  true  servants,  not  with  lies  and  fables,  but  by  his  own  thewcret 
true  word.     "No  secret,"  saith  He,  "is  so  close,  but  once  shall  be  of  the  pa- 
opened;  neither  is  any  thing  so  hid,  that  shall  not  at  the  last  be  pis,s' 


iienry  known  dearly."1     Such  a  sweet  Lord  is  God  always  to  those  that  are 
vlL    his  true  servants.     Blessed  be  his  holy  name,  therefore,  for  ever  and 

A.  D.    ever,  Amen  ! 

1500        Thomas  Hardin.?  being  one  of  this  company  thus  molested  and 

r?r     troubled,  as  is  aforesaid,  in  the  town  of  Amersham,  for  the  truth  of 

''■  the  gospel,  after  his  abjuration  and  penance  done,  was  again  sought 

for,  and  brought  to  the  fire,  in  the  days  of  king  Henry  VIII.,  and 

under  Dr.  Longland  then  bishop  of  Lincoln,  succeeding  after  cardinal 

Wolscv  ;    of  whose  death  and  martyrdom  we  shall  likewise  record 

(Christ  willing  and  granting)  in  order,  when  we  shall  come  to  the 

time  and  year  of  his  suffering. 

Thomas        After  the  martyrdom  of  these  two,   I  read  also  of  one  Thomas 

martyr.    Noris,  who  likewise,  for  the  same  cause,  that  is,  for  the  profession  of 

Christ's  gospel,  was  condemned  by  the  bishop,  and  burnt  at  Norwich, 

a.d.1507.  the  last  day  of  March,  a.  d.  1507. 

Elizabeth  In  the  next  year  following,  which  was  a.d.  1508,  in  the  consistory 
Sampson.  ^  j^^fo^  was  collvented  Elizabeth  Sampson,  of  the  parish  of 
Aldermanbury,  upon  certain  articles,  and  especially  for  speaking 
against  pilgrimage  and  adoration  of  images ;  as  the  image  of  our  lady 
at  Wilsdon,  at  Staines,  at  Crome,  at  Walsingham,  and  the  image  of 
St.  Saviour  of  Bermondsey ;  and  against  the  sacrament  of  the  altar, 
and  for  that  she  had  spoken  these*  or  like  words :  That  our  lady  of 
Wilsdon  was  but  a  burnt  tailed  elf,  and  a  burnt  tailed  stock ;  and  if 
she  might  have  holpen  men  and  women  who  go  to  her  on  pilgrimage, 
she  would  not  have  suffered  her  tail  to  have  been  burnt :  and  what 
should  folk  worship  our  lady  of  Wilsdon,  or  our  lady  of  Crome ;  for 
the  one  is  but  a  burnt  tailed  stock,  and  the  other  is  but  a  puppet  : 
and  1  letter  it  were  for  the  people  to  give  their  alms  at  home  to 
poor  people,  than  to  go  on  pilgrimage.  Also  she  called  the  image 
of  St..  Saviour,  '  Sim  Saviour  with  kit  lips  ;1  and  that  she  said  she  could 
make  as  good  bread,  as  that  which  the  priest  occupied ;  and  that  it 
was  not  the  body  of  Christ,  but  bread,  for  that  Christ  could  not  be 
both  in  heaven  and  in  earth  at  one  time.  For  these  and  certain 
other  articles,  she  was  compelled  to  abjure  before  Master  William 
Horsey,  chancellor,  the  day  and  year  above  written.2 

Laurence  <£fje£t,  Mattyz. 

Lamentable  it  is  to  remember,  and  a  thing  almost  infinite  to  com- 
prehend, the  names,  times,  and  persons  of  all  them  that  have  been 
slain  by  the  rigour  of  the  pope's  clergy,  for  the  true  maintaining  of 
Christ's  cause,  and  of  his  sacraments;  whose  memory  being  regis- 
tered in  the  book  of  life,  albeit  it  need  not  the  commemoration  of 
our  stories,  yet  for  the  more  confirmation  of  the  church,  I  thought  it 
not  unprofitable,  the  suffering  and  martyrdom  of  them  to  be  notified, 
who  innocently  have  given  their  blood  to  be  shed  in  Christ's  quarrel. 
In  the  catalogue  of  whom,  next  in  order,  cometh  the  memorial  of 
Laurence  Chest,    who   was   burned   in    Salisbury   for  matter  of  the 
;;;>;;;;;"  sacrament,  in  the  days  of  king  Henry  VII.     He  was  of  a  comely 
boor.       ami  tall  person,  ami  otherwise  (as  appeareth)  not  unfriended;    for 
which  the  bishop  and  the  close  were  the  more  loath  to  burn  him,  but 

(1)  Matt,  x.;  Luke  xii.  (2)  Kx  Rcgist.  Loml. 

a  faithful  woman  burned.  127 

kept  him  in  prison  the  space  of  two  years.     This  Laurence  had  a    Henry 
■wife  and  seven  children.      Wherefore  they,  thinking  to  expugn  and 

persuade  his  mind  by  stirring  of  his  fatherly  affection  toward  his    A.  D. 
children,  when  the  time  came  which  they  appointed  for  his  burning,    1508. 
as  he  was  at  the  stake,  they  brought  before  him   his  wife  and  his 
aforesaid  seven  children;  at  the  sight  whereof,  although  nature   is 
commonly  wont  to  work  in  others,  yet  in  him,  religion  overcoming 
nature,  made  his  constancy  to  remain  immovable ;  in  such  sort,  as 
when  his  wife  began  to  exhort  and  desire  him  to  favour  himself,  he 
again  desired  her  to  be  content,  and  not  to  be  a  block  in  his  way,  would 
for  he  was  in  a  good  course,  running  toward  the  mark  of  his  salva-  P011^, 
tion:  and  so,  fire  being  put  to  him,  he  finished  his  life,  renouncing  w»fe  »'<« 
not  only  wife  and  children,  but  also  himself,  to  follow  Christ.     As  but  died 
he  was  in  burning,  one  of  the  bishop's  men  threw  a  firebrand  at  his  a  man>r- 
face ;  whereat  the  brother  of  Laurence,  standing  by,  ran  at  him  with 
his  dagger,  and  would  have  slain  him,   had  he  not  been  otherwise 

Testified  and  witnessed  by  the  credible  report  of  one  William  witness 
Russel,  an  aged  man  dwelling  of  late  in  Coleman-street,  who  was  {"{^y. 
there  present,  the  same  time,  at  the  burning  of  Laurence,  and  was 
also  himself  burned  in  the  cheek,  and  one  of  the  persecuted  flock  in 
those  days,  whose  daughter  is  yet  living.  The  same  is  confirmed 
also  by  the  testimony  of  one  Richard  Webb,  servant  sometime  to 
Master  Latimer,  who,  sojourning  in  the  house  of  the  said  William 
Russel,  heard  him  many  times  declare  the  same. 

2C  notable  &torj>  of  a  faitfjful  UDoman  bucneo  in  Cfjipptng^uDbucu. 

But  amongst  all  the  examples  of  them,  whereof  so  many  have 
suffered  from  time  to  time  for  Christ  and  his  truth,  I  cannot  tell  if 
ever  were  any  martyrdom  more  notable  and  admirable,  wherein  the 
plain  demonstration  of  God's  mighty  power  and  judgment  hath  at 
any  time  been  more  evident  against  the  persecutors  of  his  flock,  than 
at  the  burning  of  a  certain  godly  woman  put  to  death  in  Chipping- 
Sudbury,  about  the  same  time,  under  the  reign  of  king  Henry  VII. 

The  constancy  of  which  blessed  woman,  as  it  is  glorious  for  all 
true  godly  Christians  to  behold ;  so  again  the  example  of  the  bishop's 
chancellor,  who  cruelly  condemned  the  innocent,  may  offer  a  ter- 
rible spectacle  to  the  eyes  of  all  papistical  persecutors  to  consider, 
and  to  take  example;  which  the  living  God  grant  they  may.  Amen. 
The  name  of  the  town  where  she  was  martyred,  was,  as  is  said, 
Chipping-Sudbury ;  the  name  of  the  woman  is  not  as  yet  come  to 
my  knowledge;  the  name  of  the  chancellor,  who  condemned  her,  ciiancei- 
was  called  doctor  Whittington  ;  the  time  of  her  burning  was  in  the  J;',^,1;'!," 
reign  and  time  of  king  Henry  VII.,  orderly  therefore  in  this  place  i>"secu- 
and  time,  to  be  inserted.  Wherein  is  to  be  Doted  moreover  the 
opportunity  of  this  present  history  brought  to  my  hands,  and  that  in 
such  convenient  season,  as  1  was  drawing  toward  the  end  of  the 
aforesaid  king's  reign,  so  that  it  may  appear  to  thus.-  who  behold 
the  opportunity  of  things,  not  to  be  without  God's  holy  will  and 
providence,  that  this  aforesaid  example  should  not  lie  hid  and  un- 
rcmembcred,  but  should  come  to  light  and  knowledge ;    and  that 

]gg  DR.  WHITTINGTON    SLAIN    BY    A    BULL. 

Henry    in  such  order  of  placing,  according  as  the  due  course  of  our  story, 
rIL     hitherto  kept,  rcquireth. 

A.  D.        After  this  o-odly  woman  and  manly  martyr  of  Christ  was  condemned 
1508.    DV  t])e  wretched  chancellor  above  named,  doctor  Whittington,  for  the 
~~  faithful  profession  of  the  truth,  which  the  papists  then  called  heresy, 
and  the  time  being  now  come  when  she  should  be  brought  to  the 
place  and  pains  of  her  martyrdom,  a  great  concourse  of  all  the  multi- 
tude, both  in  the  town  and  country  about  (as  the  manner  is  at  such 
times),  was  gathered  to  behold  her  end.     Among  whom  was  also  the 
aforesaid  doctor  Whittington,  the  chancellor,  there  present  to  see  the 
a  faithful  execution  done.    Thus  this  faithful  woman,  and  true  servant  of  God, 
ggESf  constantly  persisting  in  the  testimony  of  the  truth,  committing  her 
burned,    cause  to  the  Lord,  gave  over  her  life  to  the  fire,  refusing  no  pains  nor 
torments  to  keep  her  conscience  clear  and  unreprovable  in  the  day  of 
the  Lord.     The  sacrifice  being  ended,  the  people  began  to  return 
homeward,  coming  from  the  burning  of  this  blessed  martyr.    It  hap- 
pened in  the  mean  time,  that  as  the  catholic  executioners  were  busy 
compari-  in  slaying  this  silly  lamb  at  the  town's  side,  a  certain  butcher  was  as 
between    busy  within  the  town,  slaying  a  bull ;  which  bull  he  had  fast  bound 
and  the"'  m  r'°Pes>  ready  to  knock  him  on  the  head.     But  the  butcher  (belike 
pope's""    not  so  skilful  in  his  art  of  killing  beasts,  as  the  papists  be  in  murder- 
in^mini-  fog  Christians),  as  he  was  lifting  his  axe  to  strike  the  bull,  failed  in 
sters-       his  stroke,  and  smote  a  little  too  low,  or  else  how  he  smote,  I  know 
not :  this  is  certain,  that  the  bull,  although  somewhat   grieved  at 
the  stroke,  but  yet  not  stricken  down,  put  his  strength  to  the  ropes, 
and  brake  loose  from  the  butcher  into  the  street,  the  very  same  time 
as  the  people  were  coming  in  great  press  from  the  burning.     Who, 
seeing  the  bull  coming  towards  them,  and  supposing  him  to  be  wild 
(as  it  was  no  other  like),  gave  way  for  the  beast,  every  man  shifting 
for  himself  as  well  as  he  might.     Thus  the  people  giving  back,  and 
a  rare      making  a  lane  for  the  bull,  he  passed  through  the  throng  of  them, 
;!,"'i'  exC    touching  neither  man  nor  child,  till  he  came  where  the  chancellor 
amRlc  °f  was :  against  whom  the  bull,  as  pricked  with  a  sudden  vehemency, 
pumsh-    ran  full  butt  with  his  horns ;  and  taking  him  upon  the  paunch,  gored 
God  upon  him  through  and  through  ;  and  so  killed  him  immediately  :  carrying 
t^kta1"  his  guts,  and  trailing  them  with  his  horns,  all  the  street  over,  to  the 
i,\  a  imii.  great  admiration  and  wonder  of  all  them  that  saw  it. 

Although  the  carnal  sense  of  man  be  blind  in  considering  the 
works  of  the  Lord,  imputing,  many  times,  to  blind  chance  the  things 
which  properly  pertain  to  God's  only  praise  and  providence  ;  yet  in 
this  so  strange  and  so  evident  example,  what  man  can  be  so  dull  or 
ignorant,  which  sceth  not  herein  a  plain  miracle  of  God's  mighty 
power  and  judgment,  both  in  the  punishing  of  this  wretched  chan- 
cellor, and  also  in  admonishing  all  other  like  persecutors,  by  his 
example,  to  fear  the  Lord,  and  to  abstain  from  the  like  cruelty  ? 

Now,  for  the  credit  of  this  story,  lest  I  be  said  upon  mine  own 
head  to  commit  to  story  things  rashly,  which  I  cannot  justify,  there- 
fore, to  stop  such  cavilling  mouths,  I  will  discharge  myself  with 
witness  authority,  I  trust,  sufficient,  that  is,  with  the  witness  of  him  who  both 
btory6  w;i*  a  papist,  and  also  present  at  the  same  time  at  the  burning  of  the 
woman,  whose  name  was  Rowland  Webb  :  which  Rowland,  dwelling 
then  in  Chipping-Sudbury,  had  a  son  named  Richard  Webb,  servant 


sometime  to  master  Latimer,  who  also,  enduring  with  him  in  time  of   n**ri 
his  trouble  six  years  together,  was  himself  imprisoned  and  persecuted  . 

for  the  same  cause:  unto  which  Richard  Webb,  being  now  aged,  A.D. 
then  young,  the  aforesaid  Rowland,  his  lather,  to  the  intent  to  exhort  J^^L 
him  from  the  sect  of  heresy  (as  he  then  called  it),  recited  to  him 
many  times  the  burning  of  this  woman,  and  withal  added  the  story 
of  the  bull  aforesaid,  which  he  himself  did  see  and  testify.  This 
Richard  Webb  is  yet  living,  a  witness  of  his  own  father's  words  and 
testimony,  which  I  trust  may  satisfy  all  indifferent  readers,  except 
only  such  as  think  no  truth  to  be  believed,  but  that  only  which  is  in 
their  portues. 

Verses  touching  the  same,  by  Thomas  Hatcher. 

"  Mira  legis,  quicunque  legis,  portenta  nefandi 

Exitus,  ut  poenas  addita  poena  luat. 
Vera  legis,  Domini  cuicunque  potentia  nota  est, 

Ut  delinquentes  ira  severa  premat. 
Saepe  fit  ut  fusus  cumuletur  sanguine  sanguis, 

Saepe  fit  ut  pcenis  obruat  ira  novis. 
Omnia  sunt  Domini  dextrse  subjecta  potenti, 

Qui  ciet  arbritrio  bruta,  hominesque  suo. 
Carnificis  taurus,  luctando  corniger  ictus 

Evitans,  fracto  fune  repente  fugit. 
Forte  viam  qua  turba  frequens  confluxerat  ante, 

Fceminea  ut  cernat  membra  perire  rogo, 
Taurus  iit,  fertur  qua  confertissima  turba ; 

Lsesus  at  ex  tanta  solus  et  unus  erat. 
Solus  et  unus  erat,  rapidos  qui  misit  in  ignes, 

Et  misere  parvum  sparsit  ovile  Dei. 
Et  quasi  consulto  ferretur,  prasterit  omnes, 

Comibus  hunc  tollit,  proterit  bunc  pedibus, 
Ille  jacet,  madido  fcedatur  sanguine  corpus, 

Eruta  perque  vias  viscera  sparsa  jacent, 
Quis  non  a  Domino,  nutu  qui  temperat  orbeni, 

Cogitet  hrec  fieri,  non  repetendo  tremat  1 
Ultio  tembiles  comitatur  justa  procellas, 

Sera  licet,  certis  passibus  ilia  venit." 

And  thus  much  concerning  the  state  of  the  church ;  wherein  is  to 
be  understood,  what  storms  and  persecutions  have  been  raised  up  in 
all  quarters  against  the  flock  and  congregation  of  Christ,  not  only  by 
the  Turks,  but  also  at  home,  within  ourselves,  by  the  bishop  of  Rome 
and  his  retinue.  Where  also  is  to  be  noted,  in  the  days  and  reign 
of  this  king  Henry  VII.,  how  mightily  the  working  of  God's  gospel 
hath  multiplied  and  increased,  and  what  great  numbers  of  men  and 
women  have  suffered  for  the  same  with  us  in  England,  as  by  these 
stories  above  past  may  be  apparent. 

Now  these  things  declared,  which  to  the  church  matters  be  appcr-  The  state 
taining,  consequently  it  remaincth  something  to  treat  of  the  state,  ^,jj£aa. 
likewise,  of  the  commonwealth,  which  commonly  doth  follow  the  state  Wi,h 
of  the  church.  Where  the  church  is  quietly  and  moderately  governed,  iy  foiiow- 
and  the  flock  of  Christ  defended  by  godly  princes  in  peace  and  safety,  siM'tJ1.'.!- 
from  devouring  and  violence  of  bloody  wolves  ;   the  success  of  civil  t^ach 
estate,  for  the  most  part,  there  doth  flourish,  and  the  princes  long 
continue,  through  God's  preservation,  in  prosperous  rest  and  tran- 

VOL.  VI.  k 

1 3()  A    PROPHECY    CF    SAVANAROLA. 

Hmmt    quillity.    Contrariwise,  where  either  the  church  of  Christ  through  the 

'"■  _  negligence  of  princes,  or  the  poor  members  of  Christ,  through  their 

A.D.    setting  on,  be  persecuted  and  devoured,  shortly  after  ensueth  some 

1''<>S-  just  recompense  of  the  Lord  upon  those  princes,  that  either  their  lives 

nuty  of    Jo  not  long  continue,  or  else  they  find  not  that  quiet  in  the  common- 

§$rod  !"  wealth,  which  they  look  for.    Examples  hereof,  as  in  all  other  ages  be 

''riorum  abundant,  so-in  this  present  time  be  not  lacking,  whether  we  consider 

t'10         the  state  and  condition  of  other  countries  far  off,  or  else  of  our  own 

daughter  ,  .  i 

of  the      country  near  at  home. 

Koine.' °f  And  here,  not  to  wander  in  our  story  farther  than  to  France  only, 
let  us  a  little  behold  the  example  of  king  Charles  VIII.,  who,  living 
in  this  king's  time,  died  also  not  long  before  him.  This  Charles  is 
commended  of  Philip  de  Comines,  to  be  a  moderate,  valiant,  and 
victorious  prince,  adorned  with  many  special  virtues  to  a  prince  apper- 
taining. And  yet  the  same  king,  because  he  was  slack  and  remiss  in 
defence  of  Christ's  church,  neither  did  use  his  authority,  nor  did  take 
his  occasion  offered  to  him  of  Grod,  to  amend  and  reform  the  estate  of 
the  bishop  and  clergy  of  Rome  when  he  might,  he  was  therefore 
himself  punished  and  cut  off  of  the  Lord,  as  by  his  story  ensuing 
may  right  well  appear.  For  so  it  is  of  him  recorded,  that  being  mar- 
vellously excited  and  provoked,  of  his  own  mind  (contrary  to  the 
counsel  of  most  of  his  nobles)  he  took  his  journey  into  Italy,  neither 
being  furnished  with  money,  nor  the  season  of  the  year  being  con- 
venient thereunto.  And  that  this  may  appear  the  better  to  proceed  of 
the  Lord's  doing,  to  the  intent  he  would  have  the  church  and  clergy 
of  Rome  reformed  by  the  prince's  sword,  which  so  vexed  all  Christen- 
dom at  that  time,  we  shall  hear  Avhat  is  testified  in  the  Commentaries 
of  the  said  Philip  de  Comines,1  writing  in  this  wise : 

Prophecy  '  There  was  in  the  city  of  Florence,  the  same  time,  a  Dominic  friar,  named 
■rfHfe;  Hieronymus  Savanarola,'  of  whom  mention  was  made  before,2  '  a  man  of  a  right 
'anaroia*.  godly  and  approved  life ;  who  in  the  said  city  of  Florence  preached  and  pro- 
phesied long  before,  that  the  French  king  should  come  with  an  army  into  Italy, 
being  stirred  up  of  God  to  suppress  the  tyrants  of  Italy,  and  none  should  with- 
stand him.  He  should  also  come  to  the  city  of  Pisa,  and  the  state  of  Florence 
should  be  altered :  all  which  happened  true.  He  affirmed,  moreover,  to  be 
signified  to  him  of  the  Lord,  that  the  ecclesiastical  state  of  the  church  must  be 
redressed  'per  vim  armorum,'  i.e.  'by  the  sword  or  force  of  arms.'  Many 
things  also  be  prophesied  of  the  Venetians,  and  of  the  French  king,  saying, 
that  the  king  with  some  danger  and  difficulty  shoidd  pass  that  journey,  yet 
notwithstanding  should  overcome  it  and  escape,  albeit  his  strength  were  never 
so  slender  ;  for  God  would  safely  conduct  him  in  that  journey,  and  safely  bring 
him  home  again.  But  because  he  had  not  done  his  office,  in  amending  the 
state  of  the  church,  and  in  defending  his  people  from  injury,  and  from  de- 
vouring, therefore  it  should  come  to  pass,'  saith  he,  '  and  that  shortly,  that  some 
incommodity  or  detriment  should  happen  to  the  king:  or  if  he  should  escape 
that  danger  of  his  sickness  and  recover  health,  then  if  he  did  resist  the  cruelty 
of  tliu  wicked,  and  procure  the  safety  of  the  poor  and  miserable,  God  would 
show  mercy  unto  him,'  &c. 

And  tliis  the  said  Hicrome  declared  before  to  Philip  de  Comines, 

one  of  the  king's  counsellors,  who  was  the  writer  of  the  story,  and 

required  him  to  signify  the  same  unto  the  king;  who  so  did,  and 

be,  moreover,  himself  coming  to  the  presence  of  the  king,  declared 

no  less. 

(i)  Ex  Commentariis  Phil.  Cominai.  De  Bello  Neapolitano,  lib.  iii. 
(I)  See  vol.  iv.  page  8.— Ed. 


All  which  things  as  he  had  forctohl,  came  directly  to  effect.     For    Henry 
the  king,  being  but  easily  accompanied,  with  a  small  power  entered 

into  Italy;  where  first  he  came  to  Austi,  then  to  Genoa,  and  to    A.D. 
Pisa,  from  thence  proceeded  to  Florence,  which  also  he  obtained,    1508- 
displacing  there  Peter  dc  Medici  the  duke,  who  had  used  great 
tyranny  upon  the  subjects.    From  thence  he  removed  toward  Rome, 
where  a  great  part  of  the  city  wall,  at  the  coming  of  the  French  king, 
fell  down. 

Afterward,  when  the  king  was  entered  into  the  city,  and  the  pope 
(who  then  took  part  with  Alphonsus  king  of  Naples  against  the 
French  king)  had  immured  himself  within  the  Mount  of  Adrian,  the 
wall  of  the  castle  fell  down  of  itself;  whereby  when  the  king  was 
both  occasioned,  and  exhorted  also  by  his  captains,  to  invade  the  pope, 
and  to  depose  him,  and  to  reform  the  church  of  Rome  (which  he 
might  then  easily  have  done,  as  it  had  pleased  him) ;  yet  all  these 
occasions,  offered  so  opportunely  of  God,  moved  not  the  king  to  do 
his  duty,  and  to  help  the  poor  church  of  Christ :  wherefore  shortly 
after,  returning  home  into  France  from  Naples,  cither  the  same  year, 
or  the  next  year  following,  he  was  stricken  with  a  sudden  sickness  at 
Amboisc,  as  he  was  looking  on  them  that  played  at  tennis,  and  that 
in  the  stinkingest  place  in  all  the  castle,  where  he  fell  down  and  died 
within  twelve  hours,  according  to  the  forewarning  of  Hieromc,  who 
wrote  unto  him  a  little  before,  both  of  his  son's  death,  and  of  his 
own,  which  was  about  a.d.  1498.1 

Like  examples  we  have  many  here  also  in  this  our  realm  of  Eng- 
land. So  long  as  king  John  kept  out  of  the  realm  the  pope's  autho- 
rity and  power,  he  continued  safe  and  quiet  with  his  nobles  :  but  as 
soon  as  he  brought  the  realm  under  tribute  and  subjection  to  that 
foreign  bishop,  God  stirred  up  his  nobles  against  him,  whereby  he  had 
much  disquiet  and  trouble,  and  soon  thereupon  decayed. 

Of  all  the  kings  of  England  from  William  the  Conqueror  to  this  Kinps  of 
king  Henry  VII.,  were  none  who  either  longer  continued,  or  more  £",j?i""j.;, 
prosperously  flourished,  than  king  Henry  II.,  king  Henry  III.,  king  ^'^'j ,',;'' 
Edward  I.,  and  king  Edward  III. ;  of  whom  the  first,  how  stout  he  longpro- 
was  in  withstanding  Thomas  Becket  and  pope  Alexander  III.,  is^-,?,/' 
sufficiently  before  comprehended.  to  thT3 

The  second,  who  was  son  of  king  John,  albeit  through  the  wretch-  bishop  or 
edness  of  that  time  his  power  was  not  sufficient  to  repulse  the  pope's 
usurped  jurisdiction  out  of  the  realm,  yet  his  will  was  good :  at  least 
he  so  defended  and  provided  for  his  subjects,  that  they  took  no  great 
wrong  at  the  pope's  hands;  who  reigned  one  year  longer  than  Au- 
gustus Csesar,2  which  hath  not  commonly  been  seen  in  any  prince. 

The  tlu'rd,  who  was  king  Edward  I.,  so  vigilantly  behaved  himself 
for  the  public  commodity  and  safety  of  his  people,  that  he  defended 
them  from  all  foreign  power  and  hostility  both  of  the  Scots  (then  our 
enemies,  now  our  friends),  and  also  from  the  bishop  of  Rome,  taking 
part  with  them  against  us,  as  may  appear  above.3  Furthermore  of 
the  same  king,  and  of  his  worthy  nobles  and  house  of  parliament, 
how  valiantly  they  stood  in  denial  of  the  pope's  subsidies,  and  also 
how  the  said  king  secluded  out  of  his  protection  the  bishops,  and 

(1)  Ex  Philip.  Cominaco.  De  bolln  Neapolitano, lib, 

(2)  Augustus  reigned  fifty-nine  years.  '.■■)>  En 

K  2 


Henry    especially  the  archbishop  Peckham,  for  standing  with  the  pope,  read 

VU        before.1 

A.  D.        Now  as  touching  king  Edward  III.,  how  little  he  regarded,  how 

1509.    pri;1Cely  he  with  his  nobles  likewise  resisted,  the  pope's  reservations 

~~  and  provisions,  how  he  bridled  the  archbishop  John  Stratford,  and 

rejected  the  vain  authority  of  the  bishop  of  Rome,  both  in  defence 

of  his  subjects,  and  also  in  defence  of  claiming  his  right  title  in  the 

realm  of  France,  read  before.2 

Not  that  I  do  here  affirm  or  define,  as  in  a  general  rule,  that  worldly 
success  and  prosperity  of  life  always  follow  the  godly,  which  we  see 
rather  to  be  given  more  often  to  the  wicked  sort ;  but,  speaking  of 
Diir.r-     the  duty  of  princes,  I  note  and  observe  by  examples  of  histories,  that 
tCweenbe"   such  princes  as  have  most  defended  the  church  of  Christ  committed 
moderate  to  t]leir  governance,  from  injury  and  violence  of  the  bishop  of  Rome, 
and  those  have  not  lacked  at  God's  hand  great  blessing  and  felicity  :  whereas 
per'seoT6  contrariwise,  they  who  either  themselves  have  been  persecutors  of 
tors.        Christ's  members,  or  have  not  shielded  them  by  their  protection  from 
foreign  tyranny  and  injuries,  have  lacked  at  God's  hand  that  protec- 
tion, which  the  others  had,  as  may  appear  by  king  Edward  II., 
Richard  III.,  king  Henry  IV.,  king  Henry  V.,  king  Henry  VI.,  &c., 
who,  because  either  negligently  they  have  suffered,  or  cruelly  caused, 
such  persecuting  laws  to  be  made,  and  so  much  christian  blood  inju- 
riously to  be  devoured ;  therefore  have  they  been  the  less  prospered 
of  the  Lord,  so  that  either  they  were  deposed,  or,  if  they  flourished 
for  a  while,  yet  they  did  not  long  continue,  almost  not  half  the  time 
of  the  other  kings  before  named. 

And  therefore,  as  the  state  of  the  commonwealth  doth  commonly 
follow  the  state  of  the  church,  as  ye  heard  before ;  so  it  had  been  to 
be  wished,  that  this  king  Henry  VII.,  being  otherwise  a  prudent  and 
temperate  prince,  had  not  permitted  the  intemperate  rage  of  the 
pope's  clergy  so  much  to  have  their  wills  over  the  poor  flock  of  Christ, 
as  then  they  had  ;  according  as  by  these  persecutions  above  men- 
tioned may  appear.  Which  king  Henry  VII.,  albeit  he  had  a  suffi- 
cient continuance,  who  had  now  reigned  twenty-four  years,  yet 
notwithstanding  here  cometh  the  same  thing  to  be  noted  whereof  I 
spake  before,  that  when  the  church  of  Christ  beginneth  to  be  injured 
with  violence,  and  to  go  to  wrack  through  misorder  and  negligence, 
the  state  of  the  commonwealth  cannot  there  long  endure  without 
some  alteration,  and  stroke  of  God's  correction.  But,  howsoever  this 
mark  is  to  be  taken,  thus  licth  the  story :  that  after  the  burning  and 
vexing  of  these  poor  servants  of  Christ  above  recited,  when  the  per- 
secution began  now  to  be  hot  in  the  church,  God  called  away  the 
ii'  .ti,  of  king,  the  same  year  above  mentioned,  which  was  1509,  after  he  had 
H.nry  reigned  the  term  of  twenty-four  years  ;  who,  if  he  had  adjoined  a 
V1L  little  more  pitiful  respect,  in  protecting  Christ's  poor  members  from 
tlic  lire  of  the  pope's  tyranny,  to  his  other  great  virtues  of  singular 
wisdom,  excellent  temperance,  and  moderate  frugality  ;  so  much  had 
be  been  comparable  with  the  best  of  those  princes  above  compre- 
hended, as  he  had  been  inferior  but  to  a  few  :  but  this  defect,  which 
larked  in  him,  was  supplied  most  luckily  (blessed  be  the  Lord  !)  by 
his  posterity  Buoceeding  after  him;   of\vhom  in  the  next  volumes 

(1)  8e«  vol.  ii.  ),.  609.— Ed.  (2)  See  vol.  ii.  p.  C88.— Ed. 


following  (Christ  thereunto  assisting  us),  we  have  to  specify  more    Henry 
at  large. 



Among  many  other  things  incident  in  the  reign  of  this  king  Henry 
VII.,  I  have  overpassed  the  history  of  certain  godly  persons  perse-  J^H*- 
cuted  in  the  diocese  of  Coventry  and  Lichfield,  as  we  find  them  in  secuted. 
the  registers  of  the  diocese  recorded  ;  here  following. 

In  the  year  of  our  Lord  1485,  March  9th,  amongst  divers  and 
sundry  other  good  men  in  Coventry,  these  nine  hereunder  named, 
were  examined  before  John,  bishop  of  Coventry  and  Lichfield,  in 
St.  Michael's  church,  upon  these  articles  following  in  order : 

3|ohn  SMomgtone,  anD  eio.fjt  otljeriS  per^ecuteD  at  Cobcntc?. 

First,  John  Blomstone  was  openly  and  publicly  infamed,  accused, 
reported,  and  appeached  as  follows  : 

That  he  was  a  very  heretic,  because  he  had  preached,  taught,  holden,  and  The 
affirmed,  that  the  power  attributed  to  St.  Peter  in  the  church  of  God,  by  our  P°*'er  of 
Saviour  Jesus  Christ  immediately,  did  not  flit  or  pass  from  him,  to  remain  with  mtteth 
his  successors.  not  to  his 

Item,  That 
Virgin  Mary. 

Item,  That  prayer  and  alms  avail  not  the  dead ;  for  incontinent  after  death,  Purga- 
he  goeth  either  to  heaven  or  hell :  whereupon  he  concludeth  there  is  no  pur-  t0.Ti.  de~ 

Item,  That  it  was  foolishness  to  go  on  pilgrimage  to  the  image  of  our  Lady  of  Images 
Doncaster,  Walsingham,  or  of  the  Tower  of  the  city  of  Coventry :  for  a  man  not  sl°be 
might  as  well  worship  the  blessed  Virgin  by  the  fire-side  in  the  kitchen,  as  in  Pe±    P 
the  aforesaid  places,  and  as  well  might  a  man  worship  the  blessed  Virgin,  when 
he  seeth  his  mother  or  sister,  as  in  visiting  the  images ;  because  they  be  no 
more  but  dead  stocks  and  stones. 

Item,  That  he  said  in  English,  with  a  frowning  countenance,  as  it  appeared : 
1  A  vengeance  on  all  such  horson  priests,  for  they  have  great  envy  that  a  poor 
man  should  get  his  living  among  them.' 

Richard  Hegham  of  the  same  city  was  accused,  as  under : 

That  he  was  a  very  heretic,  because  he  did  hold  that  a  christian  man  being  Merits 
at  the  point  of  death,  should  renounce  all  his  own  works  good  and  ill,  and  condemn- 
submit  him  to  the  mercy  of  God. 

Item,  That  it  was  fondness  to  worship  the  images  of  our  Lady  of  the 
Tower,  in  the  aforesaid  city,  or  of  other  saints ;  for  they  are  but  stocks  and 

Item,  That  if  the  image  of  our  Lady  of  the  Tower  were  put  into  the  fire,  it  Against 
would  make  a  good  fire.  images. 

Item,  That  it  were  better  to  deal  money  unto  poor  folks,  than  to  offer  to  the 
image  of  Christ  and  other  saints,  which  are  but  dead  stocks  and  stones. 

Robert  Crowther  of  the  same  city  was  accused  as  follows  : 

That  he  was  a  heretic,  because  he  did  hold,  that  whoso  receiveth  the  sacra- 
ment of  the  altar  in  deadly  sin,  or  out  of  charity,  receiveth  nothing  but  bread 
and  wine. 

Item,  That  neither  bishop,  nor  priests,  nor  curates  of  churches,  have  power  in 
the  market  of  penance  to  bind  and  loose. 

Item,  That  pilgrimage  to  the  image  of  our  Lady  of  the  Tower  is  foolishness;  Pihrrim 
for  it  is  but  a  stock  or  a  stone.  afc'<-' 


*«p        John  Smith  was  accused,  as  under : 

„         'p]iat  hc  was  a  very  heretic,  because  lie  did  hold,  that  every  man  is  bound  to 
1  -,','.,'    know  the  Lord's  Prayer,  and  the  Creed  in  English,  if  he  might ;  for  all  these 

'  Item  That  whoso  believed  as  the  church  then  did  believe,  believed  ill :  and 
that  a  man  had  need  to  frequent  the  schools  a  good  while,  ere  that  he  can  attain 
to  the  knowledge  of  the  true  and  right  faith. 

Item,  That  no  priest  hath  power  to  assoil  a  man,  in  the  market  of  penance, 
from  lils  sins. 

Koo-er  Brown  of  the  same  city,  was  also  accused  as  follows : 

I  That  he  was  a  heretic,  because  he  did  hold  that  no  man  ought  to  worship 

pilgrim-    the  image  of  our  Lady  of  Walsingham,  nor  the  blood  of  Christ  at  Hales,  but 
■**■  rather  God  Almighty,  who  would  give  him  whatsoever  he  woidd  ask. 

Item,  That  he  held  not  up  his  hands,  nor  looked  up,  at  the  elevation  of  the 

Item,  That  he  promised,  one  to  show  him  certain  books  of  heresy,  if  he  would 
swear  that  he  would  not  utter  them,  and  if  he  would  credit  them. 
Flesh  in        Item>  That  he  did  eat  flesh  in  Lent,  and  was  taken  with  the  manner. 
Lent.  Item,  If  any  man  were  not  shriven  in  his  whole  life  long,  and  at  the  point  of 

Against  death  would  be  confessed,  and  could  not,  if  he  had  no  more  but  contrition  only, 
i  ur  atoiy  ]1C  should  pass  to  joy  without  purgatory:  and  if  he  were  confessed  of  any  sin, 
fessio°a"  an^  were  enjoined  only  to  say  for  penanqe  one  Pater-Noster,  if  he  thought  he 
auricular,  should  have  any  punishment  in  purgatory  for  that  sin,  he  would  never  be  con- 
fessed for  any  sin. 

Item,  Because  he  said  all  is  lost  that  is  given  to  priests. 
Item,  That  there  was  no  purgatory,  that  God  would  pardon  all  sins  without  ( 
confession  and  satisfaction. 

Thomas  Butler  of  the  same  city  was  likewise  openly  accused  to 
this  effect : 

That  he  was  a  very  heretic,  because  he  did  hold  that  there  were  but  two 
ways,  that  is  to  say,  to  heaven  and  to  hell. 

Item,  That  no  faithful  man  should  abide  any  pain  after  the  death  of  Christ, 
for  any  sin,  because  Christ  died  for  our  sins. 
Against        Item,  That  there  was  no  purgatory ;  for  every  man  immediately  after  death 
purga-      passeth  either  to  heaven  or  hell. 

Merits  Item,  That  whosoever  departeth  in  the  faith  of  Christ  and  the  church,  how- 

soever he  hath  lived,  shall  be  saved. 

Item,  That  prayers  and  pilgrimages  are  nothing  worth,  and  avail  not  to  pur- 
chase heaven. 

John  Falks  was  accused  as  follows  : 

That  he  was  a  very  heretic,  because  he  did  affirm,  That  it  was  a  foolish  thing 
to  offer  to  the  image  of  our  Lady,  saying,  Her  head  shall  be  hoar  ere  I  offer  to 
her:  What  is  it  but  a  block?  If  it  could  speak  to  me,  I  would  give  it  an  half- 
penny worth  of  ale. 

Item,  That  when  the  priest  carrieth  to  the  sick  the  body  of  Christ,  why 
carrieth  he  not  also  the  blood  of  Christ? 

Ili  in,  That  he  did  cat  cow-milk  upon  the  first  Sunday  of  Lent. 

item,  That  as  concerning  tin-  sacrament  of  penance  and  absolution,  no  priest 
hath  power  to  assoil  any  man  from  his  sins,  when  he  can  not  make  one  hair  of 
his  head. 

Item,  That  the  image  of  our  Lady  was  but  a  stone  or  a  block.1 

|    i  stone  is  a  stone,  and  a  block  is  a  block! 

PICUS,    EAttL    OV    MIUANDULA.  1    ).", 

Richard  Hilman  was  accused,  as  under :  7m» 


That  he  was  a  very  heretic,  because  he  did  say  and  maintain,  That  it  was 

butter  to  part  with  money  to  the  poor,  than  to  give  tithes  to  priests,  or  to  offer  A.  D. 
to  the  images  of  our  Lady ;  and  that  it  were  better  to  offer  to  images  made  by  1509. 
God,  than  to  the  images  of  God  painted.  Richard 

Item,  That  he  had  the  Lord's  Prayer  and  the  salutation  of  the  angel  and  the  Hilmaa. 
Creed  in  English,  and  another  book  did  he  see  and  had,  which  contained  the  Scrip- 
epistles  and  gospels  in  English,  and  according  to  them  would  he  live,  and  2Sttk 
thereby  believed  to  be  saved. 

Item,  That  no  priest  speaketh  better  in  the  pulpit  than  that  book. 

Item.  That  the  sacrament  of  the  altar  is  but  bread,  and  that  the  priests  make 
it  to  blind  the  people. 

Item,  That  a  priest,  while  he  is  at  mass,  is  a  priest ;  and  after  one  mass  done, 
till  the  beginning  of  another  mass,  he  is  no  more  than  a  lay-man,  and  hath  no 
more  power  than  a  mere  lay-man. 

After  they  were  enforced  to  recant,  they  were  assoiled  and  put  to 

In  the  year  of  our  Lord  1488,  the  third  of  April,  Margery  Govt, 
wife  of  James  Govt  of  Ashburn,  was  brought  before  the  aforesaid 
John  bishop  of  Coventry  and  Lichfield,  and  was  there  accused  as 
follows : 

That  she  said,  that  that  which  the   priests  lift  over  their  heads  at  mass,  Against 
was  not  the  true  and  very  body  of  Christ ;    for,  if  it  were   so,  the   priests  the  sacra- 
could  not  break  it  so  lightly  into  four  parts,  and  swallow  it  as  they  do ;  for  S™ito 
the  Lord's  body  hath  flesh  and  bones  :    so  hath  not  that  which  the  priests 

Item,  That  priests  buying  forty  cakes  for  a  halfpenny,  and  showing  them  to 
the  people,  and  saying,  that  of  every  of  them  they  make  the  body  of  Christ,  do 
nothing  but  deceive  the  people  and  enrich  themselves. 

Item,  Seeing  God  in  the  beginning  did  create  and  make  man,  how  can  it  be 
that  man  should  be  able  to  make  God? 

This  woman  also  was  constrained  to  recant,  and  so  was  she  assoiled 
and  did  penance. 

Thus  much  I  thought  good  here  to  insert,  touching  these  aforesaid 
people  of  Coventry,  especially  for  this  purpose,  because  our  cavilling 
adversaries  be  wont  to  object  against  us  the  newness  of  Christ's  old 
and  ancient  religion.  To  the  intent,  therefore,  they  may  sec  this 
doctrine  not  to  be  so  new  as  they  report,  I  wish  they  would  consider 
both  the  time  and  articles  here  objected  against  these  aforesaid  persons, 
as  is  above-premised. 

I  should  also  in  the  same  reign  of  king  Henry  VII.,  have  intro-  ricus, 
duced  that  story  of  Johannes  Picus.  earl  of  Mirandula,  the  mention  Miran- 
of  whose  name  partly  is  touched  before.     This  Picus,  earl  of  Miran-  dub' 
dula,  being  but  a  young  man,  was  so  excellently  witted.  and  so  singu- 
larly learned  in  all  sciences,  and  in  all  tongues,  both    Latin,  Greek, 
and  Hebrew,  Chaldce,  and  Araby,  that  coming  to  Koine  booted  and 
spurred,  he  set  up  ninety  conclusions,  to  dispute  in   the  same  with 
any  in  all  Christendom,  whosoever  would  come  against  him;  of  which 
conclusions  divers   were  touching  the  matter  of  the  sacrament,  ecc. 
And  when  none  was  found  in  all  Rome,  nor  in  Europe,  that  openly 
would  dispute  with  him,  privily  and  in  corners  certain  of  the  popes 
clergy,  prelates,  lawyers,  and  friars,  by  the  pope  appointed,  consulted 
together  to  inquire  upon  his  conclusions;  whereupon  they  did  articu- 


Mmm%    late  against  him  for  suspicion  of  heresy.     And  thus  the  unlearned 

VIL    c.]c.rirV  of  Rome  privily  circumvented  and  entangled  this  learned  earl 

A.I),     in  their  snares  of  heresy,  against  whom  they  durst  never  openly  dis- 

1509-    pnte.     He  died  being  of  the  age  of  thirty-two  years,  of  such  wit  and 

towardness,  as  is  hard  to  say  whether  Italy  ever  bred  up  a  better.    In 

his  sickness  Charles  VIII.  the  French  king,  moved  with  the  fame  of 

his  learning,  came  to  visit  him.     The  furniture  of  his  books  cost  him 

seven  thousand  florins.     A  little  before  his  death  his  mind  was  to 

give  all  away,  and  to  take  a  cowl,  to  go  about  and  preach;  but  the 

Lord  would  not  permit  him.    His  story  requireth  a  long  tractation, 

which,  if  place  do  serve,  we  will  not  peradventure  forget.     With  two 

popes,  that  is,  with  pope  Innocent,  and  Alexander  VI.,  he  had  much 


The  names  of  the  Archbishops  of  Canterbury  in  this  sixth  Book 

62  John  Stratford,  held  the  66  Thomas  Langton,1  held  the 

see  for 8  years.  see  for 0  years. 

63  John  Kempe   ....     3     „  67  Henry  Dene    ....     2     „ 

64  Thomas  Bouchier      .     .33     „  68  William  Warham       .     .  2S     „ 

65  John  Morton   ....  14     ,, 


Forasmuch  as  it  is,  and  hath  been  a  persuasion  long  engendered 
in  the  heads  of  many,  that  the  bishops  of  Rome  be  the  universal 
heads  of  the  whole  militant  church  of  Christ  in  earth,  and  have 
always  so  continued  from  the  beginning  of  the  primitive  time ;  and 
that  no  prince,  king,  nor  emperor,  in  his  own  realm,  hath  any  interest 
to  intermeddle  with  matters  and  laws  ecclesiastical,  but  only  the  said 
bishops  of  Rome  :  to  refell  and  remove  that  opinion  out  of  the  heads 
of  all  Englishmen,  as  a  thing  most  false,  and  contrary  both  to 
histories  of  time,  and  examples  of  ancient  kings  and  governors  of 
this  realm,  I  thought  to  fill  up  a  little  end  of  paper  here  left,  with 
some  such  brief  rehearsal  of  laws  devised  and  appointed  by  kings 
and  rulers  of  this  land,  for  the  ordering  of  the  church,  and  causes 
ecclesiastical ;  to  the  intent  that  all  the  world  may  see  that  the 
government  of  Christ's  church  here  in  earth  under  Christ  hath  not 
depended  only  of  the  pope  from  ancient  time,  but  hath  been  rather 
directed  by  such  kings  and  princes  as  God  here  had  placed  under 
hiin,  to  govern  the  people  of  this  realm  of  England  :  as  followeth 
here  in  this  present  table  to  be  noted. 


Ecclesiastical  Laws  of  King  Inas,  or  Ina. 

I-   Inst,  king  Inas,  who  reigned  in  this  land  a.  d.  712,  commanded   that 

" ''  ls  should  frame  their  conversation  of  life;  according  to  the  form  in  laws 


ll)  Thl    I  i  was  elected  aichbiehop,  but  died  before  he  was  confirmed.] 


II.  That  infants  should  he  baptized  within  thirty  days.  Umry 

III.  Item,  That  no  man,  lay  or  spiritual,  free  or  bond,  should  labour  on  the  yu- 




IV.  Item,  He  established  immunity  of  churches,  and  sanctuary.  Also  he 
took  order. for  the  true  payment  of  church  duties,  and  of  the  first-fruits  of  all 
that  was  sown,  to  be  paid  at  the  day  of  St.  Martin. 

Ecclesiastical  Laws  of  King  Alured,  or  Alfred. 

I.  King  Alfred,  after  he  had  ordained  divers  judicial  punishments  for  vio- 
lating the  holy  precepts  of  God  commanded  by  Moses,  he  also  confirmed  and 
enlarged  the  privilege  of  sanctuary :  he  laid  double  pain  upon  such  as  com- 
mitted offences  in  the  solemnities  of  certain  feasts;  also  against  them  that 
committed  sacrilege. 

II.  He  made  a  law  against  priests  committing  murder. 

III.  Also  he  made  a  law  against  whoredom,  adultery,  and  fornication. 

IV.  He  appointed  days  of  fasting,  and  ceasing  from  labour. 

V.  Item,  He  set  order  for  making  and  keeping  vows. 

Ecclesiastical  Laws  of  King  Edward  the  Elder,  and  Gythram  the 
Dane  King. 

I.  First,  They  agreed  upon  the  sanctuary;  they  forbade  gentility  and 
paganism  ;  tltey  laid  punishment  upon  the  clergy  committing  theft,  perjury, 
or  murder,  fornication,  or  any  capital  crime. 

II.  They  punished  priests,  that  pretermitted  their  office  in  pronouncing 
festival,  or  fasting  days. 

III.  They  made  a  law  against  all  labour,  buying  and  selling  upon  the 
sabbath,  also  for  keeping  of  feasts. 

Item,  For  no  execution  to  be  done  on  the  Sunday. 
Also  against  witches  and  sorcerers,  &c. 

Ecclesiastical  Laws  of  King  Athelstan. 

I.  King  Athelstan,  who  reigned  a.d.  924,  commanded  that  every  village  of 
his  own  should  give  a  monthly  corody1  to  a  poor  person. 

II.  That  fifty  Psalms  should  be  sung  daily  in  the  church,  for  the  king,  &c. 

III.  He  also  ordained  punishment  for  witches  and  sorcerers,  &c 

Ecclesiastical  Laws  of  King  Edmund 

I.  After  king  Athelstan  followed  king  Edmund  about  a.d.  940,  who  esta- 
blished and  provided  laws  against  the  unchaste  living  of  churchmen. 

II.  Item,  He  made  laws  concerning  tithes,  with  first-fruits  of  every  man's 
crop,  and  alms-money  duly  to  be  paid. 

III.  He  enacted,  That  bishops,  of  their  own  proper  charges,  should  repair 
churches,  and  should  also  admonish  the  king  for  the  furnishing  of  the  same. 

IV.  For  perjury  also,  and  for  fighting  within  the  church,  he  set  laws  and 

Ecclesiastical  Laws  of  King  Edgar. 

I.  King  Edgar,  who  began  his  reign  about  a.d.  959,  amongst  other  consti- 
tutions ecclesiastical,  ordained  that  the  Sunday  should  be  kept  holy  from  Satur- 
day at  noon,  till  Monday  in  the  morning. 

II.  Item,  He  ordained  and  decreed  concerning  liberties  and  freedoms  of  the 
church  ;  for  tithes  also,  and  first-fruits  of  corn,  and  paying  of  Peter-pence. 

III.  Item,  For  holy  days  and  fasting  days. 

IV.  Item,  That  assemblies  or  synods  should  be  kept  twice  every  year, 
whereat  as  well  the  bishop  of  the  diocese  should  be  present,  as  the  civil 

the  king,  for  the  maintenance  of  one  of 


"^  King  Ethelred,  a.d.  979 

A.  D.        King  Etlielred  also,  who  succeeded  after  Edgar  and  Edward,  appointed 
L509.    divers  laws  for  public  regiment,  whereof  we  find  but  few  touching  matters 

ecclesiastical ;  for  tithes,  lights,  feasts,  and  nothing  else,  and  therefore  we  pass 

further,  to  the  laws  of  Canute. 

Ecclesiastical  Laws  of  King  Canute. 

Canute  the  Dane,  king,  began  to  reign  in  this  land  a.d.  1016.  The  said  Canute 
(as  Ethelred  had  done  before)  divided  his  laws  into  ecclesiastical  and  temporal. 

I.  That  ecclesiastical  persons,  being  accused  of  fighting,  murder,  or  anv  other 
offence,  should  purge  themselves  thereof. 

II.  That  priests  should  be  degraded  for  perjury,  and  put  in  sureties  of  good 

III.  He  prayeth  priests,  that  they  will  live  chaste,  and  commanded  other 

IV.  He  limited  the  degrees  of  marriage. 

V.  Item,  he  commanded  celebration  of  the  Sabbath  from  Saturday  at  noon, 
till  Monday  morning,  as  Edgar  had  done  before,  forbidding  markets,  huntings, 
labours,  and  court-keepings,  during  the  said  space. 

VI.  He  ordained  each  christian  man  to  come  to  the  housel,1  thrice  yearly  at 
least ;  that  they  might  search  and  inquire  after  God's  law,  and  his  command- 

VII.  That  every  christian  man  understand  the  points  of  his  faith,  and  that 
at  least  he  learn  perfectly  the  Lord's  prayer  and  the  creed ;  and  that  whosoever 
cannot,  the  same  shall  be  excluded  from  the  eucharist,  and  shall  not  be  received 
to  undertake  for  others  in  baptism. 

VIII.  That  bishops  and  priests  should  do  their  duties;  that  they  cry  out  and 
warn  their  flocks  when  the  wolf  cometh. 

IX.  That  at  the  court  of  every  shire  the  bishop  of  the  diocese  shall  be  present 
with  the  sheriff,  and  that  the  one  shall  teach  them  God's  law,  and  the  other 
man's  law;  as  ye  heard  in  king  Edgar's  laws  before. 

Kings  of  Many  other  laws,  both  ecclesiastical  and  temporal,  besides  these, 
',';'!;!!v"'i!'0  were  enacted  by  these  and  other  kings  here  in  England,  before  the 
conquest  Conquest ;  but  these  be  sufficient  to  give  the  understanding  reader  to 

governors  1  '  .  ,        s  ,  ,-,  ■nto1  .        .  .-, 

as  well  in  consider  how  the  authority  ot  the  bishops  ot  Komc,  all  this  while, 
.'..TK-Vins-  extended  not  so  far  to  prescribe  laws  for  government  of  the  church, 
temporal  but  that  kings  an(l  pi'inces  of  the  realm,  as  they  be  now,  so  were  then, 
full  governors  here  under  Christ,  as  well  in  causes  ecclesiastical  as 
temporal,  both  in  directing  orders,  instituting  laws,  in  calling  of  synods, 
and  also  in  conferring  bishoprics  and  benefices,  without  any  leave  of 
the  Romish  bishops.  Thus  Odo,  Dunstan,  Oswold,  Ethelwold,  Adel- 
lnus,  and  Lanfranc,  although  they  fetched  their  palls  afterward  from 
Home,  yet  were  they  made  bishops  and  archbishops  by  kings  only, 
and  not  by  popes. 

And  thus  stood  the  government  of  this  realm  of  England  all  the 

',   time  before  the  Conquest,  till  pope  Hildebrand,  through  the  setting 

J ,;;;;;.'/',',;','  on  of  the  Saxons,  began  first  to  bring  the  emperor  (who  was  Henry 

pope'i       I  \  .)   underfoot.     Then  followed  the  subduing  of  other  emperors, 

'ton"      kings,  and  subjects  after  that;  as  namely  here  in  England,  when 

Lanfranc,  Anselm,  and  Bccket,  went  to  complain  of  their  kings  and 

governors,  then  brought  they  the  pope's  judicial  authority  first  from 

Rome  over  this  land,  both  over  kings  and  subjects;  which  ever  since 

(i;  "  Housel,"  the  sacrament  of  the  Lord's  Supper.—  Ed. 


hath  continued,  till  these  latter  years.     Albeit  the  said  kings  of  this  Bccidas- 
realm  of  England,  being  prudent  princes,  and  seeing  right  well  the  y/,1™^. 

ambitious  presumption  of  those  Romish  bishops,  did  what  they  could 

to  shake  off  the  yoke  of  their  supremacy,  as  appeareth  by  the  laws 
and  acts  of  their  parliaments,  both  in  king  Edward  IIL's  time,  king 
Richard  II.,  and  king  Henry  IV.,  above  in  their  parliament  notes 
specified  ;  yet,  for  fear  of  other  foreign  princes,  and  the  blind  opinion 
of  their  subjects,  such  was  then  the  calamity  of  that  time,  that  they 
neither  could  nor  durst  compass  that  which  fain  they  would ;  till,  at 
last,  the  time  of  their  iniquity  being  complete,  through  the  Lord's 
wonderful  working,  their  pride  had  a  fall,  as  in  the  next  pages  ensu- 
ing (the  Lord  so  granting),  shall  by  process  of  history  be  declared. 

€fje  prouD  JDrimacn  of  $ope£  Described, 


In  the  history  of  the  primitive  church  before  described  hath  been,  Martyr- 
gentle  reader!  set  forth  and  exhibited  the  grievous  afflictions  and^d 
sorrowful  torments,  which,  through  God's  secret  sufferance,  fell  upon  w^p* 
the  true  saints  and  members  of  Christ's  church  in  that  time,  especially  wicked 
upon  the  good  bishops,  ministers,  and  teachers  of  the  flock,  of  whom  erai'L'rors- 
some  were  scourged,  some  beheaded,  some  crucified,  some  burned, 
some  had  their  eyes  put  out,  some  one  way,  some  another,  miserably 
consumed  :  which  days  of  woeful  calamity  continued  (as  is  foreshowed) 
near  the  space  of  three  hundred  years.     During  that  time  the  dear 
spouse  and  elect  church  of  God,  being  sharply  assaulted  on  every  side, 
had  small  rest,  no  joy,  nor  outward  safety  in  this  present  world,  but, 
in  much  bitterness  of  heart,  in  continual  tears  and  mourning  under 
the  cross,  passed  over  their  days,  being  spoiled,  imprisoned,  contemned, 
reviled,  famished,  tormented,  and  martyred  every  where ;  who  neither 
durst  well   tarry  at  home  for  fear  and  dread,  and  much  less  durst 
come  abroad  for  the  enemies,  but  only  by  night,  when  they  assembled 
as  they  might,  sometimes  to  sing  psalms  and  hymns  together.    In  all 
which  their  dreadful  dangers,  and  sorrowful  afflictions,  notwithstand- 
ing the  goodness  of  the  Lord  left  them  not  desolate ;  but  the  more 
their  outward  tribulations  did  increase,  the  more  their  inward  consola- 
tions did  abound  :  and  the  further  off  they  seemed  from  the  joys  of 
this  life,  the  more  present  was  the  Lord  with  them,  with  grace  and 
fortitude  to  confirm  and  rejoice  their  souls :  and  though  their  posses- 
sions and  riches  in  this  world  were  lost  and  spoiled,   yet  were  they  Tlu.  ,,„,. 
enriched  with  heavenly  gifts  and  treasures  from  above,  a  hundred-fold.  [*chea "' 
Then  was  true  religion  truly  felt  in  heart.     Then  was  Christianity  church. 
not  in  outward  appearance  showed,  but  in  inward  affection  received, 
and  the  true  image  of  the  church,  net  in  outward  show  pvetensed,  but 
in  her  perfect  state  effectual.     Then  was  the  name  and  fear  of  God 
true  in  heart,  not  in  lips  alone  dwelling.     Faith  then  was  fervent, 
(l)  2  Then  ii. 

140  THE    FIRST    RISING    OF    THE    BISHOPS    OF    ROME. 

Ecdetio,  zeal  ardent ;  prayer  not  swimming  in  the  lips,  but  groaned  out  to 
ll'Znj.  God  from  the  bottom  of  the  spirit.    Then  was  no  pride  in  the  church, 

nor  leisure  to  seek  riches,  nor  time  to  keep  them.     Contention  for 

trifles  was  then  so  far  from  Christians,  that  well  were  they  when  they 
could  meet  to  pray  together  against  the  devil,  author  of  all  dissension. 
Briefly,  the  whole  church  of  Christ  Jesus,  with  all  the  members 
thereof,  the  farther  it  was  from  the  type  and  shape  of  this  world,  the 
nearer  it  was  to  the  blessed  respect  of  God's  favour  and  supportation. 


After  this  long  time  of  trouble  it  pleased  the  Lord  at  length  merci- 
fully to  look  upon  the  saints  and  servants  of  his  Son,  to  release  their 
captivity,  to  release  their  misery,  and  to  bind  up  the  old  dragon  the 
devil,  which  so  long  vexed  them ;  whereby  the  church  began  to  aspire  to 
some  more  liberty,  and  the  bishops,  who  before  were  as  abjects,  utterly 
contemned  of  emperors,  through  the  providence  of  God  (who  disposeth 
all  things  in  his  time  after  his  own  will)  began  now  of  emperors  to  be 
esteemed  and  had  in  price.  Furthermore,  as  emperors  grew  more  in 
devotion,  so  the  bishops  more  and  more  were  exalted,  not  only  in  fa- 
vour, but  also  preferred  unto  honour,  insomuch  that  in  short  space  they 
became  not  quarter-masters,  but  rather  half  emperors  with  emperors. 
After  this,  in  process  of  time,  as  'riches  and  worldly  wealth  crept 
into  the  clergy,  and  that  the  devil  had  poured  his  venom  into  the 
church  (as  the  voice  was  heard  the  same  time  over  Constantinople)1  so 
true  humility  began  to  decay,  and  pride  to  set  in  his  foot,  till  at  last 
they  played  as  the  ivy  doth  with  the  oak  tree,  which,  first  beginning 
with  a  goodly  green  show,  embraceth  him  so  long,  till  at  length  it 
overgroweth  him,  and  so  sucketh  all  his  moisture  from  him,  setting 
his  root  fast  in  his  bark,  till  at  last  it  both  stifleth  the  stock,  and 
killeth  the  branches,  and  so  cometh  to  be  a  nest  for  owls  and  all 
unclean  birds.  Not  untruly,  therefore,  it  was  said  of  Augustine, 
spiritual  "  Religio  peperit  divitias,  &c.  filia  devoravit  matrem  \'"2  that  is,  "  Re- 
nt  ligion  begat  riches,  and  the  daughter  hath  devoured  the  mother." 


tam°d*  ^ie  ver^y  whereof  notoriously  may  appear  above  all  others  in  the 
worldly  church  of  Rome,  and  the  bishops  of  the  same ;  for  after  the  church  of 
Rome,  through  favour  of  emperors,  was  endued  with  lands,  donations, 
possessions,  and  patrimonies,  so  that  the  bishops  thereof,  feeling  the 
smack  of  wealth,  ease,  and  prosperity,  began  to  swell  in  pomp  and 
pride;3  the  more  they  flourished  in  this  world,  the  more  God's  Holy 
Spirit  forsook  them  ;  till  at  last  the  said  bishops,  who  at  the  first 
were  poor,  creeping  low  upon  the  ground,  and  Avere  persecuted  a  long 
time,  every  man  treading  upon  them  in  this  world  ;  now  of  persecuted 
people,  began  to  be  persecutors  of  others,  and  to  tread  upon  the 
necks  even  of  emperors,  and  to  bring  the  heads  of  kings  and  princes 
under  their  girdle.  And  not  only  that,  but  furthermore,  through 
pride  and  riches,  they  were  so  far  gone  from  all  religion,  that  in  the 
very  end  they  became  the  great  adversary  of  God  (whom  we  call 
Antichrist),  prophesied  of  so  long  before  by  the  Spirit  of  God  to 
come,  sitting  in  the  temple  of  God,  &c,  of  whom  thus  we  read  in  the 

(1)  This  retell  to  an  event  which  is  said  to  have  occurred  at  the  period  when  temporal  immuni- 
••  "1  mi  the  church  by  Constantine  :  whenan  angelic  voice  was  heard  in  the  air,  saying, 
llortu-  i-tluxum  i-st  vencnum  in  cr-desia  sancta  Dei."     See  Wick'.itl',  Dialog,  lib.  iv.  ch.  18.— Eu. 
V)  Ex  lib.  Serin.  Disciimli.        (3)  Look  to  Tyndal,  in  his  book  of  the  Practice  of  Prelates. 

the  words  of  sr.  paul  expounded.  141 

epistle  of  Paul  [2  Thess.  ii.],    where  he  saith,  "  We  beseech  you,  Seeiuuu- 
brethren,  by  the  coming  of  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  and  by  our  fellow-  mrt£g- 

ship  together  in  him,  that  ye  be  not  suddenly  moved  in  your  mind, . 

nor  troubled,  neither  by  spirit,  nor  by  word,  nor  letter,  as  it  were  adversary 
from  us,  as  though  the  day  of  Christ  were  at  hand.     Let  no  man  in  Ami'-1 
any  wise  deceive  you,  for  that  day  shall  not  come  except  there  come  %$%£*' 
a  departing  first,  and  that  man  of  sin  be  revealed,  even  the  son  of 
perdition  ;  that  adversary  which   cxalteth  himself  above  all   that  is 
called  God,  or  that  is  worshipped,  so  that  he  shall  sit  in  the  temple  of 
God,  as  God,  and  set  forth  himself  as  he  were  God,"  &c. 


By  which  words  of  St.  Paul,  we  have  divers  things  to  understand  : 
First,  That  the  day  of  the  Lord's  coming  was  not  then  near  at  hand. 
Secondly,  The  apostle,  giving  us  a  token  before,  to  know  when  that 
day  shall  approach,  biddeth  us  look  for  an  adversary  first  to  be  re- 
vealed. Thirdly,  To  show  what  adversary  this  shall  be,  he  cxpresseth 
him  not  to  be  as  a  common  adversary,  such  as  were  then  in  his  time. 
For  although  Herod,  Annas,  and  Caiaphas,  the  high  priests  and 
Pharisees,  Tertullus,  Alexander  the  coppersmith,  Elymas,  and  Simon 
Magus,  and  Nero  the  emperor,  in  Paul's  time,  were  great  adversaries  ; 
yet  here  he  meaneth  another  besides  these,  greater  than  all  the  rest ; 
not  such  a  one  as  should  be  like  to  priest,  king,  or  emperor ;  but  such 
as,  far  exceeding  the  state  of  all  kings,  priests,  and  emperors,  should 
be  the  prince  of  priests,  should  make  kings  to  stoop,  and  should  tread 
upon  the  neck  of  emperors,  and  make  them  to  kiss  his  feet.  More- 
over, where  the  apostle  saith,  that  he  shall  sit  in  the  temple  of  God  ; 
thereby  is  meant,  not  the  personal  sitting  of  the  pope  in  the  city  only 
of  Rome,  but  the  authority  and  jurisdiction  of  his  see  exalted  in  the 
whole  universal  church,  equal  with  God  himself.  For  let  men  give  to  The  pope 
the  pope  that  which  he,  in  his  laws,  decrees,  and  in  his  pontifical,  re-  Smsei"8 
quireth,  and  what  difference  is  there  between  God  and  the  pope  ?  If  *ven  with 
God  set  laws  and  ordinances,  so  doth  he.  If  God  hath  his  creatures, 
so  hath  he.  If  God  require  obedience,  so  doth  he.  If  the  breach  of 
God's  commandments  be  punished,  much  more  be  his.  God  hath  his 
religion,  the  pope  also  hath  his  ;  for  God's  one  religion,  he  hath 
a  hundred.  God  hath  set  up  one  advocate,  he  hath  a  hundred. 
God  hath  instituted  but  a  few  holy  days  ;  for  God's  one,  he  hath 
instituted  forty.  And  if  the  holy  day  that  God  hath  appointed  be 
'  simplex,'  the  feast  that  the  pope  appointeth,  is  '  duplex,'  and  '  tri- 
plex.' Christ  is  the  head  of  the  church  ;  so  is  the  pope.  Christ 
giveth  influence  to  his  body  ;  so  doth  the  pope.  Christ  forgivcth  sin  ; 
the  pope  doth  no  less.  Christ  cxpelleth  evil  spirits  by  his  power  ;  so 
pretendcth  the  pope  by  his  holy  water.  Furthermore,  where  Christ 
went  barefoot  upon  the  bare  ground,  he  with  his  golden  shoes  is  car- 
ried on  men's  shoulders  ;  and  where  Christ  was  called  Sanctus  Sanc- 
torum, he  is  called  Sanctorum  Sanctissimus.  Christ  never  practised 
but  only  the  spiritual  sword  ;  he  claimeth  both  spiritual  and  temporal. 
Christ  bought  the  church  ;  he  both  buycth  and  selleth  the  church. 
And  if  it  be  necessary  to  believe  Christ  to  be  the  Saviour  of  the 
world ;  so  it  is  necessary  to  believe  the  pope  to  be  the  head  of  tlic 
church.     Christ   paid   tribute  unto   Caesar;  he   maketh  Caesar  pay 


Seetefa*  tribute  unto  him.  Finally,  the  crown  of  Christ  was  of  sharp  thorns ; 
the  pope  hath  three  crowns  of  gold  upon  his  head,  as  far  exceeding 

— ■ — -  Christ  the  Son  of  God  in  the  glory  of  this  world,  as  Christ  exceedeth 
him  in  the  glory  of  heaven  ;  the  image  and  pattern  of  whose  intole- 
rable pride  and  exaltation,  according  as  St.  Paul  doth  describe  him  in 
his  epistle  aforesaid,  we  have  here  set  forth,  not  only  in  these  histories 
to  be  seen,  and  by  his  own  facts  to  be  noted,  but  also  in  his  own 
words  and  registers,  Clementines,  extravagants,  and  pontificals,  ex- 
pressed, as  in  order  (the  Lord  willing)  shall  follow. 


The  pa-  First,  After  Italy  and  the  city  of  Rome  were  overrun  by  the 
constant  Goths  and  Vandals,  so  that  the  seat  of  the  empire  was  removed  to 
s'uil'I'uL.i  Constantinople,  then  began  John,  the  patriarch  of  Constantinople, 
by  the  to  put  forth  himself,  and  would  needs  be  called  universal  bishop  of 
xuo'the  the  world ;  but  the  bishop  of  Rome  in  no  case  would  suffer  that, 
emperor's  .m(i  st0ppC(i  it.  After  this  came  the  emperor's  deputy,  and  exarch  of 
tenant  of  Ravenna,  to  rule  Italy  ;  but  the  bishop  of  Rome,  through  aid  of 
the  king  of  Lombards,  soon  quailed  him. 

Not  long  after,  about  a.  d.  500,  came  Phocas  the  murderer,  who 

slew  the  emperor  of  Constantinople,  his  master  Mauritius  and  his 

now  the   children.     By  -which  Phocas  the  bishops  of  old  Rome  aspired  first 

'.';,",,,',",l's"'  to  their  pre-eminence,  to  be  counted  the  head  bishops  over  the  whole 

toT  til-'  (,',m'cn  5  an(l  so5  together  with  the  Lombards,  began  to  rule  the  city 

head       of  Rome.1     Afterwards,  when  the  Lombards  would  not  yield  unto 

18  opSl    liini  in  accomplishing  his  ambitious  desire,  but  would  needs  require 

of  the  bishop  the  said  city  of  Rome ;  he  stirred  up  Pepin,  but  first 

deposed  Childeric  the  king  of  France,  and  so  thrusting  him  into  an 

abbey,  set  up  in  his  place  Pepin  and  his  son  Charlemagne,  to  put 

down  the  said  king  of  Lombards,   called  Aistulphus.     And  so  he 

translated  the  empire  from  Constantinople  into  France,  dividing  the 

spoil  between  him  and  them  ;  so  that  the  kings  of  France  had  all 

the  possessions  and  lands  which  before  belonged  to  the  empire,  and 

he  to  receive  of  them  the  quiet  possession  of  the  city  of  Rome,  with 

such  donations  and  lordships,  which  now  they  challenge  unto   them 

under  the  name  of  St.  Peter's  patrimony,  which  they  falsely  ascribe 

to  that  donation  of  Constantine  the  Great. 

It  followeth  then  in  process  of  time,  after  the  days  of  Pepin, 
Charlemagne,  and  Ludovic  (who  had  endued  these  bishops  of  Rome, 
died  now  popes,  with  large  possessions),  when  the  kings  of  France 
were  not  so  appliable  to  their  beck,  to  aid  and  maintain  them  against 
the  princes  of  Italy,  who  began  then  to  pinch  the  said  bishops  for 
theii  wrongfully  usurped  goods,  they  practised  with  the  Germans  to 
"luce  the  empire  to  Otho,  first  of  that  name,  duke  of  Spain,  re- 
ferring the  election  thereof  to  seven  princes  electors  of  Germanv, 
Inch  wus  about  a.d.  1002;  notwithstanding,  reserving  still  in  his 
hands  the  negative  voice,  thinking  thereby  to  enjoy  that  they  had 
in  quietness  and  security,  and  so  did  for  a  good  space. 

A  i  length,  when  some  of  these  German  emperors  also  after  Otho 

"  ■   111    obtained  ut  Phocas  to  be  called  universal  bishop. 


villi  tho 

till-  nil 

pin  "i 

WAtt    AGAINST    CONRAD    I!Y     BISHOPS    OF    I10MK.  14   » 

began  a  little  to  spurn  against  the  said  bishops  ami  popes  of  Rome  ;  Kcci™™- 
some  of  them  they  accursed,  some  they  subdued  and  brought  to  the  History. 
kissing  of  their  feet,  some  they  deposed,  and  placed  others  in  their 

So  was  Henry  IV.  by  these  bishops  accursed,  the  emperor  himselt  Emperors 
forced  with  his  wife  and  child  to  wait  attendance  upon  the  pope's  H^'tiic- 
pleasure  three  days  and  three  nights  in  winter,  at  the  gates  of  Canossus,  pope, 
or  Canusium.1     Besides  all  this  the  said  pope  raised  up  Kodulph  to 
be  emperor  against  him ;  who  being  slain  in  war,  then  the  said  pope 
Chregory  VII.,  not  resting  thus,  stirred  up  his  own  son  Henry  V. 
to  fight  against  his  own  natural  father,  and  to  depose  him ;  which 
Henry  V.  was  also  himself  afterwards  accursed  and  excommunicated, 
and  the  Saxons  at  last  set  up  by  the  bishops  to  fight  against  him. 

After  this,  the  emperors  began  to  be  somewhat  calmed,  and  more 
quiet,  suffering  the  bishops  to  reign  as  they  listed,  till  Frederic  I., 
called  Barbarossa,  came  and  began  to  stir  coals  against  them.  How- 
beit  they  hampered  both  him,  and  his  son  Henry  in  such  sort,  that 
they  brought  first  the  neck  of  Frederic,  in  the  church  of  Venice,  under 
their  feet,  to  tread  upon ;  and  after  that,  the  said  bishops,  crowning 
Henry  his  son  in  the  church  of  St.  Peter,  set  his  crown  on  his  head 
with  their  feet,  and  with  their  feet  spurned  it  off  again,  to  make  him 
know  that  the  popes  of  Rome  had  power  both  to  crown  emperors, 
and  depose  them  again  ;  whereof  read  before. 

Then  followed  Philip,  brother  to  Henry  aforesaid,  whom  also  the 
popes  accursed,  about  a.  d.  1198,  and  set  up  Otho  duke  of  Saxony. 
But  when  the  said  Otho  began  to  be  so  saucy,  to  dispossess  the  bishops 
of  their  cities  and  lands  which  they  had  encroached  into  their  hands, 
they  could  not  bear  that,  but  incontinent  they  put  him  beside  the 
cushion.  The  like  also  fell  upon  Otho  IV.,  that  followed  after 
Philip,  who  was  suffered  no  longer  than  four  years  to  reign,  about 
a.  d.  1209. 

At  this  time  Frederic  II.,  the  son  of  Frederic  Barbarossa  above-  Hono-^ 
mentioned,  was  but  young,  whom  the  bishops  of  Rome,  supposing  to  Gregory 
find  more  mortified  and  tamed  to  their  hand,  advanced  to  be  emperor  j;^;0. 
after  his  father.  But  that  fell  out  much  contrary  to  their  expectation  ;  ^unt'- 
for  he,  perceiving  the  immoderate  pomp  and  pride  of  the  Roman  Frederic 
bishops,  which  he  could  in  no  case  abide,  so  nettled  them  and  cut  Jorc,"p"' 
their  combs,  and  waxed  so  stout  against  them,  intending  to  extirpate 
their  tyranny,  and  to  reduce  their  pompous  riches  to  the  state  and 
condition  of  the  primitive  church  again,  putting  some  of  them  to 
flight,  and  imprisoning  some  of  their  cardinals,  that  of  three  popes, 
one  after  another,  he  was  accursed,  circumvented  by  treason,  at  last  War 
deposed,  and  after  that  poisoned;  and,  at  last,  forsaken  and  died.       raised^ 

After  this  Frederic,  followed  his  son  Conrad,  whom  the  aforesaid  Conn^( 
bishops  for  his  disobedience  soon  despatched,  exciting  against  him  in  |&££gof 
mortal  war  the  Landgrave  of  Thuringia,  whereby  he  was  at  length  aome. 
driven  into  his  kingdom  of  Naples,  and  there  deceased. 

Tins  Conrad  had  a  son  called  Conradine,  duke  and  prince  of 
Suevia.2  When  this  Conradine,  after  the  decease  of  his  father  came 
to  enjoy  his  kingdom  of  Naples,  the  said  bishops  stirred  up  against 
him  Charles  the  French  king's  brother,  in  such  sort,  that  through 

1)  See  vol.  ii.  p.  128.— Ed.  (2)  El  Aventino. 


Ecciesias-  crafty  conveyance,  both  Conradinc  who  was  descended  of  the  blood 
Hitiory.  of  so  many  emperors,  and  also  Frederic  duke  of  Austria,  were  both 

taken,  and  after  much  wretched  handling  in  their  miserable  endurance, 

unseeming  to  their  state,  at  length  were  both  brought  under  the  axe 
by  the  pope's  procurement,  and  so  both  beheaded.  And  thus  ended 
the  imperial  stock  of  Frederic  I.,  surnamed  Barbarossa. 

The  like  as  happened  to  Frederic  the  emperor,  had  almost  also 
fallen  upon  Philip  the  French  king,  by  pope  Boniface  VIII.,  who, 

of  pope 

vhl       because  he  could  not  have  his  commodities  and  revenues  out  of 

lnliiip,     France  after  his  will,  sent  out  his  bulls  and  letters  patent  to  dis- 
place king  Philip  aforesaid,  to  possess  Albert  I.  king  of  Romans  in 


ki"°-       his  roor 

And  thus  hitherto  of  foreign  stories.  Now  touching  our  country 
princes  here  in  England,  to  speak  somewhat  likewise  of  them :  did 
not  pope  Alexander  III.  presumptuously  taking  upon  him  where  he 
had  nothing  to  do,  to  intermeddle  with  the  king's  subjects,  for  the 
death  of  Becket  the  rebel  ?  Albeit  the  king  sufficiently  cleared  him- 
self thereof,  yet,  notwithstanding,  did  he  not  wrongfully  bring  the 
said  king  Henry  II.  to  such  penance  as  it  pleased  him  to  enjoin,  and 
also  violently  constrained  him  to  swear  obedience  to  the  see  of  Rome  ? 
the  like  also  was  showed  before  in  this  story  to  happen  to  king  John 
his  son ;  for  when  the  said  king,  like  a  valiant  prince,  had  held  out 
the  tyranny  ot  those  bishops  seven  years  together,  were  not  all  the 
churches  in  England  barred  up,  and  his  inheritance  with  all  his 
dominions  given  away  by  pope  Innocent  III.  to  Ludovicus  the 
French  king,  and  he  afterwards  compelled  to  submit  both  himself, 
and  to  make  his  whole  realm  feudatory  to  the  bishops  of  Rome  ?  and, 
moreover,  the  king  himself  driven  also  to  surrender  his  crown  to 
Pandulph  the  pope's  legate,  and  so  continued  as  a  private  person  five 
clays,  standing  at  the  pope's  courtesy,  whether  to  receive  it  again  at 
his  hands  or  no  ?  And  when  the  nobles  of  the  realm  rose  afterwards 
against  the  king  for  the  same,  was  not  he  then  fain  to  seek  and  sue 
to  the  aforesaid  pope  for  succour,  as  by  his  own  letter,1  hereunder 
to  be  seen,  taken  out  of  the  public  rolls,  may  appear  ? 

And  yet,  all  this  notwithstanding  (though  the  said  king  John  did 
so  yield  to  the  pope),  he  was  both  pursued  by  his  nobles,  and  also  in 
the  end  was  poisoned  by  a  subject  of  the  pope's  own  religion,  a  monk 
of  Swinstead ;  as  I  have  sufficiently  to  prove,  not  only  by  William 
Caxton  above  in  my  story  alleged,  but  also  have  testimony  of  the 
most  part  of  chronicles  for  the  same  (a  few  only  excepted),  as  of 
Thomas  Gray  in  his  French  Chronicle;  also  of  another  French 
chronicle  in  metre,  of  Ranulphus  Cestrensis:  Thomas  Rudburn  also 
•loth  witness  the  same;  so  doth  Richard  Rede,  in  'Novo  Chronico 

(1)  The  Supplication  of  King  John  to  Pope  Innocent  the  Thirds 

Rcvcrcndis.  Domino  suo  et  Patri  Sanctis.  Innocentio  Dei  gratia,  Johan.  eadera  gratia  Rex  Anglic, 
'  i  'larones  Angliae  nobis  devoti  essent,  anteiinam  008  et  nostram  terrain  do- 
cre  curassemns,  ex  tunc  in  nos  specialiter  ob  hoc,  sicut  publico  dicunt,  violenter 

,      ,  '  '" '  wr"  prater  Ileum  vos  specialem  doininum  et  patronum  babentes,  defensionem 

,,','   ;''", '  .  '"""'  "'■:■"'•  quod vestrum esse  credimus, vestrae  paternitati  cbmmissam,  et  nos  quan- 
......  ,'"  e«.  curam  el  solicitudinein  istam  vestrae  resignamus  dominationi,  devotius  suppli- 

malta.  vV  ""l'N  '"  '"'"",us  noBtris,  qua  veatra  sunt,  consilium  et  auxilium  efficax  apponatis,  prout 
u.iiius,  viuemis  txpedu-e,  latorea  pnesentium,  &c.    Teste  meiuao  apud  Dour.  is.  Septem.  6. 

(1)  Ex  itotulo  patent,  de  an.  Rcgni  Reg.  Johannis  VlIL 

THE    IMAGE    OF    ANTICHRIST.  !  1  -."i 

ad   tempora,1  Henry  VI. ;   the  like  also  doth  the  chronicle  called  BccImUu 
1  Eulogium   Monachi   Cant.1      The  words  of  Walter  Gishurn,  an  BbuHy. 
ancient  historiographer,  be  plain.    No  less  is  to  be  found  in  Johannes 
Major,  '  De  Gestis  Scotorum,'  lib.  iv.  cap.  3,  fob  56,  where  he  not 
only  niaketh  mention  of  the  monk  and  of  the  poison,  but  also  of  the 
abbot,  of  his  absolution,  and  of  the  three  monks  every  day  singing 
for  the  said  monk's  soul.     To  these  I  could  also  annex  divers  other 
writers  both  English  and  Latin,  without  name,  who  witness  that  king 
John  was  poisoned ;  one  beginning  thus,  "  Here  beginneth  a  book  Writers 
in  the  English  tongue,  called  '  Brute,1 "  &c.     Another  beginneth,  Zh"ul\ 
"  Because  this  book  is  made  to  tell  what  time  any  thing,  notable,11  &c.  L?tin 
The  third  in  English  beginneth,  "  The  reign  of  Britain  that  now  is  name, 
called  England,11  &c.     Of  Latin  books  which  have  no  name,  one 
beginneth  thus  :   "  Britannia,  quso  et  Anglia  dicitur,  a  Bruto  nomen 
est  sortita,11  &c.    Another  hath  this  beginning :  "  Adam  pater  generis 
humani,11  &c. 

Besides  this  king  Henry  II.,  and  king  John  his  son,  what  kings 
have  here  reigned  in  England  since  their  time,  until  the  reign  of  king 
Henry  VIII. ;  who,  although  they  were  prudent  princes,  and  did 
what  they  could  in  providing  against  the  proud  domination  of  these  Hen.  in. 
bishops,  yet  were  forced  at  length  sore  against  their  wills,  for  fear,  to  JileTifee 
subject  themselves,  together  with  their  subjects,  under  their  usurped  «£*» 
authority,  insomuch  that  some  of  them  (as  Matthew  Paris  writeth  of  legate. 
king  Henry  III.)  were  fain  to  stoop  and  kiss  their  legate's  knee. 

arfje  SImage  Df  3Cnticfjr$t,  ejraftmg  ijirttfelf  in  tlje  Ctmple  of  <©od, 
abotoe  all  tfjat  tf  named  <£>oo,a 

TIFICALS,   ETC.,    WORD    FOR    WORD,    AS    IT    IS    OUT    OF    THE 

1  Forasmuch  as  it  standeth  upon  necessity  of  salvation,  for  every 
human  creature  to  be  subject  unto  me  the  pope  of  Rome,  it  shall  be 
therefore  requisite  and  necessary  for  all  men  that  will  be  saved,  to 
leai-n  and  know  the  dignity  of  my  see,  and  excellency  of  my  domina- 
tion, as  is  here  set  forth  according  to  the  truth  and  very  words  of 
mine  own  laws,  in  style  as  followcth  :  2  First,  my  institution  began  in 
the  Old  Testament,  and  was  consummated  and  finished  in  the  New, 
in  that  my  priesthood  was  prefigured  by  Aaron ;  and  other  bishops 
under  me  were  prefigured  by  the  sons  of  Aaron,  that  were  under 
him  ;  3  neither  is  it  to  be  thought  that  my  church  of  Rome  hath  been 
preferred  by  any  general  council,  but  obtained  the  primacy  only  by 
the  voice  of  the  Gospel,  and  the  mouth  of  the  Saviour,  4and  hath  in  it 
neither  spot  nor  wrinkle,  nor  any  such  like  thing.  'Wherefore,  as 
other  seats  be  all  inferior  to  me,  and  as  they  cannot  absolve  me,  so 
have  they  no  power  to  bind  me  or  to  stand  against  me,  no  more  than 
the  axe  hath  power  to  stand  or  presume  above  him  that  heweth  with 
it,  or  the  saw  to  presume  above  him  that  ndeth  it.    "This  is  the  holy 

(a)  2  Thess.  ii. 

O)  Tope  Bonifarius  VIII.   Extra«ag.  de  Majori.  el  Obed.  C.  '  I'nam.' 
(2)  Distinct.  12.  c.  '  Decretis.  (8)  Pope  Pelagius,  dlBt.  21.  e.  •Ouamvjs.' 

(4)  Pelagius,  ibidem.  (5)  Pope  Nicolaus.  dist.  21.  c.  '  Inferior.' 

(6)  Pope  Lucius,  24.  q.  i.  c.  2.  '  Recta.' 
VOL.  IV.  L 


Eccieria*-  and  apostolic  mother-church  of  all  other  churches  of  Christ ;  7from 
jhst'tr,    whose  rules  it  is  not  meet  that  any  person  or  persons  should  decline ; 

"  but  like  as  the  Son  of  God  came  to  do  the  will  of  his  Father,  so 

must  you  do  the  will  of  your  mother  the  church,  the  head  whereof  is 
the  church  of  Rome ;  "and  if  any  other  person  or  persons  shall  err 
from  the  said  church,  either  let  them  be  admonished,  or  else  their 
names  taken,  to  be  known  who  they  be,  that  swerve  from  the  customs 
of  Rome. 

"Thus  then,  forasmuch  as  the  holy  church  of  Rome,  whereof  I  am 
governor,  is  set  up  to  the  whole  world  for  a  glass  or  example,  reason 
would  what  thing  soever  the  said  church  determineth,  or  ordaineth, 
that  to  be  received  of  all  men  for  a  general  and  a  perpetual  rule  for 
ever.  10  Whereupon  we  see  it  now  verified  in  this  church,  that  was 
fore-prophesied  "by  Jeremy,  saying,  "  Behold,  I  have  set  thee  up  over 
nations  and  kingdoms,  to  pluck  up  and  to  break  down,  to  build  and 
to  plant,"  &c.  "Whoso  understandeth  not  the  prerogative  of  this 
my  priesthood,  let  him  look  up  to  the  firmament,  where  he  may  see 
two  great  lights,  the  sun  and  the  moon,  one  ruling  over  the  day,  the 
other  over  the  night :  .so  in  the  firmament  of  the  universal  church, 
12 God  hath  set  two  great  dignities,  the  authority  of  the  pope,  and  of 
the  emperor ;  of  which  two,  this  our  dignity  is  so  much  more  weighty, 
as  we  have  the  greater  charge  to  give  account  to  God  for  kings  of  the 
earth,  and  the  laws  of  men. 

13  Wherefore  be  it  known  to  you  emperors,  who  know  it  also  right 
well,  that  you  depend  upon  the  judgment  of  us :  we  must  not  be 
brought  and  reduced  to  your  will.  uFor,  as  I  said,  look  what  differ- 
ence there  is  betwixt  the  sun  and  the  moon,  so  great  is  the  power  of 
the  pope  ruling  over  the  day,  that  is,  over  the  spiritualty,  above 
emperors  and  kings,  ruling  over  the  night ;  that  is,  over  the  laity. 
15Now,  seeing  then  the  earth  is  seven  times  bigger  than  the  moon,  and 
the  sun  eight  times  greater  than  the  earth ;  it  followeth  that  the 
pope's  dignity  fifty-six  times  doth  surmount  the  estate  of  the  empe- 
rors. "Upon  consideration  whereof,  I  say  therefore  and  pronounce, 
that  Constantine  the  emperor  did  wrong,  in  setting  the  patriarch  of 
Constantinople  at  his  feet  on  his  left  hand.  17And  although  the  said 
emperor  wrote  to  me,  alleging  the  words  of  St.  Peter,  commanding 
us  to  submit  ourselves  to  every  human  creature,  as  to  kings,  dukes, 
and  others  for  the  cause  of  God,  &c.  [1  Pet.  ii.],  yet,  in  answering 
again  in  my  decretal,  I  expounded  the  mind  and  the  words  of  St. 
Peter  to  pertain  to  his  subjects,  and  not  his  successors ;  willing  the 
said  emperor  to  consider  the  person  of  the  speaker,  and  to  whom  it 
was  spoken.  For  if  the  mind  of  Peter  had  been  there  to  debase  the 
order  of  priesthood,  and  to  make  us  underlings  to  every  human  crea- 
ture, then  every  Jack  might  have  dominion  over  prelates ;  which 
maketh  against  the  example  of  Christ,  setting  up  the  order  of  priest- 
hood to  bear  dominion  over  kings,  according  to  the  saying  of  Jeremy, 
Behold,  I  have  set  thee  up  over  kings  and  nations,11  &c. 

<  ,-ilixtus  rtist.  12.  c.  '  Non  decet.'  (8)  Pope  Innocentius  II.  c.  'Quis.' 
(8)  Pope  Btephan.  <:ist.  19.  c.  '  Enimvero.' 

(10)  Pope  Bonliac.  VIII.  Extravag.c.  'Unam  sanctam.'  Item,  pope  Johannes  XXII.  Extravag. 
r;M>   '  Bupei                              (ID  Pope  Innocent.  III.  art.  tie  Major,  et  obe.  c.  '  Solitffi.' 

(12)  Pope  Qelasus  diet.  96.  c. ' Duo.'  13)  Ibidem. 

(M)  bwocentlue  da  Major. et  obe.  c.  'Solita.'  (15)  Glossa.  Ibidem.           (16)  Ibidem. 
1 1/ 1  Imioi  entJui.  Ibid. 


ABOVE    ALL    THAT    IS    CALLED    GOD.  147 

18  And  as  I  feared  not  then  to  write  this  boldly  unto  Constantine,  so  AeM» 
now  I  say  to  all  other  emperors,  that  they,  receiving  of  me  their  niuJry. 

approbation,  unction,  consecration,  and  crown  imperial;  must  not  dig-  — 

dain  to  submit  their  heads  under  me,  and  swear  unto  me  their  alle- 
giance. I9For  so  you  read  in  the  decree  of  pope  John,  how  that 
princes  heretofore  have  been  wont  to  bow  and  submit  their  heads 
unto  bishops,  and  not  to  proceed  in  judgment  against  the  heads  of 
bishops.  20  If  this  reverence  and  submission  were  wont  to  be  given 
to  bishops,  how  much  more  ought  they  to  submit  their  heads  to  me 
being  superior,  not  only  to  kings,  but  emperors  ?  and  that  for  two 
causes :  first,  for  my  title  of  succession,  that  I,  pope  of  Rome,  have 
to  the  empire,  the  room  standing  vacant ;  also  for  the  fulness  ot 
power  that  Christ,  the  King  of  kings  and  Lord  of  lords,  hath  given 
to  me,  though  unworthy,  in  the  person  of  Peter ;  21  by  reason  whereof, 
seeing  my  power  is  not  of  man,  but  of  God,  who  by  his  celestial 
providence  hath  set  me  over  his  whole  universal  church,  master  and 
governor,  it  belongeth  therefore  to  my  office,  to  look  upon  every 
mortal  sin  of  every  christian  man  ;  22  whereby  all  criminal  offences,  as 
well  of  kings  as  all  others,  be  subject  to  my  censure,  23in  such  sort, 
that  in  all  manner  of  pleading,  if  any  manner  of  person  at  any  time, 
either  before  the  sentence  given,  or  after,  shall  appeal  to  me,  it  shall 
be  lawful  for  him  so  to  do  :  "neither  must  kings  and  princes  think 
it  much  to  submit  themselves  to  my  judgment ;  for  so  did  Valen- 
tinian  the  worthy  emperor,  so  did  Theodosius,  and  also  Charlemagne. 

25 Thus  you  see  all  must  be  judged  by  me,  and  I  of  no  man.  Yea, 
and  though  I,  pope  of  Rome,  by  my  negligence  or  evil  demeanour,  be 
found  unprofitable  or  hurtful,  either  to  myself  or  others  ;  yea,  if  I 
should  draw  with  me  innumerable  souls  by  heaps  to  hell,  yet  may 
no  mortal  man  be  so  hardy,  so  bold,  or  so  presumptuous,  to  reprove 
me,  26orto  say  to  me,  "Domine  cur  ita  facis  •"  that  is,  "  Sir,  why  do 
you  so  P11  "For  although  you  read  that  Balaam  was  rebuked  by  his 
ass,  by  which  ass  our  subjects,  by  Balaam  we  prelates,  are  signified  ; 
yet  that  ought  to  be  no  example  to  our  subjects  to  rebuke  us.  28And 
though  we  read  in  the  scripture,  that  Peter,  who  received  power  of 
the  kingdom,  and  being  chief  of  the  apostles,  might,  by  virtue  of  his 
office,  control  all  others,  was  content  to  come  and  give  answer  before 
his  inferiors,  objecting  to  him  his  going  to  the  Gentiles  ;  yet  other 
inferiors  must  not  learn  by  this  example  to  be  checkmate  with  their 
prelates,  because  Peter  so  took  it  at  their  hands;  showing  thereby  rather 
a  dispensation  of  humility,  than  the  power  of  his  office  :  by  which 
power  he  might  have  said  to  them  again  in  this  wise,  "  It  becometh 
not  sheep,  nor  belongeth  to  their  office,  to  accuse  their  shepherd. 
29  For  else,  why  was  Dioscorus  patriarch  of  Alexandria  condemned  and 
excommunicated  at  Chalcedon  ?  Not  for  any  cause  of  his  faith,  but 
only  for  that  he  durst  stand  against  Pope  Leo,  and  durst  excommuni- 
cate the  bishop  of  Rome  :  for  who  is  he  that  hath  authority  to  accuse 
the  seat  of  St.  Peter  ?     30Albcit  I  am  not  ignorant  what  St.  Jerome 

(18)  Pope  Clement  V.  Clement  de  jurc-jurando.  c.  '  Romani.' 

(19)  Pope  Johannes  dist.  96.  c.  '  Nunquam.' 

(20)  Pope  Clement  V.  Clement  de  Sentent.  ot  de  rejudi  pasloralis. 

(21)  Pope  Innocent  III.  De  judiciis  c.  '  Novit.'  (22)  Ibidem 

i23)  Pope  Marcellus,  caus.  2.  q.6.  c.  '  Ad  Romanam.'  (24)  Innocent.  '  Novit  ille.' 

(25)  Bonifacius  Martvr.  dist.  40.  c.  'Si  Papa.'        (26)  Glossa  I'.xtr.  de  lede  vacant.  Ad  apostolatus 

(27)  Pope  Leo,  caus.  2.  q.  7.  c.  '  Nos.  (28)  Greg.  II.  q.  7.  c.  '  Petnu.' 

(28)  Pope  Nicolaus,  dist.  21.  c.  'In  cantum.'      (30)  Jer.  cans   ?.  q.  7.  c.  '  Paulus.' 



Acta**  writeth,  that  Paul  would  not  have  reprehended  Peter,  unless  he  had 
li'LZn    thought  himself  equal  unto  him ;    31yet  Jerome  must  thus  be  ex- 

pounded  by  my  interpretation,  that  this  equality  betwixt  Peter  and 

Paid  eonsisteth  not  in  like  office  of  dignity,  but  in  pureness  of  con- 
vocation: 32for  who  gave  Paul  his  license  to  preach  but  Peter? 
and  that  by  the  authority  of  God,  saying,  "  Separate  to  me  Paul  and 
Barnabas,"  &c. 

33  Wherefore,  be  it  known  to  all  men,  that  my  church  of  Rome  is 
prince  and  head  of  all  nations;  34the  mother  of  the  faith;  "the 
foundation  cardinal,  whereupon  all  churches  do  depend,  as  the  door 
doth  depend  by  the  hinges;  36the  first  of  all  other  seats,  without  all 
spot  or  blemish;  37'lady  mistress,'  and  instructer  of  all  churches;  38a 
glass  and  a  spectacle  unto  all  men,  to  be  followed  in  all,  whatsoever 
she  observeth  ;  39who  was  never  yet  found  to  slide  or  decline  from 
the  path  of  apostolic  tradition,  or  to  be  entangled  with  any  newness 
of  heresy;  40 against  which  church  of  Rome  whosoever  speaketh  any 
evil,  is  forthwith  a  heretic,  "yea,  a  very  pagan,  a  witch,  and  an  ido- 
later or  infidel ;  42 having  fulness  of  power  only  in  her  own  hands  in 
ruling;  " deciding,  absolving,  condemning,  casting  out,  or  receiving 
in.  44  Albeit  I  deny  not  but  other  churches  be  partakers  with  her  in 
labouring  and  carrying :  45to  which  church  of  Rome  it  is  lawful  to 
appeal  for  remedy,  from  the  churches. 

Although  it  was  otherwise  concluded  in  the  general  council  of 
Millevitane,  that  no  man  should  appeal  over  the  sea  under  pain  of 
excommunication,  yet  my  gloss  cometh  in  here  with  an  exception : 
"  Nisi  forte  Romanam  sedem  appellaverint,r'  i.  e.  "  Except  the  appeal 
be  to  the  see  of  Rome ;"  &c.  46by  the  authority  of  which  church  of 
Rome  all  synods  and  decrees  of  councils  stand  confirmed,  47and  who 
hath  always  full  authority  in  hei  hands  to  make  new  laws  and  decre- 
ments ;  and  to  alter  statutes,  privileges,  rights  or  documents  of 
churches  ;  to  separate  things  joined,  and  to  join  things  separated, 
upon  right  consideration,  either  in  whole  or  in  part,  either  personally 
or  generally.  48  Of  which  church  of  Rome  I  am  head,  as  a  king  is 
over  his  judges ;  49the  vicar  of  St.  Peter,  50yea,  not  the  vicar  of 
Peter  properly,  but  the  vicar  of  Christ  properly,  and  successor  of 
Peter;  "vicar  of  Jesus  Christ,  "rector  of  the  universal  church, 
director  of  the  Lord's  universal  flock,  53  chief  magistrate  of  the  whole 
world;  "Cephas,  i.e.  caput,  the  head  and  chief  of  the  apostolic 
church ;  "universal  pope,  and  diocesan  in  all  places  exempt,  as  well 
as  every  bishop  is  in  places  not  exempt;  "most  mighty  priest; 
57 "  lex  animata  in  ten-is,"  i.e. 5S"  a  living  law  in  the  earth,"  judged  to 

(31)  Glossa  Gratiani.  lb.  (32)  Glossa  in  Diss.  11.  c.  'Quis.' 

(33)  Caus.  2.  q.  7.  c.  '  Beati.'  (34)  Pope  Nicolaus,  (list.  22.  e.  '  Omnes.' 

(35)  P.  Anaclct,  dist.  22.  c.  Sacrosancta.  (36)  P.  Pelagius.  (list.  21.  c.  '  Quamvis.' 

(37)  P.  Nicolaus.  dist.  21.  c. '  Oenique.'  (38)  P.  Steph.  (list.  29.  c.  '  Enimvero.' 

?  I 'ope  Lucius,  (list.  24.  q.  1.  '  Arect.'  (40)  P.  Nicolaus.  (list.  22.  c. '  Omnes.' 

Ill]  I'.  Grcgor.  .list.  81.  c.  '  Si  qui.'  (42)  P.  Leo,  caus.  3.  q.  6.  c.  '  Multum.' 

I   20.  Decretales,  (44)  Pope  Julius,  caus.  2.  q.  C.  '  Oui  se.' 

( I  i)  Causa.  2.  q.G.  Arguta.  Item.  c.  '  Ad  Romanam.'  caus.  2.  q.  6.  c.  '  Placuit.'  Glossa.  Gratiani. 
(40)  Pope  Gelasi.  25.  q.  1.  c.  '  Coniidimus.' 
J)  P.  Urbanus,  25.  q.  1.  c. '  Sunt.'  P.  Pelagius,  25.  q.  2.  c.  '  posteaquam.' 
H)  Bulla  Donations,  dist.  96.  c.  '  Constant.'  (49)  P.  Paschalis,  dist.  63.  c.  ■  Ego.' 

1  lenient.  V.  Clement, c.  •  Romani Glossa.'        (51)  P.  Bonif.  VIII.  Sext.  Decret.  c.  '  Obi.' 
,82)  lbi.ltfn.  (53)  p.  Bonif  prohem.  Sext.  Decrct.  ab  '  Sacrosancta.' 

'""  .  (list.  22.  c.'  Sacrosancta.' 

lv  ■  Sext  Oecret,  de  panic  et  rcmis.  c.  5.  Glossa.  Item  Alexand.  4.    Sext.  decret. 

'•    ;."'  £"■*  (5fl)  P.  Hilarius,  25.  q.  1.  •  Nulii.' 

(57)  Sext  Decret  cap.  ■  Ab  ArCitris."  Glossa. 

(58)  I  .  lionif.  Sext.  decrct.  de  const,  c.  '  Licet.' 




have  all  laws  in  the  chest  of  my  breast ;  69bcaring  the  room  of  no  BecieHa*- 
pure  man ;  60  being  neither  God  nor  man,  but  the  admiration  of  the  mXry. 
world,  and  a  middle  thing  betwixt  both;  G1  having  both  swords  in  "~ 
my  power,  both  of  the  spiritual  and  temporal  jurisdiction ;  (V2so  far 
surmounting  the  authority  of  the  emperor,  that  I,  of  mine  own  power 
alone,  without  a  council,  have  authority  to  depose  him,  or  to  transfer 
his  kingdom,  and  to  give  a  new  election,  as  I  did  to  Frederic  and 
divers  others.  G3What  power  then  or  potestatc  in  all  the  world  is 
comparable  to  me,  who  have  authority  to  bind  and  loose  both  in 
heaven  and  earth  ?  64that  is,  who  have  power  both  of  heavenly  things, 
and  also  of  temporal  things  ;  65to  whom  emperors  and  kings  be  more 
inferior,  than  lead  is  inferior  to  gold.  66For  do  you  not  see  the 
necks  of  great  kings  and  princes  bend  under  our  knees,  yea  and 
think  themselves  happy  and  well  defenced,  if  they  may  kiss  our 
hands  ?  67  Wherefore  the  saucincss  of  Honorius  the  emperor  is  to 
be  reprehended,  and  his  constitution  abolished,  who,  with  his  laity, 
would  take  upon  him  to  intermeddle,  not  only  with  the  temporal 
order,  but  also  with  matters  ecclesiastical,  and  election  of  the  pope. 

68  But  here  percase  some  will  object  the  examples  and  words  of 
Christ,  saying,  "That  his  kingdom  is  not  of  this  world;"  and  where 
he,  being  required  to  divide  betwixt  two  brethren  their  heritage,  did 
refuse  it.  But  that  ought  to  be  no  prejudice  to  my  power;  cyfor 
if  Peter,  and  I  in  Peter — if  we,  I  say,  have  power  to  bind  and  loose 
in  heaven,  how  much  more  then  is  it  to  be  thought,  that  we  have 
power  on  earth  to  loose  and  to  take  away  empires,  kingdoms,  duke- 
doms, and  what  else  soever  mortal  men  may  have,  and  to  give  them 
where  we  will  ?  70And  if  we  have  authority  over  angels,  who  be  the 
governors  of  princes,  what  then  may  we  not  do  upon  their  inferiors 
and  servants  ?  71  And,  for  that  you  shall  not  marvel  that  I  say  angels 
be  subject  to  us,  you  shall  hear  what  my  blessed  clerk  Antoninus 
writeth  of  the  matter,  saying,  That  our  power,  of  Peter  and  me,  is 
greater  than  the  angels  in  four  things  :  first,  in  jurisdiction ;  secondly, 
in  administration  of  sacraments ;  thirdly,  in  knowledge  ;  fourthly, 
in  reward,  &c.  72And  again,  in  '  Bulla  Clementis,1  do  I  not  there 
command,  in  my  bull,  the  angels  of  paradise,  to  absolve  the  soul  of 
man  out  of  purgatory,  and  to  bring  it  into  the  glory  of  paradise  ? 

73 And  now,  besides  my  heavenly  power,  to  speak  of  mine  earthly 
jurisdiction :  Who  did  first  translate  the  empire  from  the  Greeks  to 
the  Almains,  but  I  ?  74And  not  only  in  the  empire  am  I  emperor, 
the  place  being  empty,  but  in  all  ecclesiastical  benefices  have  lull 
right  and  power  to  give,  to  translate,  and  to  dispose  after  my  arbitre- 
ment.  73Did  not  I,  Zacharias,  put  down  Childeric  the  old  king  of 
France,  and  set  up  Pepin?     76Did  not  I,    Gregory  VII.,  set  up 

(69)  Pope  Innocentius  III.  de  trans,  c.  '  Quanto.' 

(60)  Prohem.  Clement.  Gloss.  Papa  Stupor  mundi,  &c.  '  Nee  Deus  es,  nee  homo,  quasi  neuter  cs 
inter  utrumciue.'  , 

(61)  P.  Bonif.  Extravag.  de  Majorit,  ct  obed.  c.  '  Unam.'     Item,  dist.  22.  c.  '  Omnes. 

(62)  Sext.  Deer,  de  sentent.  et  re.  ra.  'Ad  apostoli.'  Item  in  (iloss.  Ibid. 

(63)  Pope  Nicolaus,  dist.  22.  c.  '  Omnes.'  (64)  (iloss.  Ibid. 

(65)  Pope  GelaMiis,  dist.  9G.  c.  '  Duo.'  (66)  Pope  Gela«iua  Ibidem. 

(67)  Dist.  96.  c.  '  lllud. '  (68)  Ex  citatione  Micro.  Mam. 

(69)  Pope  Hildebraudus.  alias  Gregorius  VII.   Ex  Platina,  in  vita  Gregorii. 

(70)  llildvbrandus.    Ibidem.  (71)  Antoninus,  in  tertia  parte  Suinm.x-  majonv 
(72)  Bulla  Clementis.                               (78)  Pope  Innocent  deelectione,  c.  '  Benerabilem.' 

(74)  Extrav.  de  praebend.  ct  dig.  c.  '  Execrabilis.' 

(75)  Pope  Zacharias,  Caus    15.  q.6.  c.  '  Alius.' 

(76)  Pope  Hildebiand.  alia;.  Gregor.  VII.  Clement,  C.  '  l\i>ioralis. 


Ecctcsms-  Robert  Wysard,  and  make  him  king  of  Sicily  and  duke  of  Capua  ? 
HiZry.  &c.    "Did  not  I,  the  same  Gregory,  also  set  up  Rodulphus  against 

Henry  IV.,  emperor  ?    78 And  though  this  Henry  was  an  emperor  of 

most  stout  courage,  who  stood  sixty-two  times  in  open  field  against 
his  enemies,  79yet  did  not  I,  Gregory,  bring  him  '  coram  nobis,''  and 
make  him  stand  at  my  gate  three  days  and  three  nights,  bare-foot  and 
bare-leg,  with  his  wife  and  child,  in  the  deep  of  winter,  both  in  frost 
and  snow,  entreating  for  his  absolution  ;  and  afterwards  did  excom- 
municate him  again,  so  that  he  was  twice  excommunicated  in  my 
days  ? 

80  Again,  did  not  I,  Paschal,  afterwards  Gregory,  set  up  the  son  of 
the  said  Henry  against  his  father  in  war,  to  possess  the  empire,  and 
to  put  down  his  father  ?  and  so  he  did  !  81  Item,  Did  not  I,  pope 
Alexander,  bring  under  Henry  II.,  king  of  England,  for  the  death 
of  Thomas  Becket,  and  cause  him  to  go  barefoot  to  his  tomb  at 
Canterbury  with  bleeding  feet  ?  82 Did  not  I,  Innocent  III.,  cause 
king  John  to  kneel  down  at  the  feet  of  Pandulph  my  legate,  and 
offer  up  his  crown  to  his  hands  ;  also  to  kiss  the  feet  of  Stephen 
Langton  bishop  of  Canterbury,  and  besides  amerced  him  in  a  thou- 
sand marks  by  year  ?  83Did  not  I,  Urban  II.,  put  down  earl  Hugo 
in  Italy,  discharging  his  subjects  from  their  oath  and  obedience  to 
him  ?  84Did  not  I,  Paschal,  excommunicate  also  his  son  Henry  V., 
and  get  out  of  his  hands  all  his  right  and  title  of  elections  and  dona- 
tions of  spiritual  promotions  ?  Did  not  I,  Gelasius  II.,  bring  the 
captain  Cintius  under,  unto  the  kissing  of  my  feet  ?  and  after 
Gelasius,  did  not  I,  Calixtus  II.,  quail  the  aforesaid  emperor 
Henry  V.,  and  also  bring  in  subjection  Gregory,  whom  the  said 
emperor  had  set  up  against  me  to  be  pope,  bringing  him  into  Rome 
upon  a  camel,  his  face  to  the  horse's  tail,  making  him  to  hold  the 
horse's  tail  in  his  hand,  instead  of  a  bridle?  83 Further,  did  not  I, 
Innocent  II.,  set  up  and  make  Lothaire  to  be  emperor  for  driving 
pope  Anacletus  out  of  Rome  ?  86Did  not  I,  the  said  Innocent,  take 
the  dukedom  of  Sicily  from  the  empire,  and  make  Roger  to  be  king 
thereof,  whereby  afterwards  the  kingdom  became  the  patrimony  of 
St. Peter?  87Did  not  I,  Alexander  III.,  suspend  all  the  realm  and 
churches  of  England  for  the  king's  marriage,  a.  d.  1159  ? 

88  But  what  do  I  speak  of  kings  ?  Did  not  I,  the  said  Alexander, 
bring  the  valiant  emperor  Frederic  I.  to  Venice,  by  reason  of  his 
son  Otho  there  taken  prisoner,  and  there,  in  St.  Mark's  church,  make 
him  fall  down  flat  upon  the  ground,  while  I  set  my  foot  upon  his 
neck,  saying  the  verse  of  the  Psalm,  "  Super  aspidem  et  basiliscum 
ambulabifi ?"  &c.  89Did  not  I,  Adrian  pope,  an  Englishman  born, 
excommunicate  William  king  of  Sicily,  and  refuse  his  peace  which 
he  offered  ?  and  had  not  he  overcome  me  in  plain  field,  I  would  have 
shaken  him  out  of  his  kingdom  of  Sicily,  and  dukedom  of  Apulia ! 
Also  did  not  I,  the  said  Adrian,  control  and  correct  the  aforesaid 

BUldebrandl.  (78)  Baptista  Egnatius. 

«      ,,!""''•  "'"""  N:ll'derus.  (80)  l'latina,  Egnatius,  Benno. 

[81     1  Virgil,  llistoria  Jornalensis  de  rebus  Anglorum, 

"  '  vcrnacula.  (83)  Pope  Urbanus,  Caus.  15.  q.  fi.  c.  '  Juratos.' 

,,'M'  '"I"'  '■•'■■•  I'.ilis  I'msulanus.  Platina.  Vincentius,  Stella,  Antoninus,  Mattheus  Parisiensis, 
T' . 'v     ",ls        ;  Popa  CaM3ttu*  "•  Plat,  de  vitis  pnntificum.  ',85)  Pope  Innocentius  II. 

(87)  Pope  Alexander  III.  de  spousal,  et  matr.  c.  '  Non  est.' 
-i   Vm,h,  ,,;.  .„!,,  Horn,  pontifieum.  (80)  Pope  Adrian,  vit.  Horn,  pontincum. 


Frederic,  emperor,  for  holding  the  left  stirrup  of  my  horse,  when  lie  Eccinsias- 
should  have  holden  the  right  ?  9I  And  afterwards,  did  not  I  excom-  mulry. 
municate  and  curse  him,  for  that  he  was  so  saucy  to  set  his  own 
name  in  writing  before  mine?  92and,  although  a  poor  fly  afterwards 
overcame  and  strangled  me,  yet  I  made  kings  and  emperors  to 
stoop  !  93Did  not  I,  Innocent  III.,  deject  Philip,  brother  to  Fre- 
deric, from  the  imperial  crown,  being  elected  without  my  leave,  and 
after  set  him  up  again  ?  and  also  set  up  Otho  of  Brunswick,  and 
after  did  excommunicate  and  also  depose  the  same  four  years, 
setting  up  the  French  king  to  war  against  him  ?  94Then  was 
Frederic  II.  set  up  by  me,  and  reigned  thirty-seven  years  ;  and  yet, 
five  years  before  he  died,  95did  not  I,  Honorius,  interdict  him,  for 
not  restoring  certain  to  their  possessions  at  my  request  ?  96whom 
also  Gregory  IX.  did  excommunicate  twice  together,  and  raised  up 
the  Venetians  against  him ;  97and  at  length  Innocent  spoiled  him  of 
his  empire :  after  that  he  caused  him  to  be  poisoned,  at  length  to  be 
strangled  by  one  Manfred,  and  did  excommunicate  his  son  Conrad 
after  him,  not  only  depriving  him  of  his  right  inheritance,  but  also 
causing  him,  with  Frederic  duke  of  Austria,  to  be  beheaded  !  98Thus 
then  did  I  not  excommunicate  and  depose  all  these  emperors  in  order  ? 
Henry  IV.,  Henry  V.,  Frederic  I.,  Philip,  Otho  IV.,  Frederic  II., 
and  Conrad  his  son  ?  "Did  not  I  interdict  king  Henry  VIII., 
100 and  all  his  kingdom  of  England?  l01and  had  not  his  prudence  and 
power  prevented  my  practice,  I  had  displaced  him  from  his  kingdom 
also  ! 

Briefly,  who  is  able  to  comprehend  the  greatness  of  my  power  and 
of  my  seat  ?  mfor  by  me  only,  general  councils  take  their  force  and 
confirmation  ;  l03and  the  interpretation  of  the  said  councils,  and  of  all 
other  causes  hard  and  doubtful,  ought  to  be  referred  and  stand  to 
my  determination.  104By  me  the  works  of  all  writers,  whatsoever 
they  be,  be  either  reproved  or  allowed:  105then  how  much  more 
ought  my  writings  and  decrees  to  be  preferred  before  all  others, 
106  insomuch  that  my  letters  and  epistles  decretal  be  equivalent  with 
general  councils.  lo7And  whereas  God  hath  ordained  all  causes  of 
men  to  be  judged  by  men,  he  hath  only  reserved  me,  that  is,  the 
pope  of  Rome,  without  all  question  of  men,  unto  his  own  judg- 
ment. 108And  therefore,  where  all  other  creatures  be  under  their 
judge,  only  I,  who  in  earth  am  the  judge  of  all,  can  bejudgedbynone, 
neither  of  emperor,  nor  of  the  whole  clergy,  nor  of  kings,  nor  of 
the  people :  109for  who  hath  power  to  judge  upon  his  judge  ?  I10This 
judge  am  I,  and  that  alone,  without  any  other  resistance  of  any 
council  joined  to  me.  For  I  have  power  upon  councils :  councils 
have  no  power  upon  me.  But  if  the  council  determine  amiss,  it  is 
in  my  authority  alone  to  infringe  it,  or  to  condemn  whom  I  lust, 
without  any  council ;  U1and  all  for  the  pre-eminence  of  my  predc- 

(91)  Bulla  Adriani  contra  Ca:sarem.  (92)  Acta  Ro.  pont. 

(93)  Pope  Innocentius  III.  Ex  vitiset  Actis  Rom.  pontificum.  Kx  Ab.  Ursperg. 

(9-t)  Ex  eodem.  (9.5)  Pope  Honor.  III.  Ex  Mario.  (»G)  Pope  Greg.  IX.  Ex  eodem. 

(97)  Pope  Innocent  IV.  Hieronymus  Marius.  Petrus  de  Vincis.  38)  Ex  Chronic.  Carionis. 

(99)  Hist.  Anglorum.  (100)  Ibidem.  (101)  Ibidem. 

(102)  Pope  Marcellus,  dist.  17.  c. '  Synodum.'  (103)  Dist.  20.  Decrctales. 

(104)  Pope  Nlcolaus,  (list.  19.  'Si  Romanorum."  (105)  Ibidem. 

(100)  Dist.  20.  Decietales.  (107)  Symmachus  Pope,  it.  q  8.  '  Aliorum.' 
(108)  Pope  Innocentius  VI.  q.  3.  c.  '  Nemo.'  (109)  Ibidem. 

(110)  Pope  Gelasius  IX.  q.  3.  c.  '  Cuncta.  (HI)  Ibid. 


Ecdesiai-  ccssor  blessed  St.  Peter,  which,  by  the  voice  of  the  Lord  he  received, 

nutlry.  and  ever  shall  retain. 

mFurthermore, and  whereas  all  other  sentences  and  judgments,  both 

of  councils,  person,  or  persons,  may  and  ought  to  be  examined,  113for 
that  they  may  be  corrupted  four  ways,  by  fear,  by  gifts,  by  hatred, 
by  favour;  only  my  sentence  and  judgment  must  stand,  n,*as  given 
out  of  heaven  by  the  mouth  of  Peter  himself,  which  no  man  must 
115 break,  nor  retract;  116no  man  must  dispute  or  doubt  of.  mYea,  if 
my  judgment,  statute,  or  yoke,  seem  scarcely  tolerable,  yet  for  re- 
membrance of  St.  Peter,  it  must  be  humbly  obeyed.  mYea,  and 
moreover,  obedience  is  to  be  given,  not  only  to  such  decrees  set  forth 
by  me  in  time  of  my  popedom,  but  also  to  such  as  I  do  foresee  and 
commit  to  writing  before  I  be  pope.  119And  although  it  be  thought 
by  some  writers,  to  be  given  to  all  men  to  err,  and  to  be  deceived, 
120 yet  neither  am  I  a  pure  man.  121And  again,  the  sentence  of  my 
apostolic  seat  is  always  conceived  with  such  moderation,  is  concocted 
and  digested  with  such  patience  and  ripeness,  and  delivered  out  with 
such  gravity  of  deliberation,  that  nothing  is  thought  in  it  necessary 
to  be  altered  or  retracted.  122  Wherefore  it  is  manifest,  and  testified 
by  the  voice  of  holy  bishops,  that  the  dignity  of  this  my  seat  is  to  be 
reverenced  through  the  whole  world,  in  that  all  the  faithful  submit 
themselves  to  it,  as  to  the  head  of  the  whole  body,  ,23  whereof  it  is 
spoken  to  me  by  the  prophet,  speaking  of  the  ark :  "  If  this  be 
humbled,  whither  shall  vou  run  for  succour,  and  where  shall  your 
glory  become  ?" 

Seeing  then  this  is  so,  that  holy  bishops  and  scriptures  do  so  wit- 
ness with  me,  what  shall  we  say  then  to  such  as  will  take  upon  them  to 
judge  of  my  doings,  to  reprehend  my  proceedings,  or  to  require  homage 
and  tribute  of  me,  to  whom  all  others  are  subject  ?  124  Against 
the  first  sort,  the  Scripture  speaketh  in  Deuteronomy,  "  Thou 
oughtest  not  to  put  thy  scythe  into  another  man's  corn  C  which  thing 
to  attempt  against  me,  what  is  it  but  plain  sacrilege  125  according  to 
my  canonists  ?  who  thus  define  sacrilege  to  consist  in  three  things : 
either  when  a  man  judgeth  of  his  prince's  judgment ;  or  when  the 
holy-day  is  profaned ;  or  when  reverence  is  not  given  to  laws  and 

126 Against  the  second  sort  maketh  the  place  of  the  book  of  Kings, 
where  we  read  the  ark  of  God  was  brought  from  Gaba  to  Jerusalem ; 
and,  in  the  way,  the  ark  inclining  by  reason  of  the  unruly  oxen,  Ozias 
the  Levite  put  to  his  hand  to  help,  and  therefore  was  stricken  of  the 
Lord.  By  this  ark  is  signified  the  prelates;  by  the  inclination 
thereof,  the  fall  of  prelates;  127who  also  be  signified  by  the  angels 
that  Jacob  did  see  going  up  and  coming  down  the  ladder ;  128also  by 
tlie  prophet,  where  he  saith,  "  He  bowed  down  the  heavens  and  came 
down,1-1  &c.  By  Ozias,  and  by  the  unruly  oxen  are  meant  our  sub- 
lccts.     l29Then,  like  as  Ozias  was  stricken  for  putting  his  hand  to 

(112)  Anastasius  Patriarch.  D.  q.  3.  c.  '  Antiquis.'  (113)  Pope  Greg.  a.  q.  3.  c.  '  Quatuor.' 

"*)  Pope  Agatho  Dist.  19.  c. '  Sic  omncs.'  (115)  Pope  Nicholas,  0.  q.  3.  '  Patet.' 

(118)  Pope  Innocenl  II.  Art.  17.  q.  I.  'Siquis.'  (117)  Dist.  19.  c. '  In  memoriam.' 

(118)  Bext.  Decret.  Tit,  7.  Detenunciat.    Quoniatn  Glossa,  (119)  Oilic.  lib.  1. 

ISO  oiotia  Extra.  lie  veil),  sifiuif.  c.  'A<1.'  (121)  Pope  Greg.   Cans.  35.  q.  9.   '  Apostolica-.' 

It    S\  !„,„•  Sym,u;,<l,us.  Cans.  9.  q.  3.    '  Aliorum.*  (123)  Ibid. 

(184)  FopeGreg    VI.  ,,   8,  •  Seriptum  est.'  (125)  Caus.  17.  q.4.   Kamleg.  Glossa. 

fl  -'•  <l   7.  C.  Plierumqua  GlnsM-ina  Gratiani.  Item.  (127)  Ibid  (123)  Ibid. 

(IJH)  Ibid. 


the  ark  inclining,  no  more  must  subjects  rebuke  their  prelates  going  F.ccusiai- 
awry  :  l30albeit,  here  may  be  answered  again,  that  all  be  not  prelates  msttry. 
who  so  be  called ;  for  it  is  not  the  name  that  maketh  a  bishop,  but 
his  life. 

131  Against  the  third  sort,  of  such  as  would  bring  us  under  the  tri- 
bute and  exactions  of  secular  men,  maketh  the  New  Testament,  where 
Peter  was  bid  to  give  the  groat  in  the  fish's  mouth,  but  not  the  head 
nor  the  body  of  the  fish.  No  more  is  the  head  or  body  of  the 
church  subdued  to  kings,  but  only  that  which  is  in  the  mouth ;  that 
is,  the  extern  things  of  the  church.  And  yet  not  they  neither; 
,32for  so  we  read  in  the  book  of  Genesis,  that  Pharaoh,  in  time  of 
dearth,  subdued  all  the  land  of  the  Egyptians ;  but  yet  he  ministered 
to  the  priests,  so  that  he  neither  took  their  possessions  from  them, 
nor  their  liberty. 

If  then  the  prelates  of  the  church  must  be  neither  judged,  nor  re- 
prehended, nor  exacted,  how  much  more  ought  I  to  be  free  from  the 
same,  133who  am  the  bishop  of  bishops,  and  head  of  prelates  ?  134For 
it  is  not  to  be  thought  that  the  case  betwixt  me  and  other  prelates  ; 
betwixt  my  see  and  other  churches,  be  like ;  135 although  the  whole 
catholic  and  apostolic  church  make  one  bride-chamber  of  Christ,  yet 
the  catholic  and  apostolic  church  of  Rome  had  the  pre-eminence  given 
over  all  others  by  the  mouth  of  the  Lord  himself,  saying  to  Peter, 
"  Thou  art  Peter,"  &c. 

136  Thus  a  discretion  and  difference  must  be  had  in  the  church  as  it 
was  betwixt  Aaron  and  his  children  ;  137  betwixt  the  seventy-two  dis- 
ciples, and  the  twelve  apostles ;  betwixt  the  other  apostles  and 
Peter.  ,38  Wherefore  it  is  to  be  concluded,  that  there  must  be  an 
order  and  difference  of  degrees  in  the  church  betwixt  power  superior 
and  inferior ;  without  which  order  the  university  of  the  whole  cannot 
consist.  139For  as  amongst  the  angelical  creatures  above  in  heaven 
there  is  set  a  difference  and  inequality  of  powers  and  orders,  some  be 
angels,  some  archangels,  some  cherubim  and  seraphim:  140so  in  the 
ecclesiastical  hierarchy  of  the  church  militant  on  the  earth,  priests  must 
not  be  equal  with  bishops,  bishops  must  not  be  like  in  order  with  arch- 
bishops, or  with  patriarchs  or  primates,  141who  contain  under  them  three 
archbishops,  as  a  king  contain eth  three  dukes  under  him  ;  in  which 
number  of  patriarchs  cometh  also  in,  the  state  of  142 cardinals  or  princi- 
pals, so  called,  because  as  the  door  turneth  by  his  hinges,  so  the  univer- 
sal church  ought  to  be  ruled  by  them.  143The  next  and  highest  order 
above  these  is  mine,  who  am  pope,  differing  in  power  and  majority, 
and  honour  reverential,  from  these  and  all  other  degrees  of  men  : 
144for  the  better  declaration  whereof,  my  canonists  make  three  kinds 
of  power  in  earth  ;  '  immediate,1  which  is  mine  immediately  from 
God ;  '  derivata,'  which  bclongeth  to  other  inferior  prelates  from  me  ; 
145 '  ministralis,1  belonging  to  emperors  and  princes  to  minister  for  me, 
For  which  cause  the  anointing  of  princes,  and  my  consecration,  do 
differ ;  for  they  are  anointed  only  in  the  arms  or  shoulders,  and  I  in 

(130)  Ibid.  Hisita.  (131)  Pope  Urbanus  23.  q.  'Tributum.' 

(132)  Ibidem.  '  Quamvis.'  (133)  Pope  lienedict.  Extr.  Oc  ant.  et  nsu.  pallii.  c.  'Sancta.' 

(134)  Pope  Stephanus.  dist.  19.  '  Enim  vero.'  (135)  Pope  PelaglM  (list.  21.  '  Quamvis.' 

(136)  Dist.  21.  Decretia.  (137)  Pope  Anaclet.  dist.  22.  '  In  novo.' 

(138)  Pope  Bonifacius  et  Grep.  Dist.  89.  '  Ad  hoc'       (189)  [bid.        (HO)  (list.  89.  c.  'Singula.' 
(141)  Ex  citatione  Flu:  oecre.  5.  ser.  3.  ( 1 1-')   De  officio  Arcliipvxsbyt.  in  Glossa. 

(M3)   143  •*•  (144)  Ex  3.  parte  Sunima?  majoris  b.  Antonini. 

(145)  Pope  Innocent  III.  De  sacra  unctione,  'Qui  veniiut.' 


Bcdesias-  the  head,  to  signify  the  difference  of  power  betwixt  princes  and 


Hutnry.  me. 

,4(iThis  order,  therefore,  of  priests,  bishops,  archbishops,  patriarchs, 

and  others,  as  a  thing  most  convenient,  my  church  of  Rome  hath  set 
and  instituted  through  all  churches,  following  therein,  not  only  the 
example  of  the  angelical  army  in  heaven,  but  also  of  the  apostles : 
117  for  amongst  them,  also,  there  was  not  a  uniform  equality  or  insti- 
tution of  one  degree,  148but  a  diversity  or  distinction  of  authority  and 
power.  Albeit  they  were  all  apostles  together,  yet  it  was  granted 
notwithstanding  to  Peter  (themselves  also  agreeing  to  the  same),  that 
he  should  bear  dominion  and  superiority  over  all  the  other  apostles ; 
149  and  therefore  he  had  his  name  given  him  Cephas,  that  is,  head  or 
beginning  of  the  apostlehood.  15'  Whereupon  the  order  of  the  priest- 
hood first  in  the  New  Testament  began  in  Peter,  to  whom  it  was  said, 
"  Thou  art  Peter,  and  upon  thee  I  will  build  my  church  ;  151and  I  will 
give  thee  the  keys  of  the  kingdom  of  heaven  ;  and  thou  being  converted 
confirm  thy  brethren.  152I  have  prayed  for  thee  that  thy  faith  shall  not 
fail."  Wherefore  seeing  such  power  is  given  to  Peter,  153and  to  me  in 
Peter,  being  his  successor,  134who  is  he  then  in  all  the  world  that  ought 
not  to  be  subject  to  my  decrees,  which  have  such  power  in  heaven, 
in  hell,  in  earth,  with  the  quick  and  also  the  dead  ?  155 commanding 
and  granting  in  my  bull  of  lead,  sent  to  Vienna,  unto  all  such  as  died 
in  their  peregrination  to  Rome,  that  the  pain  of  hell  should  not  touch 
them  :  and  also,  that  all  such  as  took  the  holy  cross  upon  them,  should 
every  one  at  his  request,  not  only  be  delivered  himself,  but  also  de- 
liver three  or  four  souls,  whomsoever  he  would,  out  of  purgatory. 

156Again,  having  such  promise  and  assurance  that  my  faith  shall  not 
fail,  who  then  will  not  believe  my  doctrine  ?  for  did  not  Christ  him- 
self first  pray  for  Peter,  that  his  faith  should  not  fail?     157Also  have 
I  not  a  sure  promise  of  Paul's  own  mouth,  writing  to  my  church 
scripture  in  these  words :  "God  is  my  witness,  whom  I  serve  in  my  spirit,  in  the 
lUieii'and  gospel  of  his  Son,  that  without  ceasing  I  make  mention  of  you  always 
cierk!      in  my  prayers  ?"  [Rom.  i.]     158  Wherefore,  as  I  condemn  all  such 
worthily,  who  will  not  obey  my  decrees,  to  be  dispossessed  of  all  their 
honour  without  restitution  ;  ,59so  all  they  that  believe  not  my  doc- 
trine, or  who  stand  against  the  privilege  of  the  church,  especially  the 
church  of  Rome,  I  pronounce  them  heretics ;  160and  as  the  other 
before  is  to  be  called  unjust,  so  this  man  is  to  be  called  a  heretic. 
161  For  why?  hegoeth  against  the  faith,  who  goeth  against  her  who  is 
the  mother  of  faith. 

102  But  here  may  arise,  percase,  a  doubt  or  scruple,  that  if  my  faith 
and  knowledge  stand  so  sure  by  the  promise  of  Christ,  and  by  the 
continual  prayer  of  St.  Paul ;  whether  is  it  true,  or  is  it  to  be  granted, 
that  any  other  should  excel  me  in  knowledge,  or  interpretation  of 
holy  Scripture  ?  163for  look,  whose  knowledge  is  grounded  on  most 

fl«)  P.  Nicholas,  Dist.  22.  c.  '  Onirics.'  (147)  P.  Clement,  Dist.  80.  c.  '  In  illis.' 

(I4H)  1'.  Anacletus  Dist.  22.  c.  '  Sacrosancta.' 

(M9|  Ibidem.  Uuasi  vero  Petrus  non  a  Petra,  Bed  Kt'^ar  aVo  t^  HtQuw  ducatur 

[1801  DUt.  21. c.  'In  novo.'  (151)  Ibid.  (152)  Dist.  21.  c.  Decrctls. 

(.-..)     ope  1-co  dist.  19.  c.  '  Ita  Dominus.'  (154)  P.  Nicholaus  in  tantum,  dist.  22. 

IIM1        (  lemeils,  in  Bulla  Vienna:  in  scriniis  privilegiorum.         (15(1)  Dist.  21.  c.  '  Decretis.' 

(157)  Pope  Anacletus,  dist.  22.  c.  •  Sacrosancta.' 

(158)  Pope  Damasus.  25.  <i.  c.  •Omnia.'     Item  Pope  Greg.  Dist.  19.  Null. 

(  ..»)  I     Nicola, 18  l>U.  22.  e.  'Omncs.'  (160)  Ibid.         (Hill  ibid 

(161)  Dim.  SO.  Deerttales.  (I(i3)  Ibid 


reason,  his  words  should  seem  to  be  of  more  authority.     l64  Where-  JtocietUu- 
unto  I  answer  and  grant,  that  many  there  be,  and  have  been  more  uuu>ry. 
abundantly  endued  with  fuller  grace  of  the  Holy  Ghost  and  greater  — 
excellency   of  knowledge ;    and  therefore    that    the    tractations    of 
Augustine,  Jerome,  and  others,  ought  to  be  preferred  before  the  con- 
stitutions of  divers  popes.     Yet,  I  say,  in  determination  of  causes, 
because  they  have  not  the  virtue  and  height  of  that  authority  which  is 
given  to  me,  therefore  in  expounding  of  Scriptures,  they  are  to  be 
preferred ;  but  in  deciding  of  matters  they  stand  inferior  to  my  autho- 
rity :  by  virtue  of  which  authority,  ,66both  they  themselves  be  allowed 
for  doctors,  and  their  works  approved,  and  also  all  other  matters  be 
ruled,  through  the  power  of  the  keys,  which  is  given  to  me  imme- 
diately of  Christ. 

Although  I  deny  not  but  the  same  keys,  be  also  committed  to 
other  prelates,  as  they  were  to  other  apostles  besides  Peter,  166yet  it 
is  one  thing  to  have  the  keys,  another  thing  to  have  the  use  of  the 
keys.  167  Wherefore  here  is  to  be  noted  a  distinction  of  keys,  after 
the  mind  of  my  school-doctors ;  one  key  which  is  called  '  Clavis  or- 
dinis,1  having  authority  to  bind  and  loose,  but  not  over  the  persons 
whom  they  bind  and  loose  ;  and  this  authority  they  take  not  imme- 
diately of  Christ,  but  mediately  by  me  the  vicar  of  Christ.  The  other 
key  is  called  '  Clavis  jurisdictionis,"'  which  I  the  vicar  of  Christ  take 
immediately  of  him,  having  not  only  authority  to  bind  and  loose,  but 
also  dominion  over  them  on  whom  this  key  is  exercised.  By  the 
jurisdiction  of  which  key  the  fulness  of  my  power  is  so  great,  that 
whereas  all  others  are  subjects,  168yea  and  emperors  themselves,  ought 
to  subdue  their  executions  tome;  only  I  am  a  subject  to  no  creature, 
l69no,  not  to  myself,  except  I  list ;  '  in  foro  pcenitentiee,'  to  my  ghostly 
father  submitting  myself  as  a  sinner,  but  not  as  pope ;  so  that  my 
papal  majesty  ever  remaineth  unminished ;  superior  to  all  men  ; 
170 whom  all  persons  ought  to  obey,  17,and  follow,  mwhom  no  man 
must  judge  or  accuse  of  any  crime,  either  of  murder,  adidtery,  simony, 
or  such  like  ;  173no  man  depose,  but  I  myself.  174No  man  can  excom- 
municate me,  yea  though  I  communicate  with  the  excommunicated, 
for  no  canon  bindeth  me  :  whom  no  man  must  lie  to,  175for  he  that 
lieth  to  me  is  a  church  robber,  ,76and  who  obeyeth  not  me,  is  a 
heretic,  and  an  excommunicated  person.  177For,  like  as  all  the  Jews 
were  commanded  to  obey  the  high  priest  of  the  Levitical  order,  o. 
what  state  or  condition  soever  they  were,  so  are  all  christian  men  more 
and  less  bound  to  obey  me,  Christ's  lieutenant  on  earth:  concerning 
the  obedience  or  disobedience  of  whom  ye  have  in  Deut.  xvii. ; 
178where  the  common  gloss  saith,  that  he  who  denieth  to  the  high 
priest  '  obedientiam,1  lieth  under  the  sentence  of  condemnation,  as 
much  as  he  that  denieth  to  God  his  'omnipotentiam.'' 

Thus  then  it  appeareth,  that  the  greatness  of  my  priesthood 
179 began  in  Melchisedec,  was  solemnized  in  Aaron,  continued  in  the 

(164)  Dist.  20.  Decretales.  (165)  Dist.  19.  'Si  Romanorum.' 

(166)  Gabriel  Biel,  lib.  iv.  Dist.  19.  (167)  Petrus  de  Palude. 

(168)  Dist.  95.  c.  '  Imperator.'  (169)  Gabriel,  lib.  iv.  Dist.  19. 
(170)  P.  Nicholaus  Dist.  19  c.  'Si  Romanorum  in  Glossa.'        (171)  Item  24.  q.  1.  Hacc  est. 

(172)  Dist.  40,  c.  'Si  Papa.'  (173)  2.  q.  7.  '  Nos  si  *  in  Glossa. 

(174)  Extravap;.  de.  elect.  Innotuit.  (175)  De  panitentia,  dist.  I.  c.  'Serpens 'in  Glossa. 

(176)  Dist.  19.  c.  '  Nulli."           (177)  August,  de  Ancho.          (178)  Glossa  'Ordinaris.* 
(179)  Antoninus. 


Ecderia,-  children  of  Aaron,  perfcctionated  in   Christ,  represented  in  Peter, 
n'iZ'r     exalted  in  the  universal  jurisdiction,  and  manifested  in  Silvester,  &c. 

—  So  that  through  this  pre-eminence  of  my  priesthood,  having  all  things 

subject  to  me,  180it  may  seem  well  verified  in  me  that  was  spoken  of 

Christ  [Psalm  viii.],  "Omnia  subjecisti  sub  pedibus  ejus,  oves  et  boves, 

it  universa  pecora  campi ;  volucres   cceli  et  pisces  maris,11  &c.  i.e. 

"  Thou  hast  subdued  all  things  under  his  feet,  sheep  and  oxen,  and 

all  cattle  of  the  field,  the  birds  of  heaven,  and  fish  of  the  sea,11  &c. ; 

181  where  it  is  to  be  noted,  that  by  oxen,  Jews  and  heretics ;  by  cattle 

of  the  field,  Pagans  be  signified.     For  although  as  yet  they  be  out 

of  the  use  of  my  keys  of  binding  and  loosing,  yet  they  be  not  out 

of  the  jurisdiction  of  my  keys,  but  if  they  return,  I  may  absolve 

them.     ,82By  sheep  and  all  cattle,  are  meant  all  christian  men  both 

great  and  less,  whether  they  be  emperors,  princes,  prelates,  or  others. 

Iiy  birds  of  the  air  you  may  understand  the  angels  and  potestates  of 

heaven,  who  be  all  subject  to  me,  in  that  I  am  greater  than  the 

angels ;  and  that  in  four  things,  as  is  afore  declared  ;  and  have  power 

to  bind  and  loose  in  heaven,  ,83and  to  give  heaven  to  them  that  fight 

in  my  wars.     184  Lastly,  by  the  fishes  of  the  sea,   are  signified  the 

souls  departed  in  pain  or  in  purgatory,  as  Gregory,  by  his  prayer, 

delivered  the  soul  of  Trajan  out  of  hell,  and  I  have  power  to  deliver 

out  of  purgatory  whom  I  please.     185  Lastly,  by  the  fishes  of  the  sea, 

arc  signified  such  as  be  in  purgatory,  insomuch  that  they  stand  in 

need  and  necessity  of  other  men's  help,  and  yet  be  in  their  journey 

Antoni-    '  viatores,  et  de  foro  pape,1  that  is,  passengers  and  belonging  to  the 

August,    court  of  the  pope :  therefore  they  may  be  relieved  out  of  the  store- 

('!,';oA£-h    house  of  the  church,  by  the  participation   of  indulgence.     And  for- 

i>art4.     asmuch  as  some  do  object  that  my  pardons  cannot  extend  to  them 

that  be  departed,  for  that  it  was  said  to  Peter,  "  Whatsoever  thou 

shalt  loose  upon  earth  ;"  and  therefore  seeing  they  are  not  upon  earth, 

they  cannot  be  loosed  of  me  :  here  I  answer  again  by  my  doctors,  that 

this  word  '  super  terrain,1  &c.  i.e.  'upon  the  earth,1  may  be  referred 

two  manner  of  ways ;  first  to  him  that  is  the  looser,  so  that  he  who 

shall  loose,  shall  be  upon  the  earth  ;  and  so  I  grant  that  the  pope 

being  dead,  can  loose  no  man.     Also  it  may  be  referred  to  him  that 

is  loosed,  so  that  whosoever  is  loosed,  must  be  upon  the  earth,  or 

about  the  earth ;  and  so  the  souls  in  purgatory  may  be  loosed,  which 

albeit  they  are  not  upon  the  earth,  yet  they  are  about  the  earth :  at 

least  they  be  not  in  heaven. 

August.        And  because  ofttimes  one  question  may  rise  upon  another,  and 

,:,  the  heads  of  men  now-a-days  are  curious,  a  man  hearing  now  that  I 

*"JjJ|j      can  deliver  out  of  purgatory,  will  ask  here  a  question,  whether  I  be  able 

totum      also  to  empty  all  purgatory  at  once,  or  not  ?     To  whom  my  canonist 

riumex-  Augustine  doth  answer  by  a  triple  distinction:  "  Quantum  ad  abso- 

Abtoiuta  hitam  mcam  jurisdictionem,   quantum  ad   ordinatam   executioncm, 

ilo^Doc    Mua,num  :i(l  divinam  acceptationem.11     First,  touching  my  absolute 

ton  agree  jurisdiction,  he  saith,  I  am  able  to  rid  out  all  purgatory  together, 

i"r'"rM  for  as  many  as  be  under   my  jurisdiction,   as  all  be,  except  only 

dr'Ai?''    'n^:uits  unbaptized  'in  limbo,1  and  men  departed  only,  'cum  bap- 

tisino   Baminis,1  that  is,  with  the  baptism  of  the  Spirit/ and  such  as 


tOHlnUl,  Summ.T  majoris  8.  part,  Pist.  22.  .(1S1)  Ibid. 

1182)  ibid.       (188)  88  q.  c. '  Omnium.'  (184)  Idem  Antoninus  in  Ibid.       (185)  Ibid. 


have  no  friends  to  do  for  them  that,  whcrc-for  pardons  be  given,  these  Eccienut- 
only  excepted.  For  all  others  besides,  the  pope  (he  saith)  hath  power  a&toy. 

to  release  all  purgatory  at  once,  as  touching  his  absolute  jurisdiction  :  

albeit  Thomas  Aquinas  (part  iv.)  denieth  the  same,  forasmuch  as 
Christ  himself  (he  saith)  when  he  came  down,  did  not  utterly  at 
once  release  all  purgatory.    As  touching  my  ordinary  execution  they  ordinata 
hold,  that  I  may  if  I  will,  but  I  ought  not  to  do  it.     Thirdly,  as  gggS" 
concerning  the  divine  acceptation,  that  is,  How  God  would  accept  it  a.cccPta- 
if  I  did  it,  that   (they  say)   is  unknown  unto  them,  and  to  every 
creature,  yea,  and  to  the  pope  himself. 

And  to  the  intent  I  would  all  men  to  see  and  understand  that  I 
lack  not  more  witnesses  besides  these,  if  I  list  to  bring  them  out, 
you  shall  hear  the  whole  choir  of  my  divine  clergy  brought  out, 
with  a  full  voice  testifying  in  my  behalf,  in  their  books,  tractations, 
distinctions,  titles,  glosses,  and  summaries,  as  by  then-  own  words 
here  followeth.aa  The  pope  (say  they),  being  the  vicar  of  Jesu 
Christ  through  the  whole  world,  instead  of  the  living  God,  hath 
that  dominion  and  lordship  which  Christ  here  in  earth  would  not 
have,  although  he  had  it  '  in  habitu,1  but  gave  it  to  Peter  '  in  actu ;' 
that  is,  the  universal  jurisdiction  both  of  spiritual  things,  and  also  of 
temporal :  which  double  jurisdiction  was  signified  by  the  two  swords 
in  the  gospel,  and  also  by  the  offering  of  the  wise  men,  who  offered 
not  only  incense,  but  also  gold;  to  signify  not  only  the  spiritual 
dominion,  but  also  the  temporal,  to  belong  to  Christ  and  to  his  vicar. 
For,  as  we  read,  "The  earth  is  the  Lord's  and  the  fulness  thereof;1''  and 
as  Christ  saith,  "All  power  is  given  to  him  both  in  heaven  and  earth:1' 
so  it  is  to  be  affirmed  inclusive,  that  the  vicar  of  Christ  hath  power  on 
things  celestial,  terrestrial,  and  infernal  ;  which  he  took  immediately 
of  Christ :  all  others  take  it  immediately  by  Peter  and  the  pope. 
Wherefore  such  as  say  that  the  pope  hath  dominion  only  of  spiritual 
things  in  the  world,  and  not  of  temporal,  may  be  likened  to  the  coun- 
sellors of  the  king  of  Syria  [1  Kings  xx.],  who  said,  "  The  gods  of  the 
mountains  be  their  gods,  and  therefore  they  have  overcome  us  ;  but 
let  us  fight  against  them  in  the  low  meadows,  and  in  valleys  where 
they  have  no  power,  and  so  we  shall  prevail  over  them.1''  So  evil 
counsellors  now-a-days,  through  their  pestiferous  flattery,  deceive 
kings   and  princes   of  the  earth,  saying :   "  Popes  and  prelates  be 

(aa)  An  Alphabetical  List  of  the  Authorities  here  alluded  to. 

Antonin.  in  Summulis.                 Caspar.  Ockam  in  dialogo,  parte  1  lib.  v. 

Augustinus  de  Ancho  in  Deere,  (iratianus  in  Decretis.  Oytanus. 
Astesanus  Midorita                        Gerson,  doctor  illuminatissimus 

ecclesiastica  postestate.  Petrus  de  Palude. 

Baptista  de  Salvin.  sua.  Petrus  de  Tharam. 

Baptistiniana.                                 Hugo  Cardinalis  in  postilla.  Petrus  de  Aliaco. 

Bonaventura.                                 Hostiensis.  Panormitanus  Alexander  de 

Holkot.  Alex. 
Campensis,  lib.  controversiarum.  Hosius. 

Coelstu.  Raymundus  in  summa  de  ess 

Johannes  Andrea.  sibus. 

Durandus  in  speculo.                    Innocentius.  Richardus. 

Dreido.  de  eccle.   Scripturis  et  Johan.  de   Turre  Cremata  de    Babanus,  sup.  Mat.  cau.  xvi. 

dogmat.                                          ecclesia  summa.  Uupertus  Tuitiensis. 

Edwardus  Pevcllus,Anglus,  con-  I.anfrancus  contra  Wiclif.  Scotua  doctor  subtilis. 

tra  Luthe.  Lilius  Historicum  Anglus. 

Erhius  in  Enchir.  Lapus.  Thomas  Aquin. 

Franciscus.  Ulricus. 

Fnlgo.  Magister  sententiarum. 

Waldenus,   ronfessionate,  et  de 
Gabriel.  Biel.  Spica.  Nicolaus.  Sacramentis. 


EccUsias.  gods  of  mountains,  that  is,  of  spiritual  things  only,  but  they  be  not 
Hutl'r     aods  of  valleys ;   that  is,  they  have  no   dominion   over   temporal 

things,  and  therefore  let  us  fight  with  them  in  the  valleys,  that  is, 

in  the  power  of  the  temporal  possessions,  and  so  we  shall  prevail  over 
them."  But  let  us  hear  what  saith  the  sentence  of  God  to  them. 
"  Because,"  saith  he,  "  the  Syrians  say  that  the  god  of  mountains 
is  their  god,  and  not  the  god  of  valleys,  therefore  I  will  give  all  this 
multitude  into  your  hand,  and  ye  shall  know  that  I  am  the  Lord." 
What  can  be  more  effectually  spoken  to  set  forth  the  majesty  of 
my  jurisdiction,  which  I  received  immediately  of  the  Lord  ?  of  the 
Lord,  I  say,  and  of  no  man.  For,  whereas  Constantine  the  emperor 
gave  to  Silvester,  enduing  him  with  this  possession  and  patrimony ; 
that  is  so  to  be  expounded  and  taken  not  so  much  for  a  donation, 
as  to  be  counted  for  a  restitution  made  of  that  which  tyrannously 
was  taken  from  him  before. 

And  again  :  whereas  I  have  given  at  sundry  times  to  Ludovicus  and 
other  emperors,  of  my  temporal  lands  and  possessions,  yet  that  was 
done  not  so  much  for  any  recognising  of  homage  to  them,  as  for  keep- 
ing peace  with  them  :  for  I  owe  to  emperors  no  due  obedience  that 
they  can  claim  ;  but  they  owe  to  me,  as  to  their  superior ;  and,  there- 
fore, for  a  diversity  betwixt  their  degree  and  mine,  in  their  consecra- 
tion they  take  the  unction  on  their  arm,  I  on  the  head.  And  as  I  am 
superior  to  them,  so  am  I  superior  to  all  laws,  and  free  from  all  con- 
stitutions ;  who  am  able  of  myself,  and  by  my  interpretation,  to  pre- 
fer equity  not  being  written,  before  the  law  written  ;  having  all  laws 
within  the  chest  of  my  breast,  as  is  aforesaid.  And  whatsoever  this  my 
sec  shall  enact,  approve,  or  disprove,  all  men  ought  to  approve  or  re- 
prove the  same,  without  either  judging,  disputing,  doubting,  orretracting. 
Such  is  the  privilege  given  of  Christ,  in  the  behalf  of  Peter,  to  the 
church  of  Rome,  l86  that  what  country  soever,  kingdom,  or  province, 
choosing  to  themselves  bishops  and  ministers,  although  they  agree 
with  all  other  Christ's  faithful  people  in  the  name  of  Jesu,  that  is,  in 
faith  and  charity,  believing  in  the  same  God,  and  in  Christ,  his  true 
Son,  and  in  the  Holy  Ghost ;  having  also  the  same  creed,  the  same 
evangelists  and  scriptures  of  the  apostles :  yet,  notwithstanding, 
unless  their  bishops  and  ministers  take  their  origin  and  ordination 
from  this  apostolic  seat,  they  are  to  be  counted  not  of  the  church ;  so 
that  succession  of  faith  only,  is  not  sufficient  to  make  a  church,  except 
the  ministers  take  their  ordination  by  them  who  have  their  succession 
from  the  apostles.  So  their  faith,  supremacy,  the  chair  of  Peter, 
keys  of  heaven,  power  to  bind  and  loose,  all  these  be  inseparable  to 
the  church  of  Rome  :  so  that  it  is  to  be  presumed,  that  God  always 
providing,  and  St.  Peter  helping  the  bishopric  and  diocese  of  Rome, 
it  shall  never  fall  from  the  faith. 

And  likewise  it  is  to  be  presumed  and  presupposed  that  the  bishop 
of  that  church  is  always  good  and  holy.  Yea,  and  though  he  be  not 
always  good,  or  be  destitute  of  his  own  merits,  yet  the  merits  of  St. 
Peter,  predecessor  of  that  place,  be  sufficient  for  him,  who  hath 
bequeathed  and  left  a  perpetual  dowry  of  merits,  with  inheritance  of 
innocency,  to  his  posterity.    187Yea,  though  he  fall  into  homicide  or 

(186)  Johan.  Driedo.  De  dogmatibus  variis,  1.  4. 

(187)  IIuko,  in  glossa  dist.  40.  c.  •  Non  Not/ 


adultery,  he  may  sin,  but  yet  he  cannot  be  accused,  but  rather  ex-  BecietUu- 
cuscd  by  the  murders  of  Samson,  the  thefts  of  the  Hebrews,  the  i/'Z',,,. 

adultery  of  Jacob.    188And  likewise,  if  any  of  his  clergy  should  be 

found  embracing  a  woman,  it  must  be  expounded  and  "presupposed 
that  he  doth  it  to  bless  her. 

Furthermore,  the  pope  (say  they)  hath  all  the  dignities,  and  all 
power  of  all  patriarchs.  In  his  primacy,  he  is  Abel ;  in  government, 
the  ark  of  Noah  ;  in  patriarchdom,  Abraham  ;  in  order,  Melchisedec ; 
in  dignity,  Aaron  ;  in  authority,  Moses  ;  in  scat  judicial,  Samuel ;  in  Kay, thou 
zeal,  Elias;  in  meekness,  David;  in  power,  Peter;  in  unction,  ^daYf 
Christ.  My  power  (they  say)  is  greater  than  all  the  saints ;  for  whom 
I  confirm,  no  man  may  infirm :  I  may  favour  and  spare  whom  I 
please,  ,89to  take  from  one  and  to  give  to  another.  And  if  I  be 
enemy  to  any  man,  all  men  ought  to  eschew  that  person  forthwith, 
and  not  tarry  and  look  while  I  bid  them  so  to  do. 

All  the  earth  is  my  diocese ;  and  I  the  ordinary  of  all  men, 
having  the  authority  of  the  King  of  all  kings  upon  subjects.  I  am 
all  in  all,  and  above  all,  ,90so  that  God  himself,  and  I  the  vicar  of  God, 
have  both  one  consistory,  ,91and  I  am  able  to  do  almost  all  that  God 
can  do,  '  clave  non  errante  V  192Item,  It  is  said  of  me  that  I  have 
a  heavenly  arbitrement,  and  therefore  am  able  to  change  the  nature 
of  things,  '  substantialia  unius  applicando  alteri,'  and  of  nothing  to 
make  things  to  be  ;  and  of  a  sentence  that  is  nothing,  to  make  it 
stand  in  effect ;  in  all  things  that  I  list,  my  will  to  stand  for  reason  : 
for  I  am  able  by  the  law  to  dispense  above  the  law,  and  of  wrong  to 
make  justice,  in  correcting  laws  and  changing  them. 

You  have  heard  hitherto  sufficiently  out  of  my  doctors.  Now 
you  shall  hear  greater  things  out  of  mine  own  decrees.193  Read  there 
dist.  96.  'Satis.1  194Also  12.  Caus.  11.  q.  Leap.  '  Sacerdotibus/ 
195 Also  12.  q.  1.  cap.  '  Futuram."'  Do  you  not  find  there  expressed, 
how  Constantine  the  emperor,  sitting  in  the  general  council  at  Nice, 
called  us  prelates  of  the  church,  all  gods  ?  196  Again,  read  my  canon 
decretal,  De  transl.  episc.  cap.  '  Quanto.'  Do  you  not  see  there 
manifestly  expressed,  how  not  man,  but  God  alone  separateth  that 
which  the  bishop  of  Rome  doth  dissolve  and  separate  ?  Wherefore, 
if  those  things  that  I  do,  be  said  to  be  done  not  of  man,  but  of  God  ; 
what  can  you  make  me  but  God  .?aa  Again,  if  prelates  of  the  church 
be  called  and  counted  of  Constantine  for  gods,  I  then,  being  above  all 
prelates,  seem  by  this  reason  to  be  above  all  gods.  Wherefore  no 
marvel,  if  it  be  in  my  power  to  change  time  and  times,  to  alter  and 
abrogate  laws,  to  dispense  with  all  things,  yea  with  the  precepts  of 
Christ :  for,  where  Christ  biddeth  Peter  put  up  his  sword,  and  admo- 
nished his  disciples  not  to  use  any  outward  force  in  revenging  them- 
selves, ,97do  not  I,  Pope  Nicholas,  writing  to  the  bishops  of  France, 
exhort  them  to  draw  out  their  material  swords  in  pursuing  their 
enemies,  and  recovering  their  possessions  ;  setting  against  the  precept 

(188)  Gloss,  in  caus.  11.  q.  3.  c.  *  Absis.'  (189)  Gloss,  in  c.  11.  q.  3.  'Si  inimicus.' 

(190)  Hostiensis  in  c.  '  Quanto  de  transl.  praeb.'        (191)  Ex  summa  casuum  fratris  Baptista. 

(192)  Ex  Citatione  Henr.  Bulling,  de  fine  Seculi.  orat.  prima.     Item,  ex  Citatione  Jacobi  An- 
dreae,  adversus  Hossum,  lib.  v.     Item,  ex  Citatione  Jer.  Marii  in  actis,  2  Divi. 

(193)  Pope  Nicolaus  Dist.  96.  c.  Satis.  (194)  11.  q.  '.1.  'Sacerdotibus.' 
(195)  12.  q.  1.  '  Futurum.'                (196)  Decretal,  de  Transl.  Epist.  c.  '  Quanto.' 

(aa)  Thus  you  may  see  it  verified,   that  St.  Paul  prophesieth  of  the  adversary  sitting  in  the 
temple  as  God,  and  boasting  himself  above  all  that  is  named  God,  4c.  2  Thess.  ii. 
(197)  Pope  Nicolaus,  Causa  15,  q.  6.  c.  '  Autoritatem.' 


Swarf*-  of  Christ,  the  prophet  saying,   "  Dissolve  colligationes  impietatis  li 

Heal        K 
Hisioru.     «C  i-i-i  •       n 

Item,  whereas  Christ  was  present  himself  at  the  marriage  in  Oana 

of  Galilee,  198do  not  I,  pope  Martin,  in  my  distinction,  inhibit  the 
spiritual  clergy  to  be  present  at  marriage-feasts,  and  also  to  marry 
themselves  ?  Item,  where  matrimony,  by  Christ,  cannot  be  loosed  but 
only  for  whoredom,  199do  not  I,  pope  Gregory  junior,  writing  to  Bo- 
niface, permit  the  same  to  be  broken  for  impotency  or  infirmity  of 
body  ?  200Item,  against  the  express  caution  of  the  gospel,  do  not  I, 
Innocent  IV.,  permit  '  vim  vi  repellere?"'  201  Likewise,  against  the 
Old  Testament,  I  do  dispense  in  not  giving  tithes.  202Item,  against 
the  New  Testament  in  swearing,  and  that  in  these  six  causes,  203Pax, 
fama,  fides,  reverentia,  cautio  damni,  defectus  veri,  poscunt  sibi  magna 
caveri ;  wherein  two  kinds  of  oaths  are  to  be  noted,  whereof  some  be 
'  promissoria,1  some  be  '  assertoria,"1  &c.  304Item,  in  vows,  and  that 
'  ex  toto  voto,1  whereas  other  prelates  cannot  dispense  '  ex  toto  a 
voto,'  I  can  deliver  '  ex  toto  a  voto,'  like  God  himself.  205Item,  in 
perjury  if  I  absolve,  my  absolution  standeth  :  206where  also  note,  that 
in  all  swearing,  always  the  authority  of  the  superior  is  excepted. 
207Moreover,  where  Christ  biddeth  to  lend  without  hope  of  gain,  do  not 
I,  pope  Martin,  give  dispensation  for-  the  same  ?  and  notwithstanding 
the  council  of  Thuron  enacted  the  contrary,  yet  with  two  bulls  I 
disannulled  that  decreement ! 

2,8  What  should  I  speak  of  murder,  making  it  no  murder  nor  homi- 
cide to  slay  them  that  be  excommunicated  ?  209  likewise  against  the 
law  of  nature  ;  210item,  against  the  apostles  :  2Ualso  against  the  canons 
of  the  apostles,  I  can  and  do  dispense  ;  for  where  they,  in  their  canon, 
command  a  priest  for  fornication  to  be  deposed,  I,  through  the 
authority  of  Silvester,  do  alter  the  rigour  of  that  constitution,  212  con- 
sidering the  minds  and  bodies  also  of  men  now  to  be  weaker  than 
they  were  then. 

213  Briefly,  against  the  universal  state  of  the  church  I  have  dispen- 
sation, "  scilicet  quando  status  ecclesise  non  decoloratur ;"  and  for 
marriage  in  the  second  degree  of  consanguinity  and  infinity;  "in  col- 
lateralibus  sequali  linea;"  that  is,  between  the  brethren's  children, 
although  not  '  ineequali  linea,''  so  that  the  uncle  may  not  marry  his 
niece,  unless  for  an  urgent  and  weighty  cause.  As  for  all  such 
contracts  betwixt  party  and  party,  where  matrimony  is  not  yet 
consummated  by  carnal  connexion,  it  is  but  a  small  matter  for  me 
to  dispense  withal. 

In  summa :  if  ye  list  briefly  to  hear  the  whole  number  of  all  such 
cases  as  properly  do  appertain  to  my  papal  dispensation,  which  come 
to  the  number  of  one  and  fifty  points,   that  no  man  may  meddle 

(198)  Pope  Martin  Dist.  14.  c.  '  Lector.' 

(199)  Pope  Greg.  Junior,  3?.  q.  7.  c.  'Quod  proposuisti.' 

(200)  Pope  Inno.  IV.  Sect.  Decret.  desententia  excoin.  c.  '  Dilecto.' 

(201)  Pope  Alexander  III.,  De  decimis,  c.  '  Ex  parte.' 

(202)  Pope  Nicolaus,  15.  q.  6.  '  Autoritatem.' 

De  elect,  et  elect,  potestate.     Signifkasti  in  Glossa. 
■  '■    s.ilis,  lii  Summa  ciMium  ex  Panornvitano 
(205)  Pope  I  lino.  IV.  De  elect.  Venerabilem. 

(206]  Ext  De  Jure-Jurando  cap.  Venientes.    Item  Dist.  De  Klect.  Siguiftcasti  in  Glossa. 
(20i      Pop    Minimis  V.  Extra,  c.  '  Hegimini  Universalis  Ecclesise.' 
(208)  Pope  Urbanut  11.  Cans.  28.  q.  5.  c.  '  Excommunicatorum.' 

ipe  Nicolaus,  cnus.  15.  q.  G.  '  Autoritatem.'  ^.210)  Ibid. 

(211)  Di-i ,82    I    Pnubyter.  (212)  Pope  Pelagius,  Dist.  31.  c.  '  Fraternitatis 

(213)  Baptista  de  Salis,  fol.  • 


ABOVE   al:.    THAT    IS    CALLED   ecu.  |(j  I 

withal  but  only  I  myself  alone,  I  will  recite  them  first  in  Latin,  then  £«■/,„•«. 
in  English,  as  they  be  set  forth  in  my  canonical  doctors. 

Casus  Papalcs  LI.  apud  Fratrem  Astcsanum,  sive  de  Ast.  Doctorcm 
soleiunem  in  suinma  confessionis.  Item  apud  llostienscm,  de 
offic.  legal,  reperti  ct  his  versibus  comprehensi. 

Si  sit  catholicus,  Papain  non  judicat  ullus. 
Erigit  et  subdit  cathedraa  ;  dividit,  unit, 

i.e.  votum  terra:  siuclce.  i.e.  degradatos.  I.e.  episcopos  et  alios. 
Mutat  vota  crucis.    Restituit.    Eximit.     Ad  se 
Majores  causae  rei'eruntur.     Legitimatque, 

i.e.  insujftcicntes.  i.e.  intrantes  religionem. 

Promovet,  appellare  vetat,  prohibet  profiteri. 

i.e.  defectum  regi  vacante  regno 

Deponit,  fcransfert,  suppletque,  renunciat  illi 

Symonia,  juramentum,  excommunicato  a  Papa  facta' 
Prassul,  et  exemptus.     Simon,  jurans,  anathema, 

tarn  Papa  quam  legati. 
Vel  proprium,  vel  legati,  vel  lex  utriusque. 

i.e.  sulvitur  Papa. 
Turn  neque  participans :  etsi  quern  sponte  salutat, 
Quern  canon  damnat,  sibi  soli  quando  reservat, 

qui  irrcyularitatcm  incur)  it. 

Solvitur  a  Papa  nee  non  quern  regula  damnat. 

scilicet,  addas. 
Addas  suspensum,  causam,  cum  fertur  ad  ipsum. 

i.e.  Addas.  i.e.  Piuralitalem  beneficiorum. 

Rescriptum,  fidei  dubium  :  confert  bona  plura. 
Irritat  infectum,  legem  condit  generalem. 

i.e.  Impcratorcm. 

Approbat  imperium,  finnat,  deponit,  et  ungit. 


Concilium  generale  facit.     Sacrat  quoque  sanctos. 

de  aliquo  facit  nihil,  de  nihilo  aliquid. 

Ens  non  esse  facit :  non  ens,  fore.     Pallia  semper 
Portat.    Concedit,  legi  non  subjacet  ulli. 
i.e.  immediate. 
Appellatur  ad  hunc  medio  sine,  judiciumque 

De  monaclto  non  monachum facit. 
Est  pro  lege  suum.     Monachum  rcvocat  renuentem. 

i.e.  incestum,  fyc. 
Majus  adulterio  solvit  generaliter;  arctat 

i.e.  impedimentum  matrimoniale. 
Et  laxat  quiquid  sponsis  nocet.     Ordinat  extra 

i.e.  extra  4.  tempora. 
Tempore  dando  sacrum;  promotum  promovet  idem. 
Ordinat  atque  die  qua  consecratur  et  ipse. 

i.e.  sacerdolium  confert  nondum  vacant. 
Viventisque  locum  concedit,  jureque  privat. 

Insignia  Episcopalia  concedit.    i.e.  decimis  eximit.    i.e.  piabytero, 
concedit  infantes  ungcrc. 

Insignit.     Laico  sacra  donat;  chrisma  ministro. 
Suinma  sede  sedet,  plenusque  vicarius  extat. 
Si  sit  catholicus  Papain  non  judicat  ullus. 

vol  v 


Eccu,ias-  Cases  Papal,  to  the  number  of  one  and  fifty,  wherein  the  Pope  only 
mdor         hath  power  to  dispense,  and  none  else  besides,  except  by  special 

license  from  him. 

First :  the  determination  of  doubts  and  questions  belonging  to  faith. a 

Translation  ofa  bishop,  elect  or  confirmed  :  likewise  of  abbots  exempted.1* 

Deposition  of  bishops.c 

The  taking  of  resignation  of  bishops.d 

Exemptions  of  bishops,  not  to  be  under  archbishops.*5 

Restitution  of  such  as  be  deposed  from  their  order.f 

The  judicial  definition,  or  interpretation  of  his  own  privileges^ 

Changing  of  bishoprics,  or  dimission  of  covents,  &c.    New  correction  of  bishops' 

seats,  or  institution  of  new  religions.11 
Subjection  or  division  of  one  bishopric  under  another.1 
Dispensation  for  vowing  to  go  to  the  Holy  Land.* 
Dispensation  for  the  vow  of  chastity,  or  of  religion,  or  of  holy  orders.1 
Dispensation  against  a  lawful  oath,  or  vow  made.™ 
Dispensation  against  divers  irregularities,  as  in  crimes  greater  than  adultery, 

and  in  such  as  be  suspended  for  simony.n 
Dispensation  in  receiving  into  orders  him  that  had  two  wives.0 
Dispensing  with  such  as,  being  within  orders,  do  that  which  is  above  their  order ; 

as  if  a  deacon  should  say  mass,  being  not  yet  priest.P 
To  receive  into  orders  such  as  be  blemished  or  maimed  in  body.1 
Dispensation  for  murder,  or  for  such  as  willingly  cut  off  any  member  of  man's 

Dispensation  to  give  orders  to  such  as  have  been  under  the  sentence  of  the 

greater  curse  or  excommunication.8 
Dispensation  for  such  as  being  suspended  with  the  greater  curse  do  minister  in 

any  holy  order.* 
Dispensation  for  such  as  be  unlawfully  born  to  receive  orders  or  benefices.11 
Dispensation  for  pluralities  of  benefices.31 

Dispensation  to  make  a  man  bishop,  before  he  be  thirty  years  old.y 
Dispensation  to  give  orders  under  age.z 

The  pope  only  hath  power  to  make  and  call  a  general  council.8* 
The  pope  only  hath  power  to  deprive  an  ecclesiastical  person,  and  give  away 

his  benefice  being  not 
The  pope  alone  is  able  to  absolve  him  that  is  excommunicated  by  name.00 
The  pope  only  is  able  to  absolve  him,  whom  his  legate  doth  excommuni- 
The  pope  both  judgeth  in  the  causes  of  them  that  appeal  unto  him,  and  where 

he  judgeth,  none  may  appeal  from 
Only  he  hath  authority  to  make  deacon  and  priest,  whom  he  made  subdeacon, 

either  upon  Sundays,  or  upon  other  feasts.ff 
Only  the  pope,  and  none  else,   at  all  times,   and  in  all  places,  weareth  the 
The  pope  only  dispenseth  with  a  man,  either  being  not  within  orders,  or  being 

unworthy  to  be  made  bishop.nh 
He  only  either  confirmeth  or  deposeth  the  emperor  when  he  is  chosen." 
A  man  being  excommunicated,  and  his  absolution  referred  to  the  pope,  none 

may  absolve  that  man  but  the  pope  alone.kk 
The  same  hath  authority  in  any  election,  before  it  be  made,  to  pronounce  it 

none,  when  it  is  made.11 

(a)  24.  q.  1.  'Quoties.'  (6)  Extr.  de  transl.  c.  '  Inter.' 

(c)  8.  q.  fi.  '  Quamvis.'  (rf)  9.  q.  3.  '  Dewique.'  (c)  16.  q.  1.  '  Frater." 

(/)  2.  q.  6.  '  Idco.'  (g)  Extr.  de  rest.  ca.  '  cum  venis.'  7.  q.  1.  'temporis.' 

(A)  1C.  q.  1.  '.Felix.'  (t)  16.  q.  1.  «  Et  Christ.'  (ft)  Extr.  de  vota.  Ex  multa. 

(/)  Kxtr.  de  statu  Monaclii  c.  'Cum  ad.'        (m)  Extr.  de  juramento  c.  'Venientes.' 
(n)  Extr.  dc  judicio,  c.  '  At  si  clerici.'  (o)  Extr.  de  Bigamia,  c.  'nuper.' 

(p)  Kxtr.  de  clcrico  non  ord.  ministrante.        (</)  Extr.  de  corpore  vitiatis  et  di.  55. 
(r)  l>ist.  50.  '  Miror.'  (s)  Extr.  de  sententia  et  excom.  c.'cum  illorum.' 

Ifl    Ibid.        («)  Kxtr.  de  filiis  Presbyt.  c.  '  Is  qui.'     {x)  Extr.  dc  Prebend,  cap.  'de  multa.' 
(&)  Kxtr.  de  elect,  c.  'Cum  nobis.'  (z)  Extr.  de  aetate  et  qualit.  generalem. 

('ml  Dint.  16.  per  tot.  (46)  9.  q.  3.  Per  principale.  {cc)  De  elect,  c.  '  Venerabilem.' 

(dil)  Kxtr  de  officio  lcgati,  c.  'querenti.'  (ec)  9.  q.  3.  Aliorum. 

(//)  Extr.  de  Tempi]  online,  c.  '  Cum  indistrib.'  (gg)  Extr.  de  usu  Pallii.  c.  *ad  honore'"- 

(AA)  Ext!  de  elect,  c.  '  Dudum.'  («i)  Extr.  de  elect,  c.  '  Venerabilem.' 

(ft*)  Traclntu.  de  lenturic.  {II)  Extr.  de  elect,  c.  'Innocuit.' 

ABOVE    ALL    THAT    IS    CALLED    GOD.  \6tt 

•  He  doth  canonize  saints,  and  none  else  but  Eccleiiat- 

Uispensation  to  have  many  dignities  and  personages  in  one  church,  and  without     !,cal 

charge  and  cure  of  soul,  belongeth  only  to  the  pope.nn 
To  make  that  effectual  which  is  of  no  effect,  and  contrariwise,  belongeth  only 

to  the  pope.00 
To  pluck  a  monk  out  of  his  cloister  both  against  his  own  will  and  the  abbot's, 

pertaineth  only  to  the  pope.PP 
His  sentence  maketh  a  law.0.0* 

The  same  day  in  which  the  pope  is  consecrated,  he  may  give  orders." 
He  dispenseth  in  degrees  of  consanguinity  and  affinity.88 
He  is  able  to  abolish  laws,  'quoad  utrumque  forum;'  that  is,  both  civil  and 

canon,    where  danger  is  of  the  soul.'1 
It  is  in  his  dispensation  to   give   general   indulgences   to  certain   places  or 

Item,  To  legitimate  what  persons  soever  he  please,  as  touching  spiritualties ;  in 

all  places,  as  touching  temporalties,  as  honours,  inheritance,  &c.xx 
To  erect  new  religions,  to  approve  or  reprove  rules  or  ordinances,  and  cere- 
monies in  the  church.)'}' 
He  is  able  to  dispense  with  all  the  precepts  and  statutes  of  the  church. zz 
Item,  To  dispense  and  to  discharge  any  subject  from  the  bond  of  allegiance,  or 

oath  made  to  any  manner  of  person. 
No  man  may  accuse  him  of  any  crime,  unless  of  heresy ;  and  that  neither,  except 

he  be  incorrigible. 
The  same  is  also  free  from  all  laws,  so  that  he  cannot  incuraaa  into  any  sentence 

of  excommunication,  suspension,  irregularity,  or  into  the  penalty  of  any  crime, 

but  into  the  note  of  crime  he  may  well.D0D 
Finally  he,  by  his  dispensation,  may  grant,  yea,  to  a  simple  priest,  to  minister 

the  sacrament  of  confirmation  to  infants ;  also  to  give  lower  orders,  and  to 

hallow  churches  and  virgins,  Src.ccc 
These  be  the  cases  wherein  I  only  have  power  to  dispense,  and  no  man  else ; 

neither  bishop,  nor  metropolitan,  nor  legate,  without  a  license  from  me. 

After  that  I  have  now  sufficiently  declared  my  power  in  earth,  in  The 
heaven,  and  in  purgatory,  how  great  it  is,  and  what  is  the  fulness  andpos- 
thereof,  in  binding,  loosing,  commanding,  permitting,  electing,  con-  If*™* 
firming,  deposing,  dispensing,  doing  and  undoing,  &c.  I  will  entreat  P°Pe- 
now  a  little  of  my  riches  likeAvise,  and  great  possessions,  that  every 
man  may  see,  by  my  wealth  and  abundance  of  all  things,  rents,  tithes, 
tributes,  my  silks,  my  purple  mitres,  crowns,  gold,  silver,  pearls  and 
gems,  lands  and  lordships,  how  God  there  prospereth  and  magnifieth 
his  vicar  in  the  earth.     For  to  me  pertaineth  first  the  imperial  city 
of  Rome  ;   the  palace  of  Lateran  ;  the  kingdom  of  Sicily  is  propel  to 
me,  Apulia  and  Capua  be  mine.     Also  the  kingdom  of  England  and 
Ireland,  be  they  not,  or  ought  they  not  to  be  tributaries  to  me  ?*" 

To  these  I  adjoin  also,  besides  other  provinces  and  countries  both 
in  the  Occident  and  Orient,  from  the  north  to  the  south,  these 
dominions  by  name  :215  Soriano,  Monte  Albodo,  Rocca  dc  Sintra,  the 

(mm)  Extr.  de  religione  et  veneratione.  Sanct.  c.  1.  (nn)  Extr.  de  Prebend,  c.  'de  multa.' 

\oo)  Extr   Qui.  si.  sin t.  leg.  c.  'Tanta.' 

(pp)  9.  q.  3.  c.  '  Ultimo.'  (qq)  Extr.  de  sentent.  et  re  juriic.  c.  '  in  causis.' 

(rrt  Extr.  de  elect,  cap.  '  Quod  sicut.'  (.%■.%■)  Extr.  de  restit.  spo.  Literas. 

(//)   Ext.  de  prescript,  cap.  ult.  et  tie  judicio  c.  '  Novit.'  (uu)  Thomas. 

(.r.r)  Extr.  Qui  si.  sint.  legit,  c.  '  Per  venerabilem.'  (yj)  Petrus  de  Paliide,  lib.  iv. 

(zz)  Secundum  Tbomam  in  4.  7.  q.  :i.   Per  principalem.  Dist.  40.  '  Si  Papa.' 

(aaa)  '  Incur,'  fall  under.— Ed.  (bbb)  Ibid.  (ccc)  Dist.  32.  c.  '  prater  hoc'  Verum. 

(214)  Dist.  !>(!.  Constantinus. 

(215)  Ex  Commentariis  Theoderici  Niemi.  quern  citat  Illyricus  [Flacms]  in  Catalogo  testium, 
fol.  228.  [The  editor  has  endeavoured  to  select  from  the  best  authorities  the  English  names  of  the 
places  contained  in  the  following  sentence,  copied  verbatim  from  the  original.  A  few  names,  which 
are  more  difficult  to  explain,  and  distinguished  with  asterisks,  are  left  in  the  text  nearly  in  the 
form  in  which  Foxe  gives  them;  the  Case  only  being  altered  from  the  accusative  to  the  nomina- 
tive. The  authority  upon  which  the  alteration  from  ancient  to  modern  orthography  is  made  is 
principally  Monsieur  Baudrand.  "Surianum,  Montembordon,  et  Lunae  m,iilam,  Corsica'  Kcgnum, 

.11    3 


Eeoimtm  kingdom  of  Corsica,  Little  Mantua,  Monselice,  Venice,  the  duchy  of 
li'iZ'ru.  Perrara,   Canclli,   Canioda,*  the    duchy  of  Histria,   Dalmatia,   the 

Exarchate  of  Kavenna,  Favcntia,  Cesena,  Castro,  Tiberiatus,*  Rocca, 

Milan,  Ceperano,  Cudelaff,210  Imola,  Rimini,  Centa,  MontfeiTat,  II 
Mlonte  Olympe,  Castrum  Exforii,*  Ruvo,217  Gubio,  Urbino,  Fossom- 
brone,  11  Galli,  Senigaglia,  Ancona,  Gosa,*  the  duchy  of  Perugia, 
( hv'utto,  Todi,  Segnino,  the  duchy  of  Spoleto,  Tiano,  Calabria, 
the  duchy  of  Naples,  the  duchy  of  Benevento,  Salerno,  the  promon- 
tory of  Lorento,  Sardinia,  the  isle  of  Ansa,  the  territory  of  Cutisa,* 
the  territory  of  Pra?ncste,  Silandum,  Chiusi,  Fondi,  Terra  Vegeta,* 
Terra  Claudia,*  Camerino,  Fabrianese,  Siros,  Porto  with  the  island 
Archis,*  Ostia  with  its  ports ;  the  state  of  Aquino,  the  state  of  Lamen- 
tano,  Civita  Castellana,  Fidense,  Farento,  Celano,  Naples,  and  Galli- 
polis,  with  divers  others  more,218  which  Constantine  the  emperor 
gave  unto  me.  Not  that  they  were  not  mine  before  he  did  give 
them  ;21D  for  in  that  I  took  them  of  him,  I  took  them  not  as  a  gift 
(as  is  before  mentioned),  but  as  a  restitution  ;  and  in  that  I  rendered 
them  again  to  Otho,  I  did  it  not  for  any  duty  to  him,  but  only  for 
peace  sake. 

What  should  I  speak  here  of  my  daily  revenues,  of  my  first-fruits, 
annates,  palls,  indulgences,  bulls,  confessionals,  indults  and  rescripts, 
testaments,   dispensations,   privileges,   elections,   prebends,   religious 
houses,  and  such  like,  which  come  to  no  small  mass  of  money  ?  inso- 
much that,  for  one  pall  to  the  archbishop  of  Mentz,  which  was  wont 
Above      to  be  given  for  10,000  florins,220  now  it  is  grown  to  27,000  florins, 
bishop-     which  I  received  of  Jacobus  the  archbishop,  not  long  before  Basil 
Germany.  counc'l '  besides  the  fruits  of  other  bishoprics  in  Germany,  coming 
/Eneas     to  the  number  of  fifty,  whereby  what  vantage  cometh  unto  my  coffers, 
it  may  partly  be  conjectured.     But  what  should  I  speak  of  Ger- 
many,221 when  the  whole  world  is  my  diocese,  as  my  canonists  do 
say,  and  all  men  are  bound  to  believe  ;222  except  they  will  imagine 
(as  the  Manichees  do)  two  beginnings ;  which  is  false  and  heretical  ? 
For  Moses  saith,  In  the  beginning  God  made  heaven  and  earth,  and 
not  in   the  beginnings.223     Wherefore  as  I   began,  so  I  conclude, 
commanding,  declaring,  and  pronouncing,  to  stand  upon  necessity  of 
salvation,  for  every  human  creature  to  be  subject  to  me. 

turn  Histrioe.Dalmatiam.Exarchatum  Ravennae,  Faventiam,Cesenam,  Castrum, Tiberiatus, Roccam 
Mediolanum,  Castrum  Ceperianum,  Castrum  Cusianum,  Terrain  Cornulariam,  Ducatum  Arimini, 
Contain,  Montem  Ferretum,  Montem  Capinia?  seu  Olympicum,  Castrum  Exforii,  Robin.  Eugu- 
bin  [bigium,]  Urbin  [um.]  Forum  Sempronii,  Gallii,  et  Senogalli,  Anconam,  Gosam,  Ducatum  Per- 
usii,  Urbenutam,  et  Tudertum,  Castrum  Sinianum,  Ducatum  Spoletanum,  Theanum,  Calabriam, 
Ducatum  Neapolim,  Ducatum  Beneventi,  Selenium,  Sorenti  insulam,  Cardiniam  insulam,  Aiicias 
insulam,  Territorium  Cutisan,  Territoriam  Pranestinum,  Terrain  Silandis,  Terram  Clusium, 
('•ainirinon],  Terram  Fundan,  Terram  Vegetan,  Terram  Claudianan,  Terram  Camisinam,  Terram 
l'ab[rjicnsein,  Terrain  Siram,  Terram  Portuensem,  cum  insula  Archis,  Terram  Ostiensem  cum 
martrlmlB,  Civitatem  Aquinemsem,  Civitatem  Lamentum  et  Suft'orariam,  Civitatem  Falisenam, 
iidenam,  Feretium,  Clitemam,  Neapolim,  Galiopolim."— Ed.] 

(21fi)  Cusi  or  Cudelaff.  (217)  Rubi  in  Apulia,  now  Ruvo. 

(^1S)  Hist.  HG  '  Constantinus.'  (219)  Antoninus.  In  Summa  majore  3.  part. 

J2™]  Ei  lib.  lira,  nominum  nationis  Germanics. 

I22')  s^»t.  decret.  De  penis  c.  '  Felicia,'  in  Glossa.     Item  de  privilegiis,  c.  '  Autoritatem,'  in 

(222)  Pope  Bonifacius  8.  Extr.  de  Majo.  et  obed.  c.  Unamsanctam,'  (223)  Ibid 

i  M)    OF     ROOK     THE    SIXTH. 






DONE    IN    THE    TIME    OF    KING    HENRY    VII. 

As  touching  the  civil  state  and  administration  of  the  common-    Henry 

■wealth,  and  likewise  of  the  state  of  the  church  under  the  reign  of _ 

king  Henry  VII. ;  how  he  entered  first  into  possession  of  the  crown  ;    A- D. 
how  the  two  houses  of  York  and  Lancaster  were  in  him  conjoined    150°" 
through  marriage  with  Elizabeth,  the  eldest  daughter  to  king  Edward 
IV.,  by  the  prudent  counsel  of  John  Morton,  then  bishop  of  Ely, 
after  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  and  cardinal ;  how  long  the  said  king 
reigned,  and  what  persecution  was  in  his  time  for  lack  of  search  and 
knowledge   of  God's  word,  both  in  the  diocese  of  Lincoln  under 
bishop  Smith    (who    was    erector  of  the   house    of  Brazcnnosc   in 
Oxford),  as  also  in  the  diocese  of  Coventry,  and  other  places  more  : 
and  further,  what  punishment  and  alteration  God  commonly  sendeth 
upon  cities  and  realms  public,  for  neglecting  the  safety  of  his  flock, 
sufficiently  in  the  former  book  hath  been  already  specified  ;  wherein 
many  things  more  amply  might  have  been  added,  incident  in  tlie 
reign  of  this  prince,  which  we  have  for  brevity  pretermitted.     For 
he  that  studieth  to  comprehend  in  story  all  things  which  the  common 
course  and  use  of  life  may  offer  to  the  writer,  may  sooner  find  matter 
to  occupy  himself,  than  to  profit   others.     Otherwise    1   might  have  iVrkin 
inferred  mention  of  the  seditious  tumult  of  Perkin  Warbcck,  with  ^1;',',1"'k 
his  retinue,  a.d.  1494,  also  of  Blackheath   field  by  the  blacksmith,  i  ^m.i 
a.d.  1496.     I  might  also  have  recited  the  glorious  commendation  oftobf 
George  Lily2  in  his  Latin  chronicle,  testifying  of  king  Henry  VII.,  J^f1" 
how  he   sent  three  solemn  orators  to  pope  Julius  II.,  to  yield  liis  » 
obedience  to  the  see  of  Rome,  a.d.  1506;  and  likewise  how  pope  heatb 
Alexander  IX.,  Pius  III.,   and  Julius  II.,  sent  to   the  said  king  BeW' 

[V  Edition  1563,  p.  373.   Ed.  1570,  p.  935.    Ed.  1576,  p.  773.    E.I.  1683,  p.  709.    Ed.  1596,  p.  7."S. 
Ed.  ir.84,  vol.  ii.  p.  1.— Ed. 
(2)  Chronicun  Regum  Angli.x ;  8vo.  Basilea?,  1561.— Ed. 


licnrx    Henry  VII.,  three  sundry  famous  ambassadors,  with    three  swords 
and  three  caps  of  maintenance,  electing  and  admitting  him  to  be  the 

A.  I),  chief  defender  of  the  faith  :  the  commendation  of  which  fact,  how 
1509.  o-lorious  it  is  in  the  eyes  of  George  Lily  and  Fabian,  that  I  leave  to 
them.  This  I  suppose,  that  when  king  Henry  sent  to  pope  Julius 
three  orators  with  obedience,  if  he  had  sent  him  three  thousand  harque- 
bussicr.s  to  furnish  his  field  against  the  French  king  fighting  at  Ra- 
venna, he  had  pleased  pope  Julius  much  better.  If  George  Lily  had 
been  disposed  to  illustrate  his  story  with  notes,  this  had  been  more 
worthy  the  noting,  how  Ludovic  XII.,  the  French  king,  calling  his 
parliament,  moved  this  question  against  pope  Julius,  whether  a  pope 
might  invade  any  prince  by  warlike  force  without  cause,  and  whether 
the  prince  might  withdraw  his  obedience  from  that  pope  or  not?  And 
it  was  concluded  in  the  same  parliament  with  the  king,  against  the 
pope.1  Also  it  was  concluded  the  same  time  (which  was  in  the  reign 
of  this  king  Henry  VII.),  that  the  Pragmatical  Sanction2  should  be 
received  in  full  force  and  effect  through  all  the  realm  of  France. 

And  forasmuch  as  we  are  fallen  into  the  mention  of  George  Lily, 
this  in  him  is  to  be  found  not  unworthy  noting,  how,  after  the  burn- 
Note       ing  of  Thomas  Noris  above  mentioned,3  at  the  city  of  Norwich,  the 
plagues    same  year  followed  such  a  fire  in  Norwich,  that  the  whole  city  well 
t'ii'c'imn'f  near  was  therewith  consumed.     Like  as  also  after  the  burning  of  the 
ing  of      aforesaid  good  aged  father  in  Smithfield  the  same  year,  a.d.  1500, 
people,     we  read  in  the  chronicle  of  Fabian,  that  a  great  plague  fell  upon  the 
city  of  London,  to  the  great  destruction  of  the  inhabitants  thereof : 
wherein  again  is  to  be  noted,  as  is  aforesaid,  that  according  to  the 
state  of  the  church  the  disposition  of  the  commonwealth  commonly 
is  guided,  either  to  be  with  adversity  afflicted,  or  else  in  prosperity  to 
flourish.  But  after  these  notes  of  king  Henry  VII.,  now  to  the  story 
of  king  Henry  VIII. 
children       This  king  Henry  VII.,  finishing  his  course  in  the  year  abovesaid, 
Henry8     wmcn  was  1509,  had,  by  Elizabeth  his  wife  abovenamecl,  four  men- 
v"-.      children,  and  of  women-children  as  many;  of  whom  three  only  sur- 
onadyKe  vived,  to  wit,   prince  Henry,  lady  Margaret,   and  lady  Mary  :  of 
ando'r rel  whom,  king  Henry  VIII.  succeeded  his  father ;  lady  Margaret  was 
«jy .       married  to  James  IV.,  king  of  Scots ;  lady  Mary  was  affianced  to 

Charles  king  of  Castile. 
Prince  Not  long  before  the  death  of  king  Henry,  prince  Arthur  his 
marries  eldest  son  had  espoused  lady  Katharine,  daughter  to  Ferdinand, 
Katha.  being  of  the  age  of  fifteen  years,  and  she  about  the  age  of  seventeen  ; 
!'»;  "is  and  shortly  after  his  marriage,  within  five  months  he  departed  at  Lud- 
King'  low,  and  was  buried  at  Worcester.  After  his  decease,  the  succession 
marrieth  of  the  crown  fell  next  to  king  Henry  VIII.,  who,  being  of  the  age  of 
eighteen  years,  entered  his  reign  a.d.  1509,  and  shortly  after 
married  with  the  aforesaid  Katharine,  his  late  brother  prince  Arthur's 
wife,  to  the  end  that  her  dowry,  being  great,  should  not  be  trans- 
ported out  of  the  land  ;  in  the  which  his  marriage  (being  more  politic 
than  Bcripture-like),  he  was  dispensed  with  by  pope  Julius,  at  the 
request  of  Ferdinand  her  father.     The  reign  of  this  king  continued 

(i)  Kx  Maiaeo,  lib.  ao. 

(2  I'rngmatiia  K. mi  tin,  was  a  practising  or  a  determination  of  a  certain  parliament  in  Fratice 
against  the  bli  nor  '  '  l(  "■"  ■  In  defence  of  certain  matters  of  religion  concluded  in  the  council  of 
BOalL  r    Bee  vol   iv.  p  120. -Ed. 




with  great  nobleness  and  feme  the  space  of  thirty-eight  years;  during    //.<•«>■., 

•whose  time  and   reign  was  great  alteration  of  things,  as  well  to  the 1 

civil  state  of  the  realm,  as  especially  to  the  state  ecclesiastical,  and  A.l). 
matters  to  the  church  appertaining.  For  by  him  was  exiled  and  150a- 
abolished  out  of  the  realm  the  usurped  power  of  the  bishop  of  Rome, 
idolatry  and  superstition  somewhat  repressed,  images  and  pilgrimages 
defaced,  abbeys  and  monasteries  pulled  down,  sects  of  religion  rooted 
out,  Scriptures  reduced  to  the  knowledge  of  the  vulgar  tongue,  and 
the  state  of  the  church  and  religion  redressed.  Concerning  all  which 
things,  in  the  process  of  the  volumes  here  following,  we  will  endea- 
vour (Christ  willing)  particularly  and  in  order  to  discourse;  after  that 
first,  we  shall  comprehend  a  few  matters,  which,  within  the  beginning 
of  his  reign,  are  to  be  noted  and  collected:  where  (leaving  off  to 
write  of  Empson  and  Dudley,  who,  in  the  time  of  king  Henry  VIL, 
being  great  doers  in  executing  the  penal  laws  over  the  people  at  that 
time,  and  purchasing  thereby  more  malice  than  lands,  with  that  which 
they  had  gotten,  were,  shortly  after  the  entering  of  this  king,  beheaded, 
the  one  a  knight,  the  other  an  esquire :  leaving  also  to  intermeddle 
with  his  wars,  triumphs,  and  other  temporal  affairs),  we  mean  in  these 
volumes  principally  to  bestow  our  travail  in  declaration  of  matters 
concerning  most  chiefly  the  state  of  the  church,  and  of  religion,  as 
well  in  this  church  of  England,  as  also  of  the  whole  church  of  Rome. 

Herein  first  cometh  to  our  hands  i  a  turbulent  tragedy,  and  a 
fierce  contention,  which  long  before  had  troubled  the  church,  and 
now  this  present  year,  1509,  was  renewed  afresh  between  two  certain 
orders  of  Begging  Friars,  to  wit,  the  Dominic  Friars  and  the  Francis- 
cans, about  the  conception  of  the  Virgin  Mary,  the  mother  of  Christ. 

The   Franciscans  were  they  who   did  hold  of  St.   Francis,  and  Frand 
followed  the  rule  of  his  testament,  commonly  called  Grey  Friars  or  j££», 
Minorites.    Their  opinion  was  this,  that  the  Virgin  Mary,  prevented 
by  the  grace  of  the  Holy  Ghost,  was  so  sanctified,  that  she  was 
never  subject  one  moment  in  her  conception  to  original  sin.     The 
Dominic  Friars  were  those,  who,  holding  of  Dominic,  were  commonly  Dom 
called  Black  Friars,  or  preaching  friars.    Their  opinion  was  this :  that 
the  Virgin  Mary  was  conceived  as  all  other  children  of  Adam  be ; 
so  that  this  privilege  only  belongeth  to  Christ,  to  be  conceived  with- 
out original  sin :  notwithstanding,  the  said  blessed  virgin  was  sancti- 
fied in  her  mother's  womb,  and  purged  from  her  original  sin,  so  as 
was  John   Baptist,  Jeremy,  or  any  other  privileged  person.     This  i 
frivolous  question  kindling  and  engendering  between   these  two  sects  „  11M, 
of  friars,  burst  out  into  such  a  flame  of  parts  and  sides-taking,  that  Jj^J, 
it    occupied  the  heads   and  wits,    schools  and  universities,   almost  for  the 
through  the  whole  church;  some  holding  one  part  with  Scotus,  some  tionof 
the  other  part  with  Thomas  Aquinas.     The  Minorites  holding  with  ^M«y. 
Scotus  their  master,  disputed  and  concluded,  that  she  was  conceived 
without  all  spot  or  note  of  original  sin  ;  and  thereupon  caused  the 
feast  and  service  of  the  conception  of  St.  Mary  the  Virgin,  to  be 
celebrated  and  solemnized  in  the  church.  Contrary,  the  Dominic  friars, 
taking  side  with  Aquinas,  preached,  that  it  was  heresy  to  affirm  that 
the  blessed  virgin  was  conceived  without  the  guilt   of  original    sin; 
and  that  those  who  did  celebrate  the  feast  of  her  conception,  or  said 
any  masses  thereof,  did  sin  grievously  and  mortally. 


lil(H>  dis- 


if<-ir,j        Tn  the  mean  time,  as  this  fantasy  waxed  hot  in  the  church,  the  one 

_^_  side  preaching  against  the  other,  came  pope  Sixtus  IV.,  a.d.  1476, 

who,  joining  side  with  the  Minorites  or  Franciscans,  first  sent  forth  his 

decree  by  authority  apostolic,  willing,  ordaining,  and  commanding  all 

nun  to  solemnize  this  new-found  feast  of  the  conception,  in  holy 

church  for  evermore  :   offering  to  all  men  and  women,  who,  devoutly 

•'.Mtion'of  frequenting  the  church,  would  hear  mass  and  service  from  the  first 

iheVir-    even-song  of  the  said  feast,  to  the  octaves  of  the  same,  as  many  days 

of  pardon,  as  pope  Urban  IV.,  and  pope  Martin  V.,  did  grant  for 

hearing  the  service  of  Corpus  Christi  day,  &c.     And  this  decree  was 

given  and  dated  at  Rome,  a.d.  1476. 

Moreover  the  same  pope,  to  the  intent  that  the  devotion  of  the 
people  might  be  the  more  encouraged  to  the  celebration  of  this  con- 
ception, added  a  clause  more  to  the  Ave  Maria,  granting  great  indul- 
gence and  release  of  sins  to  all   such  as  would  invocate  the  blessed 
a  new      Virgin  with  the  same  addition,  saying  thus  :  "Ave  Maria  gratia  plena, 
Ha  of  ti'e  Dominus  tecum,  benedicta  tu  in  mulieribus,  et  benedictus  fructus 
making    vcntris  tlu'  Jesus  Christus ;  et  benedicta  sit  Anna  mater  tua,  de  qua, 
He  add-    sine  macula,  tua  processit  caro  Virginia.     Amen."     That  is,  "  Hail  ! 
wiwds  of8  Mar}'i  fi^l  °f  grace,  the  Lord  is  with,  thee  ;  blessed  art  thou  among 
scripture,  women,  and  blessed  is  the  fruit  of  thy  womb,  Jesus  Christ ;  and 
blessed  is  Anna  thy  mother,  of  whom  thy  virgin's  flesh  hath  pro- 
ceeded without  blot  of  original  sin.     Amen.1'' 
Three  ab-      Wherein  thou  mayest  note,  gentle  reader  !  for  thy  learning  three 
t',"i,'  M  things:  First,  how  the  pope  turneth  that  improperly  into  a  prayer, 
which  properly  was  sent  of  God  for  a  message  or  tidings.     Secondly, 
how  the  pope  addeth  to  the  Avords  of  the  Scripture,  contrary  to  the 
express  precept  of  the  Lord.      Thirdly,  how  the  pope  exempteth 
Mary  the  blessed  Virgin,  not  only  from  the  seed  of  Abraham  and 
Adam,  but  also  from  the  condition  of  a  mortal  creature.   For  if  there 
be  in  her  no  original  sin,  then  she  bareth  not  the  image  of  Adam, 
neither  doth  she  descend  of  that  seed,  of  whose  seed  evil  proceedeth 
upon  all  men  and  women,  to  condemnation  ;  as  St.  Paul  doth  teach, 
Rom.  v.     Wherefore  if  she  descend  of  that  seed,  then  the  infection 
of  original  evil  must  necessarily  proceed  unto  her.     If  she  descend 
not  thereof,  then  cometh  she  not  of  the  seed  of  Abraham,  nor  of  the 
seed   of  David,   &c.      Again,    seeing   that  death   is  the   effect  and 
stipend  of  sin,  by  the  doctrine  of  St,  Paul  [Rom.  vi.],  then  had  her 
flesh  injury  by  the  law,  as  Christ  himself  had,  to  suffer  the  maledic- 
tion and  punishment  of  death  ;  and  so  should  she  never  have  died,  if 
original  sin  had  no  place  in  her,  &c.     But  to  return  unto  our  story: 
This  constitution  of  the  pope  being  set  forth  for  the  conception  of 
the  Messed  Virgin,  which  was  a.d.  1476,  it  was  not  long  after  but 
the  said  pope  Sixtus,  perceiving  that  the  Dominic  friars  with  their 
complices  would  not  conform  themselves  hereunto,  directed  forth,  by 
the  authority  apostolical,  a  bull  in  effect  as  followcth  :' 

I  he  tenor  of  the  Pope's  Bull,  for  the  conception  of  the  Virgin  to 
be  without  original  Sin. 
V.  Iicicis  the  holy  church  of  Rome  hath  ordained  a  special  and  proper  service 
for  the  puhlic  Bolemnwing  of  the  feast  of  the  conception  of  the  blessed  Virgin 
■"■■  ta  "R  !  i    •    ;  i    e   iiti  meralae,  seiniterqiie  virgih&C  fcc 


ON    THK    CONCEPTION    OK    THE    VIRGIN    MARY.  169 

Mary ;  certain  orders  of  the  Black  Friars,  in  their  puhlic  sermons  to  the  people  u,„r,, 
in  divers  places,  have  not  ceased  hitherto  to  preach,  and  yet  daily  do,  that  all  y'"- 
those  who  hold  or  affirm  the  said  glorious  Virgin  to  have  been  conceived  without  .  n 
original  sin,  be  heretics ;  and  those  who  celebrate  the  service  of  the  said  her  \  V .!, ' 
conception,  or  do  hear  the  sermons  of  those  who  do  so  affirm,  do  sin  grievously :  '  ' 

Also,  not  contented  herewith,  they  do  write  and  set  forth  books  moreover, 
maintaining  their  assertions,  to  the  great  offence  and  ruin  of  godly  minds:  We, 
therefore,  to  prevent  and  withstand  such  presumptuous  and  perverse  assertions 
as  have  arisen,  and  more  hereafter  may  arise,  by  such  opinions  and  preach- 
ings aforesaid,  in  the  minds  of  the  faithful;  by  the  authority  apostolical,  dp 
condemn  and  reprove  the  same;  and  by  the  motion,  knowledge,  and  authority 
aforesaid,  decree  and  ordain,  That  the  preachers  of  God's  word,  and  all  other 
persons,  of  what  state,  degree,  order,  or  condition  soever  they  be,  who  shall 
presume  to  dare  affirm,  or  preach  to  the  people  these  aforesaid  opinions  and 
assertions  to  be  true,  or  shall  read,  hold,  or  maintain  any  such  books  for  true, 
having  before  intelligence  hereof,  shall  incur  thereby  the  sentence  of  excom- 
munication, from  which  they  shall  not  be  absolved  otherwise  than  by  the  bishop 
of  Rome ;  except  only  in  the  time  of  death. 

This  bull,  being  dated  a. d.  1488,  gave  no  little  heart  and  en- 
couragement to  the  Grey  Friars  Franciscan,  who  defended  the  pure 
conception  of  the  holy  Virgin  against  the  Black  Dominic  friars,  with 
their  confederates,  holding  the  contrary  side ;  by  the  vigour  of  which 
bull,  the  grey  order  had  got  such  a  conquest  of  the  black  guard  of 
the  Dominies,  that  the  said  Dominies  were  compelled  at  length,  for  a 
perpetual  memorial  of  the  triumph,  both  to  give  to  the  glorious 
Virgin  every  night  an  anthem  in  praise  of  her  conception,  and  also 
to  subscribe  unto  their  doctrine ;  in  which  doctrine  these,  with  clivers 
other  points,  be  contained. 

I.  That  blessed  Mary  the  Virgin  suffered  the  griefs  and  adversities  in  this 
life,  not  for  any  necessity  inflicted  for  punishment  of  original  sin,  but  only  be- 
cause she  would  conform  herself  to  the  imitation  of  Christ.1 

II.  That  the  said  Virgin,  as  she  was  not  obliged  to  any  punishment  due  for  Filthy ab- 
sin,  as  neither  was  Christ  her  Son,  so  she  had  no  need  of  remission  of  sins;  but  surdities 
instead  thereof  had  the  divine  preservation  of  God's  help,  keeping  her  from  all  JJLe'g 
sin,  which  grace  only  she  needed,  and  also  had  it.  doctrine. 

III.  Item,  That  whereas  the  body  of  the  Virgin  Mary  was  subject  to  death,  How  the 
and  died;  this  is  to  be  understood  to  come  not  for  any  penalty  due  for  sin,  but  w!rrJ.", 
either  for  imitation  and  conformity  unto  Christ,  or  else  for  the  natural  consti-  j,  1 1  to 
tution  of  her  body,  being  elemental,  as  were  the  bodies  of  our  first  parents  :  who,  death, 
if  they  had  not  tasted  of  the  forbidden  fruit,  should  have  been  preserved  from  |rf^> 
death,  not  by  nature,  but  by  grace,  and  strength   of  other  fruits  and  meats  in  opinions, 
Paradise :  which  meats  because  Mary  had  not,  but  did  eat  our  common  meats, 
therefore  she  died,  and  not  for  any  necessity  of  original  Bin.2 

IV.  The  universal  proposition  of  St.  Paul,  which  saith,  That  the  Scripture 
hath  concluded  all  men  under  sin,  is  to  be  understood  thus ;  as  speaking  of  all 
those  who  be  not  exempted  by  the  special  privilege  of  God,  as  is  the  blessed 
Virgin  Mary. 

V.  If  justification  be  taken  for  reconciliation  of  hiin  that  was  unrighteous 
before,  and  now  is  made  righteous;  then  the  blessed  Virgin  is  to  be  taken,  not 
for  justified  by  Christ,  but  just  from  her  beginning  by  preservation. 

VI.  If  a  Saviour  be  taken  for  him  who  savetb  men  fallen  into  perdition  and 
condemnation  ;  so  is  not  Christ  the  Saviour  of  Mary,  but  is  her  Saviour  only  in 
this  respect,  for  sustaining  her  from  not  falling  into  condemnation,  ike. 

VII.  Neither  did  the  Virgin  Mary  give  thanks  to  God,  nor  ought  so  to  do, 
for  expiation  of  her  sins,  but  for  her  conservation  from  case  of  sinning. 

(1)  Ex  Jod.  Clitoviro  de  puritate  conceptions,  lib.  ii. 

(J)  CHtovaeus,  lib.  ii.  cap.  2.  ["  ClitOVSDUS,"  a  Frenchman  and  canon  of  ChatrC3.  II!s  writings  arc 
enumerated  in  Ant.  Possevini  apparatus  sneer;  Col.  Agrip.  1608:  torn,  i  p. 900:  ate  also  the 
Autographa  Lutheri  aliorndiqtie  ;  Brunt  i  Iga  1096,  torn.  i.  p.  42.— Ed.] 


Bmrw  VIII.  Neither  did  she  pray  to  God  at  any  time  for  remission  of  her  sins,  but 

VIII.  011iv  for  the  remission  of  other  men's  sins  she  prayed  many  times,  and  counted 

.    n  their  sins  for  hers. 

V  IX.   If  the  blessed  Virgin  had  deceased  before  the  passion  of  her  Son,  God 

lo()-)-  would  have  reposed  her  soul  not  in  the  place  among  the  patriarchs,  or  amongst 

Good  the  just,  but  in  the  same  most  pleasant  place  of  Paradise,  where  Adam  and  Eve 

*tufn  were,  before  they  trail 

These  were  the  doting  dreams  and  fantasies  of  the  Franciscans,  and 
of  other  papists,  commonly  then  holden  in  the  schools,  written  in 
their  books,  preached  in  their  sermons,  taught  in   churches,  and  set 
forth  in  pictures.1    So  that  the  people  Avere  taught  nothing  else  almost 
in  the  pulpits  all  this  while,  but  how  the  Virgin  Mary  was  conceived 
immaculate  and  holy,  without  original  sin,  and  how  they  ought  to 
call  to  her  for  help,  whom  they  with  special  terms  do  call,  '  the  way 
of  mercy,''  '  the  mother  of  grace,1  '  the  lover  of  piety,'  the  com- 
forter of  mankind,''  *  the  continual  intercessor  for  the  salvation  of  the 
faithful,1  and  '  an  advocate  to  the  King  her  Son  that  never  ceaseth,"1 
idolatry    &c-2     And  although  the  greatest  number  of  the  school-doctors  were 
{*»  *•      of  the  contrary  faction,   as   Peter  the  Lombard,   Thomas  Aquinas, 
virgin.     Bernard,  Bonaventure,  and  others ;  yet  these  new  papists  shifted  off 
their  objections  with  frivolous  distinctions  and  blind  evasions,  as  thus: 
"  Peter  the  Lombard,''''  they  said,  "  is  not  received  nor  holden  in  the 
schools  as  touching  this  article,  but  is  rejected."'13 
Otyec-  Bernard,4  although  he  seemeth  to  deny  the  conception  of  the 

l.'l'hiv"  blessed  Virgin  to  be  void  of  original  sin,  saying,  that  she  could  not 
■aimed,  be  holy  when  she  was  not,  and  lived  not :  to  this  they  answer,  that 
albeit  she  was  not  yet  in  essence,  yet  she  was  holy  in  her  conception, 
and  before  conception,  in  the,  divine  prescience  of  God,  who  had 
chosen  and  pre-elected  her  before  the  worlds,  to  be  the  mother  of 
the  Lord. 

Again  ;  where  Bernard  doth  argue,  that  she  was  not  without  ori- 
ginal sin  conceived,  because  she  was  not  conceived  by  the  Holy 
Ghost :  to  this  they  answer,  that  the  Holy  Ghost  may  work  two  ways 
in  conception ;  either  without  company  of  man,  and  so  was  Christ 
only  conceived  ;  or  else  with  company  and  help  of  man,  and  thus  was 
the  blessed  Virgin  conceived.6 
Popisii  Bonaventure  (say  they)  was  a  holy  father,  but  he  spake  then  after 

.N.A'i'in"'  the  custom  and  manner  of  his  time,  when  the  solemnity  and  purity 
ti'nu''  'y  °f  tms  conception  was  not  yet  decreed  nor  received  by  the  public 
consent  and  authority  of  the  church.  Now,  seeing  the  authority  of 
the  church  of  Rome  hath  established  the  same,  it  ought  not  to  be 
contraried,  nor  can,  without  dangerous  disobedience.  In  all  men's 
actions  diligent  respect  of  time  must  be  had.  That  which  bindcth 
not  at  one  time,  afterwards  the  same  by  law  being  ratified,  may  bind 
at  another.0 
verity  Finally,  for  the  number  and  multitude  on  the  contrary  side,  thus 

i„  they  answer  for  themselves,  as  we  now  in  these  our  days  likewise,  in 
defence  of  the  truth,  may  well  answer  against  the  pope,  and  all  his 
popish  friars,  turning  their  own  weapons  against  themselves    "  Mul- 

(1)  The  Grey  Friars  had  made  a  picture  of  Joachim  and  Anna  kissing,  by  which  kbs  Anna  was 

i  '1  with  Mary.     1.x  Hob.  Lycio  Minorita. 
(21  Verba  papas  Sexti  In  decret.  (S)  CUtovseus,  lib.  ii.  cap.  15. 

ILugdunens.  (5)  Cut.  lib.  ii.  cap.  14.  (C)  Ibid. 

OX    THE    CONCEPTION    OF    THE    VJBGIK    MARY.  171 

titude,"  say  they,  "  ought  not  to  move  us ;  victory  consisteth  not  in    rimy 
number  and  heaps,  but  in  fortitude  and.  hearts  of  soldiers  ;  yea,  rather    ' 

fortitude  and  stomach  cometh  from  heaven,  and  not  of  man.     Judas    A1)- 
Maccabeus,  with  a  little  handful,  overthrew  the  great  army  of  Anti-    l'A>'h 
oclms.     Strong  Samson,  with  a  poor  ass's   bone,   slew  a  thousand  to,y !» 
Philistines.     David  had  no  more  but  a  silly  sling,  and  a  lew  stones,  tudeof 
and  with  these  struck  down  terrible  Goliath  the  giant,"1  &c.  soldiers. 

With  these  and  other  like  reasons  the  grey  Franciscans  voided 
their  adversaries,  defending  the  conception  of  the  Virgin  Mary  to  be 
unblemished,  and  pure  from  all  contagion  of  original  sin.     Contrari- 
wise, the  black  guard  of  the  Dominic  friars,  for  their  parts,  were  not 
all  mute,  but  laid  lustily  from  them  again,  having  great  authorities, 
and  also  the  Scripture  on  their  side,    out  yet  the  others,  having  the  The 
see  apostolical  with  them,  had  the  better  hand,  and  in  fine  got  the  Side 
victory  triumphantly  over  the  others,  to  the  high  exaltation  of  their  JJJJJ^ 
order.     For  pope  Sixtus,  as  I  said,  by  the  authority  apostolical,  after  scnp- 
he  had  decreed  the  conception-day  of  the  Virgin  perpetually  to  be  tur 
sanctified,  and  also,  with  his  terrible  bull,  had  condemned  for  heretics 
all  those  who  withstood  the  same  ;  the  Dominic  friars,  with  authority 
oppressed,  were  driven  to  two  inconveniences  :  the  one  was,  to  keep 
silence  ;  the  other  was,  to  give  plaee  to  their  adversaries  the  Francis 
cans.     Albeit,  where  the  mouth  durst  not  speak,  yet  the  heart  would 
work ;  and  though  their  tongues  were  tied,  yet  their  goodwill  was 
ready  by  all  means  possible  to  maintain  then:  quarrel  and  their  esti- 

Whereupon  it  happened  the  same  year,  a.d.  1509,  after  this  dis- 
sension between  the  Dominic  friars  and  the  Franciscans,  that  certain 
of  the  Dominies,  thinking  by  subtle  sleight  to  work  in  the  people's 
heads  that  which  they  durst  not  achieve  with  open  preaching,  devised 
a  certain  image  of  the  Virgin2  so  artificially  wrought,  that  the  friars, 
by  privy  gins,  made  it  to  stir,  and  to  make  gestures,  to  lament,  to 
complain,  to  weep,  to  groan,  and  to  give  answers  to  them  that  asked ;  Four 
insomuch  that  the  people  therewith  were  brought  in  a  marvellous  I,™  .lt 
persuasion,  till  at  length  the  fraud  being  espied,  the  friars  were  taken,  Bcl"L- 
condemned,  and  burnt  at  Berne,  in  the  year  above-mentioned.3 

In  the  story  of  John  Stumsius,  this  story  aforesaid  doth  partly 
appear :  but  in  the  registers  and  records  of  the  city  of  Berne,  the 
order  and  circumstance  thereof  is  more  fully  expressed  and  set  forth 
both  in  metre  and  prose,  and  is  thus  declared  : 

In  the  city  of  Berne4  there  were  certain  Dominic  friars,  to  the 
number  chiefly  of  four  principal  doers  and  chieftains  of  that  order, 
who  had  inveigled  a  certain  simple  poor  friar,  who  had  newly  planted 
himself  in  the  cloister;  whom  the  aforesaid  friars  had  so  infatuated 
with  sundry  superstitions,  and  feigned  apparitions  of  St.  Mary,  St. 
Barbara,  and  St.  Katharine,  and  with  their  enchantments,  ami  im- 
printing, moreover,  in  him  the  wounds  of  St.  Francis,  that  he  believed 
plainly  that  the  Virgin  Mary  had  appeared  to  him,  and  had  offered 

(1)  Lib.  eod.  cap.  13. 

(2)  E.\   Casparo   Peucero   [Chronicon    Carionis   auct.    Casp.    Peuccro :    Witcb.  1566;    torn.  iv. 
p.  330.— En.]     Sebast.  Minister.  COBUlOg.  lib. ill 

(3j  Ex  Pcucer.  Si'bast.  Munstero,  Carione,  et  ;iliis.     In  tin-  Centuries  "f  John  Hale  I  find  their 
names  to  be,  John  Vctter,  Francis  Uliscus,  Stephen  Bolishorst,  ;uul  Henry  SUinegger. 

(4)  Ex  llistoria  Iiernensi  nonscripta  v ulnar i  et  Latino  sermone.    [See  also  the  "Tragical  History 

of  Jetrer,"  E;c.  fol.  Loudon:  1G7'J;  also  "Protestant  Journal,"  13u'i,  p.  121.  — Eu] 


Henry    \{xm  a  red  host  consecrated  with  the  blood  also  of  Christ  miraculous; 

1 IIL    which  blessed  Virgin  also  had  sent  him  to  the  senators  of  Berne, 

A 1}-    with  instructions,  declaring  unto  them  from  the  mouth  of  the  Virgin, 

150!j-    that  she  was  conceived  in  sin  ;  and  that  the  Franciscan  friars  were 

not  to  be  credited,  nor  suffered  in  the  city,  who  were  not  yet  reformed 

from  that  erroneous  opinion  of  her  conception.    He  added  moreover, 

that  they  should  resort  to  a  certain  image  there  of  the  Virgin  Mary 

(which  image  the  friars  by  engines  had  made  to  sweat),  and  should  do 

their  worship,  and  make  their  oblations  to  the  same,  &c. 

This  feigned  device  was  no  sooner  forged  by  the  friars,  but  it  was 
as  soon  believed  of  the  people ;  so  that  a  great  while  the  red-coloured 
host  was  undoubtedly  taken  for  the  true  body  and  blood  of  Christ, 
and  certain  coloured  drops  thereof  sent  abroad  to  clivers  noble  per- 
sonages and  states  for  a  great  relic ;  and  that,  not  without  great 
recompense.  Thus  the  deceived  people  in  great  numbers  came 
flocking  to  the  image,  and  to  the  red  host  and  coloured  blood,  with 
manifold  gifts  and  oblations.  In  brief,  the  Dominic  friars  so  had 
wrought  the  matter,  and  had  so  swept  all  the  fat  to  their  own  beards 
from  the  order  of  the  Franciscans,  that  all  the  alms  came  to  their 
box.  The  Franciscans,  seeing  their  estimation  to  decay,  and  their 
kitchen  to  wax  cold,  and  their  paunches  to  be  pinched,  not  able  to 
abide  that  contumely,  and  being  not'  ignorant  or  unacquainted  with 
such  counterfeited  doings  (for  as  the  proverb  saith,  "  It  is  ill,  halting 
before  a  cripple"),  eftsoons  espied  their  crafty  juggling,  and  detected 
their  fraudulent  miracles.  Whereupon  the  four  chief  captains  above- 
named  were  apprehended,  and  put  to  the  fire,  of  whom  the  provincial 
of  that  order  was  one. 

Friars  And  thus  much  touching  the  beginning  and  end  of  this  tumultuous 

can  agree  and  popish  tragedy,  wherein  evidently  it  may  appear  to  the  reader, 
them-      h°w  neither  these  turbulent  friars  could  agree  among  themselves,  and 
noreetdo  ^  ct  m  w^*'  ^vo'ous  trifles  they  wrangled  together.    But  to  let  these 
tUnagree    ridiculous  friars  pass  with  their  trifling  fantasies,  most  worthy  to  be 
vain"      derided  of  all  wise  men,  in  the  mean  time  this  is  to  be  lamented,  to 
trifles,      behold  the  miserable  times  of  the  church,  in  which  the  devil  kept  the 
minds  of  Christ's  people  so  attentive,  and  occupied  in  such  friarly 
toys,  that  nothing  else  almost  was  taught  or  heard  in  the  church,  but 
only  the  commendation  and  exaltation  of  the  Virgin  Mary  :  but  of 
our  justification  by  faith,  of  grace,  and  of  the  promises  of  God  in 
Christ,  of  the  strength  of  the  law,  of  the  horror  of  sin,  of  difference 
between  the  law  and  the  gospel,  of  the  true  liberty  of  conscience,  &c, 
no  mention,  or  very  little,  was  heard.     Wherefore  in  this  so  blind  a 
time  of  darkness  it  was  much  needful  and  requisite,  that  the  Lord  of 
his  mercy  should  look  upon  his  church,  and  send  down  his  gracious 
reformation,  which  also  he  did:  for  shortly  upon  the  same,  through 
the  gracious  excitation  of  God,  came  Martin  Luther,  of  whom   the 
order  of  story  now  requireth  that  we  should,  and  will  entreat  (Christ 
willing),  alter  the  story  of  Richard  Hun,  and  a  few  other  things  pre- 
mised, for  the  better  opening1  of  the  story  to  follow. 

Mention  was  made  sufficiently  before  of  the  doings  of  pope  Julius, 
,ihii„'  and  ol  his  warlike  affairs,  for  which  he  was  condemned,  and  not  un- 
""r"'r    justly,  in  the  council  of  Tours  in  France,  a.d.  1510,  and  vet  all  this 


could  not  assuage  the  furious  affection  of  this  pope,  but  the  same    iienry 

year  he  invaded  the  cities  of  Modena  and  Mirandola  in  Italy,  and 

took  them  by  force  of  war.     This  pope  Julius  not  long  after,  a.d.    A.D. 

1512,  refusing  peace  offered  by  Maximilian  the  emperor,  was  en-    1509- 
countered  by  Louis  the  French  king  about  Ravenna,  upon  Easter-  The  pope 
day,  where  he  was  vanquished,  and  had  of  his  army  slain  to  the  ?*"a™™e 
number  of  sixteen  thousand.1     And  the  year  next  following,  a.d. 

1513,  this  apostolical  warrior,  who  had  resigned  his  keys  unto  the 
river  Tibur  before,  made  an  end  together  both  of  his  fighting  and  The 
living,  after  he  had  reigned  and  fought  ten  years.     After  whom  sue-  p^e  ° 
ceeded  next  in  the  see  of  Rome,  pope  Leo  X. ;  about  the  compass  Jlllius 
of  which  time  great  mutations  and  stirs  began  to  work,  as  well  in 
states  temporal,  as  especially  in  the  state  of  the  church. 

The  State  and  Succession  of  Princes. 


Pope  Leo  X.,  in  Rome       ....       a.d.  1513  ....    reigned     .  9 

Charles  V.,  emperor  of  Germany      ...     1519 39 

Francis,  king  of  France 1515 32 

Henry  VIII.,  king  of  England    ....     1509 38 

James  V.,  king  of  Scotland 1514 29 

In  the  time  of  which  pope,  emperor,  and  kings  of  England,  France, 
and  Scotland,  great  alterations,  troubles,  and  turns  of  religion  were 
wrought  in  the  church,  by  the  mighty  operation  of  God"s  hand,  in 
Italy,  France,  Germany,  England,  and  all  Europe ;  such  as  have  not 
been  seen  (although,  much  groaned  for)  many  hundred  years  before : 
as  in  further  discourse  of  this  history,  Christ  willing,  shall  more  mani- 
festly appear. 

But  before  we  come  to  these  alterations,  taking  the  time  as  it  lieth 
before  us,  we  will  first  speak  of  Richard  Hun,  and  certain  other  godly 
minded  pe\sons  here  in  England,  afflicted  for  the  word  of  Christ's 
gospel  in  great  multitudes,  as  they  be  found  and  taken  out  of  the 
registers  of  Fitzjames,  bishop  of  London,  by  the  faithful  help  and 
industry  of  R.  Carket,  citizen  of  London. 


Amongst  and  besides  the  great  number  of  the  faithful  martyrs  and  i"*-1*09 
professors  of  Christ,  that  constantly,  in  the  strength  of  the  Holy  Ghost, 
gave  their  lives  for  the  testimony  of  his  truth,  I  find  recorded  in  the 
register2  of  London,  between  the  years  of  our  Lord  1509  and  1527, 
the  names  of  divers  other  persons,  both  men  and  women,  who,  in  the 
fulness  of  that  dark  and  misty  time  of  ignorance,  had  also  some  por- 
tion of  Goofs  good  Spirit,  which  induced  them  to  the  knowledge  of 
his  truth  and  gospel,  and  were  diversely  troubled,  persecuted,  and 
imprisoned  for  the  same.  Notwithstanding  by  the  proud,  cruel,  and 
bloody  rage  of  the  Catholic  seat,  and  through  the  weakness  and  frailty 
of  their  own  nature  (not  then  fully  strengthened  in  God),  it  was  again 
(l)  Ex  Chron.  Carion.  (2)  F.x  Registrk  Fitzjames. 




in  them  for  the  time  suppressed  and  kept  under,  as  appearcth  by  their 
several  abjurations  made  before  Richard  Fitzjames,  then  bishop  of 
London  (in  his  time  a  most  cruel  persecutor  of  Christ's  church),  or 
else  before  his  vicar-general,  deputed  for  the  same.  And  forasmuch 
as  many  of  the  adversaries  of  God's  truth  have  of  late  days  disdain- 
fully and  braggingly  cried  out,  and  made  demands  in  their  public 
assemblies,  and  yet  do,  asking,  Where  this  our  church  and  religion 
Mas  within  these  fifty  or  sixty  years  ?  I  have  thought  it  not  altogether 
vain,  somewhat  to  stop  such  lying  crakers,  both  by  mentioning  their 
names,  and  likewise  opening  some  of  the  chief  and  principal  matters 
for  which  they  were  so  unmercifully  afflicted  and  molested:  thereby 
to  give  to  understand,  as  well  the  continuance  and  consent  of  the  true 
church  of  Christ  in  that  age,  touching  the  chief  points  of  our  faith 
(though  not  in  like  perfection  of  knowledge  and  constancy  in  all),  as 
also  by  the  way  something  to  touch  what  fond  and  frivolous  matters 
the  ignorant  prelates  shamed  not  in  that  time  of  blindness  to  object 
against  the  poor  and  simple  people,  accounting  them  as  heinous  and 
great  offences,  yea,  such  as  deserved  death  both  of  body  and  soul. 
But  lest  I  should  seem  too  prolix  and  tedious  herein,  I  will  now 
briefly  proceed  with  the  story,  and  first  begin  with  their  names,  which 
are  these : 

Thomas  Austy? 

Joan  Austy. 

Thomas  Grant. 

John  Garter. 

Christopher  Ravins. 

Dyonise  Ravins. 

Thomas  Vincent. 

Lewis  John. 

Joan  John. 

A.D.  1512. 

John  Webb,  alias  Baker. 
A.D.  1517. 

John  Houshold. 

Robert  Rascal. 
A.D.  1518. 

Elizabeth  Stanford. 

George  Browne. 

A.D.  1510.1 
Joan  Baker. 
William  Pottier. 
John  Forge. 
Thomas  Goodred. 
Thomas  Walker,  alias 

Thomas  Forge. 
Alice  Forge. 
John  Forge,  their  son. 
William  Cowper. 
'John  Calverton. 
John  Woodrof. 

A.D.  1511. 
Richard  Woolman. 
Roger  Hilliar. 
Alice  Cowper. 

John  Wikes. 
John  Southake. 
Richard  Butler. 
John  Samme. 

A.D.  1521. 
William  King. 
Robert  Durdant. 
Henry  Woolman. 
Edmund  Spilman. 

A.D.  1523. 
John  Higges,  alias 
Noke,  alias  Johnson, 

A.D.  1526. 
Henry  Chambers. 
John  Higgins. 

A.D.  1527. 
Thomas  Egleston. 


To  these  were  divers  and  sundry  particular  articles  (besides  the 
common  and  general  sort  accustomably  used  in  such  cases)  privately 
objected ;  even  such  as  they  were  then  accused  of  either  by  their 
curate,  or  others  their  neighbours.  And  because  I  think  it  somewhat 
superfluous  to  make  any  large  recital  of  all  and  every  part  of  their 
several  process,  I  mind  therefore  briefly  only  to  touch  so  many  of 
their  articles  as  may  be  sufficient  to  induce  the  christian  reader  to 
judge  the  sooner  of  the  rest;  being  (I  assure  you)  of  no  greater  im- 
portance than  these  that  follow:  except  that  sometimes  they  were 
charged,  most  slanderously,  with  horrible  and  blasphemous  lies  against 
the  majesty  and  truth  of  God;  which  as  they  utterly  denied,  so  do  I 
now  lor  this  present  keep  secret  in  silence,  as  well  for  brevity's  sake, 

(1)  Ex  Hcgist.  R.  Fitzjnincs. 

PERSECUTION1    IN    THK    DIOCESE    Of    LONDON'.  175 

as  also  somewhat  to  colour  and  hide  the  shameless  practices  of  that    Bmrv 
lying  generation.     But  to  our  purpose. 

A.  D. 

Sloan  3a&eu  anD  tfjictn^ninc  otfjetf.  15t°9 


The  chief  objections  against  Joan  Baker  were  as  follows :  That  si 


would  not  only  herself  not  reverence  the  crucifix,  but  had  also  persuaded 
a  friend  of  hers,  lying  at  the  point  of  death,  not  to  put  any  trust  or 
confidence  in  the  crucifix,  but  in  God  who  is  in  heaven,  who  only  Against 
worketh  all  the  miracles  that  be  done,  and  not  the  dead  images,  which  ^ 
be  but  stocks  and  stones  ;  and  therefore  she  was  sorry  that  ever  she  ^oyuci" 
had  gone  so  often  on  pilgrimage  to  St.  Saviour  and  other  idols.  Also,  cross. 
that  she  did  hold  opinion,  that  the  pope  had  no  power  to  give  pardons,  Jy^™^ 
and  that  the  lady  Young  (who  was  not  long  before  that  time  burned)  tady 
died  a  true  martyr  of  God ;  and  therefore  she  wished  of  God,  that  she  martyr. 
herself  might  do  no  worse  than  the  said  lady  Young  had  done. 

Unto  William  Pottier,  besides  divers  other  false  and  slanderous  wiiiiam 
articles  (as  that  he  should  deny  the  benefit  and  effect  of  Christ's  pas-  p°j^er' 
sion)  it  was  also  alleged  as  under :  That  he  should  affirm  there  were  slander  of 
six  Gods:  the  first  three  were  the  holy  Trinity,  the  Father,  the  Son,  venaries. 
and  the  Holy  Ghost ;  the  fourth  was  a  priest's  concubine  being  kept 
in  his  chamber ;  the  fifth  was  the  Devil ;  and  the  sixth,  that  thing 
that  a  man  setteth  his  mind  most  upon. 

The  first  part  of  this  article  he  utterly  denied,  confessing  most  Answer. 
firmly  and  truly,  the  blessed  Trinity  to  be  only  one  God  in  one  unity 
of  Deity.  As  to  the  other  three  he  answered,  that  a  priest  delight- 
ing in  his  concubine,  made  her  as  his  God  :  likewise  a  wicked  person, 
persisting  in  his  sin  without  repentance,  made  the  devil  his  God  : 
and  lastly,  he  granted,  that  he  once,  hearing  of  certain  men,  who  by 
the  singing  and  chattering  of  birds  would  seek  to  know  what  things 
were  to  come  either  to  themselves  or  others,  said,  That  those  men 
esteemed  their  birds  as  gods ;  and  otherwise  he  spake  not. 

Amongst  the  manifold  and  several  articles  objected  against  Thomas  j"10™' 
Goodred,  Thomas  Walker,  Thomas  Forge,  Alice  Forge  his  wife,  Thomas' 
John  Forge  their  son,  John  Calverton,  John  Woodrof,  Richard  Wool-  ^J;,"' 
man,  and  "Roger  Hilliar  (as  that  they  should  speak  against  pilgrimages,  ^e, 
praying  unto  saints,  and  such  like),  this  principally  was  propounded  :  others. 
That  they  all  denied  the  carnal  and  corporal  presence  of  Christ's  body  ASainst 
and  blood  in  the  sacrament  of  the  altar ;  and  further,  had  concealed  JJJJjjJ" 
and  consented  unto  their  teachers  and  instructors  in  that  doctrine,  and  Hon  and 
had  not,  according  to  the  laws  of  the  church,  accused  and  presented  presence. 
them  unto  the  bishop  or  his  ordinary. 

Also  great  and  heinous  displeasure  was  conceived  against  Richard 
Woolman,  for  that  he  termed  the  church  of  Paul's  a  house  of  thieves, 
affirming,  that  the  priests  and  other  ecclesiastical  persons  there  were 
not  liberal  givers  unto  the  poor  (as  they  ought  to  be)  but  rather  takcrs- 
away  from  them  of  what  they  could  get. 

Likewise  as  Thomas  Austy,  Joan  Austy  his  wife,  Thomas  Grant, 


Henry    John  Garter,  Christopher  Ravins,  Dyonise  Ravins  his  sister,  Thomas 

VIU-    Vincent,  Lewis  John,  Joan  John  his  wife,  and  John  Webb,  were  of 

A.  D.    one  fellowship  and  profession  of  faith  with  divers  of  the  last   before 

1509    recited ;  so  were  they  almost  all  apprehended  about   one  time,  and 

-,r°\a     chiefly  burdened  with  one  opinion  of  the  Sacrament :  which  declareth 

— - — -  evidently,  that  notwithstanding  the  dark  ignorance  of  those  corrupted 

times,  yet  God  did  ever  in  mercy  open  the  eyes  of  some  to  behold 

the  manifest  truth,  even  in  those  things  whereof  the  papists  make  now 

greatest  vaunt,  and  brag  of  longest  continuance. 

Furthermore,  many  of  them  were  charged  to  have  spoken  against 
pilgrimages,  and  to  have  read  and  used  certain  English  books  repugn- 
ing the  faith  of  the  Romish  church,  as  the  four  Evangelists,  Wickliffs 
Wicket,  a  Book  of  the  Ten  Commandments  of  Almighty  God,  the  Re- 
velation of  St.  John,  the  Epistles  of  Paul  and  James,  with  other  like, 
which  those  holy  ones  could  never  abide.  And  good  cause  why :  for 
as  darkness  could  never  agree  with  light,  no  more  can  ignorance,  the 
maintained  of  that  kingdom,  with  the  true  knowledge  of  Christ  and  his 

It  was  further  particularly  objected  against  Joan  John,  the  wife  of 
Lewis  John,  that  (besides  the  premises)  she  learned  and  maintained, 
Holy-  that  God  commanded  no  holy  days  to  be  kept,  but  only  the  Sabbath- 
day8'  day,  and  therefore  she  would  keep  none  but  it ;  nor  any  fasting  days, 
affirming,  that  to  fast  from  sin,  was  the  true  fast.  Moreover,  that  she 
Against  had  despised  the  pope,  his  pardons  and  pilgrimages ;  insomuch  that 
!!.''«,' "nd  wnen  any  Poor  body  asked  an  alms  of  her  in  the  worship  of  the  Lady 
a.iura-  0f  Walsingham,  she  would  strait  answer  in  contempt  of  the  pilgrimage, 
images.  "The  Lady  of  Walsingham  help  thee:""  and  if  she  gave  any  thing 
unto  him,  she  would  then  say,  "  Take  this  in  the  worship  of  our  Lady 
in  heaven,  and  let  the  other  go."  Which  declareth,  that  for  lack  of 
better  instruction  and  knowledge,  she  yet  ignorantly  attributed  too 
much  honour  to  the  true  saints  of  God  departed,  though  otherwise 
she  did  abhor  the  idolatrous  worshipping  of  the  dead  images.  By 
which  example,  as  also  by  many  others  (for  shortness*  sake  at  this 
present  omitted),  I  have  just  occasion  to  condemn  the  wilful  subtlety 
of  those,  who,  in  this  bright  shining  light  of  God's  truth,  would  yet, 
under  colour  of  godly  remembrance,  still  maintain  the  having  of 
images  in  the  church,  craftily  excusing  their  idolatrous  kneeling  and 
praying  unto  them,  by  affirming,  that  they  never  worshipped  the  dead 
images,  but  the  things  that  the  images  did  represent.  But  if  that 
were  their  only  doctrine  and  cause  of  having  of  them,  why  then  would 
their  predecessors  so  cruelly  compel  these  poor  simple  people  thus 
openly,  in  their  recantations,  to  abjure  and  revoke  their  speaking 
against  the  gross  adoration  of  the  outward  images  only,  and  not 
against  the  thing  represented ;  which  many  of  them  (as  appeareth 
partly  by  this  example),  in  their  ignorant  simplicity,  confessed  might 
be  worshipped?  Howbcit,  God  be  thanked  (who  ever  in  his  mercy 
continue  it!)  their  colourable  and  hypocritical  excuses  cannot  now 
take  such  place  in  the  hearts  of  the  elect  of  God  as  they  have  done 
heretofore,  especially  seeing  the  word  of  God  doth  so  manifestly  forbid 
as  well  the  worshipping  of  them,  as  also  the  making  or  having  of  them 
for  order  of  religion. 


ft  was  alleged  against  William  Cowper,  and  Alice  Cowper  his  wife,    £mp 
as  follows  :  That  they  had  spoken  against  pilgrimages,  and  worshipping 

of  images;  but^  chiefly  the  woman,  who,  having  her  child,  on  a  time,  A.D. 
hurt  by  falling  into  a  pit  or  ditch,  and  being  earnestly  persuaded  by  1509 
some  of  her  ignorant  neighbours  to  go  on  pilgrimage  to  St.  Laurence  1-J'I'S 
for  help  for  her  child,  said,  That  neither  St.  Laurence,  nor  any  other  — 
saint  could  help  her  child,  and  therefore  none  ought  to  go  on  pilgrim-  t"^- 
age  to  any  image  made  with  man's  hand,  but  only  to  Almighty  God  ;  £0°dof 
for  pilgrimages  were  nothing  worth,  saving  to  make  the  priests  rich.    imaeee- 

Unto  John  Houshold,  Robert  Rascal,  and  Elizabeth  Stamford,  as  Against 
well  the  article  against  the  sacrament  of  the  altar  was  objected,  as  J"™^ 
also  that  they  had  spoken  against  praying  to  saints,  and  had  despised  •'""  ■""l 
the  authority  of  the  bishop  of  Rome, "and  others  of  his  clergy.     But  Tth'Jny 
especially  John  Houshold  was  charged  to  have  called  them  antichrists  pqpe* 
and  fornicators,   and  the  pope  himself  a  strong  strumpet,  and   a 
common  scandal  unto  the  world,  who  with  his  pardons  had  drowned       * 
in  blindness  all  christian  realms  ;  and  that  for  money. 

Also  among  clivers  other  ordinary  articles  propounded  against  George 
George  Browne,  these  were  counted  very  heinous  and  heretical :  First,  Browne- 
that  he  had  said,  that  he  knew  no  cause  why  the  cross  should  be  Agninst 
worshipped,  seeing  that  the  same  was  a  hurt  and  pain  unto  our  Saviour  $  the*10" 
Christ  in  the  time   of  his  passion,  and  not  any  ease  or  pleasure ;  cross- 
alleging  for  example,  that  if  he  had  had  a  friend  hanged  or  drowned, 
he  would  ever  after  have  loved  that  gallows  or  water,  by  which  his 
friend  died,  rather  worse  for  that,  than  better.     Another  objection 
was,  that  he  had  erroneously,  obstinately,  and  maliciously  said  (for  immo- 
so  are  their  words),  that  the  church  was  too  rich.    This  matter,  I  may  (£"« 
tell  you,  touched  somewhat  the  quick,  and  therefore  no  marvel  that of  ,h,e 
they  counted  it  erroneous  and  malicious ;  for  take  away  their  gain,  clergy. 
and  farewell  their  religion.     They  also  charged  him  to  have  refused 
holy  water  to  be  cast  about  his  chamber,  and  likewise  to  have  spoken 
against  priests,  with  other  vain  matters. 

The  greatest  matter  wherewith  they  burdened  John  Wikes  was,  John 
that  he  had  often  and  of  long  time  kept  company  with  divers  persons  w  M" 
suspected  of  heresy  (as  they  termed  them),  and  had  received  them 
into  his  house,  and  there  did  suffer  and  hear  them  sundry  times  read 
erroneous  and  heretical  books,  contrary  to  the  faith  of  the  Romish 
church ;  and  did  also  himself  consent  unto  their  doctrine,  and  had 
many  times  secretly  conveyed  them  from  the  taking  of  such  as  were 
appointed  to  apprehend  them. 

Like  as  the  greatest  number  of  those  before-mentioned,  so  were  John 
also   John   Southakc,   Richard  Butler,   John  Sam,   William  King,  K*e' 
Robert  Durdant,  and  Henry  Woolman,  especially  charged  with  speak-  "nl'}u'r' 
ing  words  against  the  real  presence  of  Christ's  body  in  the  sacrament  others. 
of  the  altar,  and  also  against  images,  and  the  rest  of  the  seven  sacra-  ajfreai 
ments.  Howbeit  they  burdened  the  last  five  persons  with  the  reading  presence 
of  certain  English  heretical  books,  accounting  most  blasphemously 
the  gospel  of  Jesus  Christ,  written  by  the  four  evangelists,  to  be  of 

vol.  IV.  x 


iienry  tliat  nnwiTiCT,  as  appeareth  evidently  by  the  eighth  article  objected  by 
,11L  Thomas  Bennet,  doctor  of  law,  chancellor  and  vicar-general  unto 
A.  D.  Richard  Fitzjames,  then  bishop  of  London,  against  the  said  Richard 
1509  Butler;  the  very  words  of  which  article,  for  a  more  declaration  of 
truth,  I  have  thought  good  here  to  insert,  which  are  these : 


'  Also  we  object  to  you,  that  divers  times,  and  especially  upon  a  certain  night, 
about  the  space  of  three  years  last  past,  in  Robert  Durdant's  house  of  Iver-court, 
near  unto  Staines,  you  erroneously  and  damnably  read  in  a  great  book  of  heresy 
of  the  said  Robert  Durdant's,  all  that  same  night,  certain  chapters  of  the  evan- 
gelists in  English,  containing  in  them  divers  erroneous  and  damnable  opinions 
and  conclusions  of  heresy,  in  the  presence  of  the  said  Robert  Durdant,  John 
Butler,  Robert  Carder,  Jenkin  Butler,  William  King,1  and  divers  other  suspected 
persons  of  heresy,  then  being  present,  and  hearing  your  said  erroneous  lectures 
and  opinions.' 

To  the  same  effect  and  purpose  tended  the  tenor  of  some  of  the 

articles  propounded  against  the  other  four ;  whereby  (as  also  by  other 

like  ones  before  specified)  Ave  may  easily  judge  what  reverence  those, 

who  yet  will  be  counted  the  true  and  only  church  of  Christ,  did  bear 

to  the  word  and  gospel  of  Christ ;  who  shamed  not  to  blaspheme  the 

same  with  most  horrible  titles  of  erroneous  and  damnable  opinions 

and  conclusions  of  heresy.  But  why  should  we  marvel  thereat,  seeing 

the  Holy  Ghost,  in  sundry  places  of  the  Scripture,  doth  declare,  that 

in  the  latter  days  there  should  come  such  proud  and  cursed  speakers, 

who  shall  speak  lies  through  hypocrisy,  and  have  their  consciences 

marked  with  a  hot  iron  ?     Let  us  therefore  now  thank  our  heavenly 

.Father  for  revealing  them  unto  us ;  and  let  us  also  pray  him,  that  of 

his  free  mercies  in  his  Son  Christ  Jesus,  he  would  (if  it  be  to  his 

glory)  cither  turn  and  mollify  all  such  hearts,  or  else  (for  the  peace 

and  quietness  of  his  church)  he  would,  in  his  righteous  judgment, 

take  them  from  us. 

Death  of       About  this  time  Richard  Fitzjames  ended  his  life,  after  whose 

Fi'tCz'an    death  Cuthbert  Tunstall  (afterwards  bishop  of  Durham)  succeeded  in 

j™"";  of  the  see  and  bishopric  of  London ;  who  soon,  upon  his  first  entry  into 

i.nmion.    the  room,  minding  to  follow  rightly  the  footsteps  of  his  predecessor, 

Tnnatau.  caused  Edmund  Spilman,  priest,  Henry  Chambers,  John  Higgins, 

and  Thomas  Eglestone  to  be  apprehended,  and  so  to  be  examined 

upon  sundry  like  articles  as  before  are  expressed ;  and  in  the  end, 

either  for  fear  of  his  cruelty,  and  the  rigour  of  death,  or  else  through 

hope  of  his  flattering  promises  (such  was  their  weakness),  he  com- 

1   polled  them  to  abjure  and  renounce  their  true  professed  faith  touching 

!k'nicd!L   the  holy  sacrament  of  Christ's  body  and  blood  ;    which  was,  that 

Christ's  corporal  body  was  not  in  the  sacrament,  but  in  heaven ;  and 

that  the  sacrament  was  a  figure  of  his  body,  and  not  the  body  itself. 

Moreover,  about  the  same  time  there  were  certain  articles  objected 

pinst  John  Higges,  alias  Noke,  alias  Johnson,  by  the  said  bishop's 

"""  \  icar-general,  amongst  which  were  these :  First,  that  he  had  affirmed, 

that  it  was  as  lawful  for  a  temporal  man  to  have  two  Avives  at  once, 

T.sti-       ns  ''"'  u  l"'il'st  to  have  two  benefices.  Also,  that  he  had  in  his  custody 

many       a  hook  of  the  four  evangelists  in  English,  and  did  often  read  therein"; 

(')  Of  tin :  b  men  nee  more  hereafter  in  the  tabic  following,  page  221. 


and  that  he  favoured  the  doctrines  and  opinions  of  Martin  Luthei  fr„™ 
openly  pronouncing,  that  Luther  had  more  teaming  in  his  little  finger  *'"''• 
than  all  the  doctors  in  England  in  their  whole  bodies;  and  that  all  A.D. 
the  priests  in  the  church  were  blind,  and  had  led  the  people  the  wrong  1509 
way.  Likewise  it  was  alleged  against  him,  that  he  had  denied  pur°-  ,  *? 
gatory,  and  had  said,  that  while  he  was  alive  he  would  do  as  much  1518' 
for  himself  as  he  could,  for  after  his  death  he  thought  that  prayers  Lather 
and  alms-deeds  could  little  help  him. 

m  These  and  such  like  matters  were  those  wherewith  these  poor  and 
simple  men  and  women  were  chiefly  charged,  and  as  heinous  heretics 
excommunicated,  imprisoned,  and  at  last  compelled  to  recant:  and 
some  of  them,  in  utter  shame  and  reproach  (besides  the  ordinary 
bearing  of  faggots  before  the  cross  in  procession,  or  else  at  a  sermon) 
were  enjoined  for  a  penance,  as  they  termed  it,  as  well  to  appear  once 
every  year  before  their  ordinary,  as  also  to  wear  the  si^n  of  a  fa^ot  The 
painted  upon  their  sleeves,  or  other  part  of  their  outward  garment;  3^h 
and  that,  during  all  their  lives,  or  so  often  and  long  as  it  pleased  Pcna"ce- 
their  ordinary  to  appoint.    By  which  long,  rigorous,  and  open  punish- 
ing of  them,  they  meant,  as  it  should  seem,  utterly  to' terrify  and 
keep  back  all  others  from  the  true  knowledge  of  Jesus  Christ  and  his 
gospel.     But  the  Lord  be  evermore  praised,  what  effect  their  wicked 
purposes  therein  have  taken,  these  our  most  lightsome  days  of  God's 
glorious  gospel  do  most  joyfully  declare. 

There  were  also  troubled,  besides  these,  certain  others  more  sim- 
ple and  ignorant,  who,  having  but  a  very  small  smack  or  taste  of  the 
truth,  did  yet  at  first  (as  it  may  seem)  gladly  consent  unto  the  same  ; 
but,  being  apprehended,  they  quickly  again  yielded,  and  therefore  had 
only  assigned  them  for  their  penance,  the  "bearing  of  a  little  candle 
before  the  cross,  without  any  further  open  abjuring  or  recanting. 
Amongst  these  I  find  two  especially ;  the  one  a  woman  called  Ellen  The  tnm- 
Heyer,  to  whom  it  was  objected,  that  she  had  neither  confessed  her-  Sta? 
self  unto  the  priest,  nor  yet  received  the  sacrament  of  the  altar  by  ^p* 
the  space  of  four  years ;  and  notwithstanding,  had  yearly  eaten  flesh  Robert 
at  Easter,  and  after,  as  well  as  others  that"  had  received  the  same,  "aykt" 
contrary  to  the  usual  manner  and  conversation  of  all  other  christian 

The  other  was  a  man  named  Robert  Berkcway,  who  (besides  most 
wicked  blasphemies  against  God  which  he  utterly  denied)  was 
charged  to  have  spoken  heinous  words  against  the  pope's  holy  and 
blessed  martyr,  Thomas  Beckct,  calling 'him  micher1  and  thief,  for 
that  he  wrought  by  crafts  and  imaginations. 

Thus  have  I,  as  briefly  as  I  could,  summarily  collected  the  princi- 
pal articles  objected  against  these  weak,  infirm,  and  earthy  vessels;  not 
minding  hereby  to  excuse  or  condemn  them  in  these  their  fearful  falls 
and  dangerous  defections  :  but,  leaving  them  unto  the  immeasurable 
rich  mercies  of  the  Lord,  I  thought  only  to  make  manifest  the  unsa- 
lable bloody  cruelty  of  the  pope's  kingdom  against  the  gospel  and 
true  church  of  Christ ;  nothing  mitigating  their  envious  rage,  no,  not 
against  the  very  simple  idiots ;  and  that  sometimes  in  most  frivolous 

(1)  "Micher,"  a  covetous  man.— Ed- 




iicnry    and  irreligious  cases.     But  now,  leaving  to  say  any  further  herein,  I 

' IIL    will,  by  God's  grace,  go  forward  with  other  somewhat  more  serious 

A1)-    matters. 

1518         Cfje  ^eartj  and  JEartpruom  of  ODiniam  &toeettn0,  and  %*ty\ 


In  searching  and  perusing  of  the  register,  for  the  collection  of  the 
names  and  articles  before  recited,  I  find  that  within  the  compass  of 
the  same  years  there  were  also  some  others,  who,  after  they  had  once 
showed  themselves  as  frail  and  inconstant  as  the  rest  (being  either 
therewith  pricked  in  conscience,  or  otherwise  zealously  overcome  with 
the  manifest  truth  of  God's  most  sacred  Word),  became  yet  again  as 
earnest  professors  of  Christ  as  ever  they  were  before  ;  and  for  the 
same  profession  were  the  second  time  apprehended,  examined,  con- 
demned, and  in  the  end  wTere  most  cruelly  burned.  Of  this  number 
were  William  Sweeting,  and  John  Brewster,  wrho  were  both  burned 
together  in  Smithfield,  the  18th  day  of  October,  a.  d.  1511. 

The  chief  case  of  religion  alleged  against  them  in  their  articles,  wras 
their  faith  concerning  the  sacrament  of  Christ's  body  and  blood, 
X'T\T\    wnicn'  because  it  differed  from  the-  absurd,  gross  and  Capernaitical 
presence,  opinion  of  the  new  schoolmen,  was  counted  as  most  heinous  heresy. 
There  were  other  things  besides  objected  against  them,  as  the  reading 
of  certain  forbidden  books,  and  accompanying  with  such  persons  as 
Cruel  ri-  were  suspected  of  heresy.     But  one  great  and  heinous  offence  counted 
fheca-     amongst  the  rest,    was  their   putting  and   leaving  off  the  painted 
thoiic      faggots,  which  they  were  at  their  first  abjuring  enjoined  to  wear  as 
against     badges  during  their  lives,  or  so  long  as  it  should  please  their  ordinary 
professors  t°  appoint,  and  not  to  leave  them  off  upon  pain  of  relapse,  until  they 
''L"'ei      were  dispensed  withal  for  the  same.     The  breach  of  this  injunction 
was  esteemed  to  be  of  no  small  weight,  and  yet  the  matter  well  and 
thoroughly  considered,  it  seemeth  by  their  confessions,  they  were  both 
thereunto  by  necessity  enforced.     For  the  one,   named  Sweeting, 
being  for  fear  of  the  bishop's  cruelty  constrained  to  wander  the  coun- 
tries to  get  his  poor  living,  came  at  length  unto  Colchester,  where,  by 
the  parson  of  the  parish  of  Mary  Magdalen,  he  was  provoked  to  be 
the  holy  water  clerk,  and  in  that  consideration  had  that  infamous  badge 
first  taken  away  from  him.     The  other  (who  was  Brewster)  left  off 
his  at  the  commandment  of  the  comptroller  of  the  earl  of  Oxford's 
house,  who,  hiring  the  poor  man  to  labour  in  the  earl's  household 
business,  would  not  suffer  him,  working  there,  to  wear  that  counter- 
feit cognizance  any  longer :  so  that,   as   I  said,  necessity  of  living 
seemeth  to  compel  both  of  them  at  first  to  break  that  injunction. 
And  therefore,  if  charity  had  borne  as  great  sway  in  the  hearts  of  the 
pope's  clergy,  as  did   cruelty,  this  trifle  would  not  have  been  so 
liiinously  taken,  as  to  be  brought  against  them  for  an  article,  and 
cause  of  condemnation  to  death.     But  where  tyranny  once  takcth 
place,  as  well  all  godly  love,  as  also  all  human  reason  and  duties,  are 
quite  forgotten. 

Well,  to  be  short,  what  for  the  causes  before  recited,  as  also  for 
that  tluy  had  once  already  abjured,  and  yet,  as  they  term  it,  fell 
again  into  relapse,  they  were  both,  as  you  have  heard,  in  the  end 


burned  together  in  Smithfield ;  although  the  same  parties,  as  tin-  re-    fifcwy 
gistcr  recordeth,  did  again,  before  their  death,  tearfully  forsake  their    ""'  _ 
former  revived  constancy,  and  submitting  themselves  unto  the  disci-    A-  D. 
pline  of  the  Romish  church,  craved  absolution  from  their  exconinm-    1309 
nication.     Howbeit,  because  many  of  the  registers1  notes  and  records    ,£?„ 
in  such  cases  may  rightly  be  doubted  of,  and  so  called  into  question,  ■  ''  ' '  - 
I  refer  the  certain  knowledge  hereof  unto  the  Lord  (who  is  the  trier  riSST1*" 
of  all  truths),  and  the  external  judgment  unto  the  godly  and  discreet  ^taton* 
reader:  not  forgetting  yet  by  the  way  (if  that  the  report  should  be  of*e 
true)  upon  so  just  an  occasion,  to  charge  that  catholic  clergy,  and  catholics? 
their  wicked  laws,  with  a  more  shameless  tyranny  and  uncharitable 
cruelty  than  before :  for  if  they  nothing  stay  their  bloody  malice 
towards  such  as  so  willingly  submit  themselves  unto  their  mercies  ; 
what  favour  may  the  faithful  and  constant  professors  of  Christ  look 
for  at  their  hands  ?     I  might  here  also  ask  of  them,  how  they  follow 
the  pitiful  and  loving  admonition  (or  rather  precept)  of  our  Saviour 
Christ  (whose  true  and  only  church  they  so  stoutly  brag  to  be),  who 
in  Luke  xvii.  saith,   "  Though  thy  brother  sin  against  thee  seven 
times  in  a  day,  and  seven  times  in  a  day  turn  to  thee,  saying,  It  re- 
penteth  me  ;  thou  shalt  forgive  him."     But  what  go  I  about  to 
allure  them  unto  the  following  of  the  rule  and  counsel  of  Him,  unto  k0  mercy 
whose  word  and  gospel  they  seem  most  open  and  utter  enemies? '"^ 
Wherefore  not  purposing  to  stay  any  longer  thereupon,  I  will  leave  church, 
them  unto  the  righteous  revengement  of  the  Lord. 

Hereunto  let  us  now  adjoin  the  story  of  one  John  Browne,  a  good 
martyr  of  the  Lord,  burnt  at  Ashford  about  this  fourth  year  of  king 
Henry  VIII.,  whose  story  hereunder  followeth. 

3!ohn  2&rotone,  Haactnc*1 

The  occasion  of  the  first  trouble  of  this  John  Browne,  was  by  a 
priest  sitting  in  a  Gravesend  barge.  John  Browne,  being  at  the  same 
time  in  the  barge,  came  and  sat  hard  by  him ;  whereupon,  after  cer- 
tain communication,  the  priest  asked  him  ;  "  Dost  thou  know,"  said 
he,  "  who  I  am  ?  thou  sittest  too  near  me,  thou  sittest  on  my  clothes  :" 
"  No,  sir,"  said  he,  "  I  know  not  what  you  are."  "  I  tell  thee  I  am 
a  priest."  "  What,  sir  !  are  you  a  parson,  or  vicar,  or  a  lady's  chap- 
lain ?"  "  No,"  quoth  he  again,  "  I  am  a  soul-priest,  I  sing  for  a 
soul,"  saith  he.  "  Do  you  so,  sir  ?"  quoth  the  other,  "  that  is  well 
done ;  I  pray  you  sir,"  quoth  he,  "  where  find  you  the  soul  when 
you  go  to  mass "?"  "  I  cannot  tell  thee,"  said  the  priest.  "  I  pray 
you,  where  do  you  leave  it,  Sir,  when  the  mass  is  done  ?"  "  I  can- 
not tell  thee,"  said  the  priest.  "  Neither  can  you  tell  where  you  find 
it  when  you  go  to  mass,  nor  where  you  leave  it  when  the  mass  is  done  ; 
how  can  you  then  have  the  soul  ?"  said  he.  "  Go  thy  ways,"  said  the 
priest,  "thou  art  a  heretic,  and  I  will  be  even  with  thee."  So  at 
the  landing,  the  priest,  taking  with  him  Walter  More,  and  William 
More,  two  gentlemen,  brethren,  rode  straightways  to  the  archbishop 
Warham.     Hereupon   the   said   John   Browne   within    three  days 

(1)  This  John  Browne  was  father  to  Richard  Browne,  who  was  in  prison  in  Canterbury,  and 
should  hare  been  burned,  with  two  more  besides  himself,  the  next  day  after  the  death  of  quocn 
Mary,  but  that  by  the  proclaiming  of  queen  Elizabeth,  they  escaped. 


mnry    after,  his  wife  being  churched  the  same  clay,  and  he,  bringing  in  a 
""■     mess  of  pottage  to  the  board  to  his  guests,  was  sent  for,  and  his  feet 
A.D.    boiuul  under  his  own  horse,  and  so  brought  up  to  Canterbury ;  neither 
1509    his  wife,  nor  he,  nor  any  of  his,  knowing  whither  he  went,1  nor 
lrl?o     whither  he  should  :  and  there  continuing  from  Low-Sunday,  till  the 
— - — —  Friday  before  Whitsunday    (his  wife   not  knowing  all  this  while 
where  he  was),  he  was  set  in  the  stocks  overnight,  and  on  the  mor- 
row went  to  death,  and  was  burned  at  Ashford,  a.  d.  1517.     The 
same  night,  as  he  was  in  the  stocks  at  Ashford,  where  he  and  his 
wife  dwelt,  his  wife  then  hearing  of  him,  came  and  sat  by  him  all  the 
night  before  he  should  be  burned :  to  whom  he,  declaring  the  whole 
story  how  he  was  handled,  showed  and  told,  how  that  he  could  not 
set  his  feet  to  the  ground,  for  they  were  burned  to  the  bones ;  and 
John       told  her,  how  by  the  two  bishops,  Warham  and  Fisher,  his  feet  were 
Browne    heated  upon  the  hot  coals,  and  burned  to  the  bones,  "  to  make  me,1' 
AstSbrd    said  he,  "  to  deny  my  Lord,  which  I  will  never  do ;  for  if  I  should 
fourth the  deny  my  Lord  in  this  world,  he  would  hereafter  deny  me.11    "  I  pray 
•]|l^rof     thee,11  said  he,  "  therefore,  good  Elizabeth  !  continue  as  thou  hast 
vni.       begun,  and  bring  up  thy  children  virtuously,  and  in  the  fear  of  God." 
And  so  the  next  day,  on  Whitsunday  even,  this  godly  mart}!:  was 
1  turned.     Standing  at  the  stake,  this  prayer  he  made,  holding  up  his 
hands : 

'  O  Lord,  I  yield  me  to  thy  grace, 
Grant  me  mercy  for  my  trespass; 
Let  never  the  fiend  my  soul  chase. 
Lord,  I  will  bow,  and  thou  shalt  beat, 
Let  never  my  soul  come  in  hell-heat.' 

1  Into  thy  hands  I  commend  my  spirit ;  thou  hast  redeemed  me,  O  Lord  of 

And  so  he  ended.2 

At  the  fire  one  Chilton,  the  baily-arrant,  bade  cast  in  Browne's 
children  also,  for  they  would  spring,  said  he,  of  his  ashes. 

This  blessed  martyr,  John  Browne,  had  borne  a  faggot  seven  years 
before,  in  the  days  of  king  Henry  VII. 

As  it  is  the  property  of  Satan  ever  to  malice  the  prosperous  estate 
of  the  saints  of  God,  and  true  professors  of  Christ ;  so  ceaseth  he  not 
continually  to  stir  up  his  wicked  members  to  the  effectual  accom- 
plishing of  that  which  his  envious  nature  so  greedily  desireth  ;  if  not 
always  openly  by  colour  of  tyrannical  laws,  yet,  at  the  leastwise,  by 
some  subtle  practice  of  secret  murder;  which  thing  doth  most  plainly 
appear,  not  only  in  a  great  number  of  the  blessed  martyrs  of  Christ's 
church,  mentioned  in  this  book,  but  also  and  especially  in  the  dis- 
course of  this  lamentable  history  that  now  I  have  in  hand,  concerning 
the  secret  and  cruel  murdering  of  Richard  Hun,  whose  story  here 
consequently  ensueth,  decerped  and  collected  partly  out  of  the  regis- 
ters of  London,  partly  out  of  a  bill  exhibited  and  denounced  in  the 

(1)  Chilton  of  Wey,  a  baily-amnt,  and  one  Benre  of  Willesborough,  with  two  of  the  bishop's  ser- 
vants, set  him  upon  the  horse,  and  so  carried  him  away. 

testimonio  Alicia  Browne,  ejus  Alias,  cuius  mariti  nonien  diccbatur  Stiat.  in  parochia 
Bt.  Puled. 



€tyt  ;§>torn  of  fiictjatD  i'Jun,  jUartpjr.'  &gj 

There  was  in  the  year  of  our  tjord    151 1,  one  Richard  Hun, 

merchant-tailor,  dwelling-  within  the  city  of  London,  and  freeman  of  "•  1i)- 
the  same,  who  was  esteemed  during  his  life,  and  worthily  reputed,       to 
and  taken  not  only  for  a  man  of  true  dealing  and  good  substance,  but    i-,is. 
also  for  a  good  catholic  man.    Tliis  Richard  Hun  had  a  child  at  nurse 
in  Middlesex,  in  the  parish  of  St.  Mary  Matsilon,  which  died  ;  by  the 
occasion  whereof  one  Thomas  Dryfield,  clerk,  being  parson  of  the  said 
parish,  sued  the  said  Richard  Hun  in  the  spiritual  court,  for  a  bearing- 
sheet,  which  the  said  Thomas  Dryfield  claimed  unjustly  to  have  of 
the  said  Hun,   for  a  mortuary  for  Stephen  Hun,  son  of  the  said 
Richard  Hun ;  which  Stephen  being  at  nurse  in  the  said  parish,  died, 
being  of  the  age  of  five  weeks,  and  not  above.     Hun  answered  him 
again,  That  forasmuch  as  the  child  had  no  propriety  in  the  sheet,  he 
therefore  neither  would  pay  it,   nor  the   other  ought  to  have  it. 
Whereupon  the  priest,  moved  with  a  covetous  desire,  and  loath  to 
lose  his  pretended  right,  ascitcd  him  to  appear  in  the  spiritual  court, 
there  to  answer  the  matter :  whereupon  the  said  Richard  Hun,  being 
troubled  in  the  spiritual  court,  was  forced  to  seek  counsel  of  the 
learned  in  the  law  of  this  land,  and  pursued  a  writ  of  praemunire 
against  the  said  Thomas  Dryfield,  and  others  his  aiders,  counsellors, 
proctors,  and  adherents,  as  by  the  process  thereof  is  yet  to  be  seen. 
Which  when  the  rest  of  the  priestly  order  heard  of,  greatly  disdain- 
ing that  any  layman  should  so  boldly  enterprise  such  a  matter  against 
any  of  them,  and  fearing  also,  that  if  they  should  now  suffer  this 
priest  to  be  condemned  at  the  suit  of  Hun,  there  would  be  thereby 
ever  after  a  liberty  opened  unto  all  others  of  the  laity  to  do  the  like 
with  the  rest  of  the  clergy  in  such  like  cases,  they  straightways,  both  The  de- 
to  stop  this  matter,  and  also  to  be  revenged  of  him  for  that  he  had  demean- 
already  done,  sought  all  means  they  possibly  could  how  to  entrap  and  °^tlie 
brincr  "him  within  the  danger  of  their  own  cruel  laws.    And  thereupon  hoiy  ca- 
making  secret  and  diligent  inquisition,  and  seeking  ail  corners  they  be  noted, 
could  against  him,  at  length  they  found  a  means  how  to  accuse  him 
of  heresy  unto  Richard  Fitzjames  then  bishop  of  London,  and  so  did; 
who  (desirous  to  satisfy  the  revenging  and  bloody  affection  of  his 
chaplains),  caused  him  thereupon  to  be  apprehended  and  committed 
unto  prison  within  the  Lollards1  tower  at  Paul's,  so  that  none  of  his 
friends  might  be  suffered  to  come  to  him.    Thus  Richard  Hun,  being  Huncom- 
clapt  in  the  Lollards1  tower,  shortly  after,  at  the  earnest  instigation  ™;i,1,/,;!1'." 
of  Dr.  Horsey,  the  bishop's  chancellor  (a  man  more  ready  to  prefer  tower. 
the  clergy's  cruel  tyranny,  than  the  truth  of  Christ's  gospel),  was 
brought  before  the  bishop  at  his  manor  of  Fulham,  the  2d  day  of 
December,  in  the  year  before  mentioned,  where,  within  his  chapel,  he 
examined  him  upon  these  articles  following,  collected  against  him  by 
the  said  Horsey  and  his  accomplices : 

Articles  objected  against  Richard  Hun. 
I.  That  he  had  read,  taught,  preached,  published,  and  obstinately  defended, 
against  the  laws  of  Almighty  God,  that  tithes,  or  paying  of  tithes,  was  never 
ordained  to  be  due,  saving  only  by  the  covetousnoss  of  priests. 

(1)  The  strenuous  and  successful  efforts  made  by  the  leaden  of  the  Popish  party,  and  the  rti    n 
ful  exposures  which  ensued,  render  the  history  of  llichard  Ilun  one  of  the  most  Interesting  ou 
record.— Ed. 


fTimry  [I*  Item,  That  he  had  read,  taught,  preached,  published,  aud  obstinately 
VIII.  defended,  that  bishops  and  priests  be  the  Scribes  and  Pharisees  that  did  crucify 
Christ,  and  damned  him  to  death. 

III.  Item,  That  he  had  read,  taught,  preached,  &c,  that  bishops  and  priests 
be  teachers  and  preachers,  but  no  doers,  neither  fulrillers  of  the  law  of  God;  but 
catching,  ravening,  and  all  things  taking,  and  nothing  ministering,  neither 

IV.  Item,  Where  and  when  one  Joan  Baker  was  detected  and  abjured  of 
many  great  heresies  (as  it  appeareth  by  her  abjuration),  the  said  Richard  Hun 
said,  published,  taught,  preached,  and  obstinately  took  upon  him,  saying,  that 
he  would  defend  her  and  her  opinions,  if  it  cost  him  five  hundred  marks. 

V.  Item,  afterwards,  where  and  when  the  said  Joan  Baker,  after  her  abjura- 
tion, was  enjoined  open  penance  according  to  her  demerits,  the  said  Richard 
Hun  said,  published,  taught,  and  obstinately  did  defend  her,  saying,  '  The 
bishop  of  London  and  his  officers  have  clone  open  wrong  to  the  said  Joan  Baker, 
in  punishing  her  for  heresy ;  for  her  sayings  and  opinions  be  according  to  the 
laws  of  God :  wherefore  the  bishop  and  his  officers  are  more  worthy  to  be 
punished  for  heresy  than  she  is.' 

VI.  Item,  That  the  said  Richard  Hun  hath  in  his  keeping  divers  English 
books  prohibited  and  damned  by  the  law  ;  as  the  Apocalypse  in  English,  epistles 
and  gospels  in  English,  Wickliff's  damnable  works,  and  other  books  containing 
infinite  errors,  in  which  he  hath  been  a  long  time  accustomed  to  read,  teach, 
and  study  daily. 

Particular  answer  unto  these  several  objections  in  the  register  I 
find  none,  saving  that  next  under  them  there  is  written  in  his  name, 
with  a  contrary  hand,  these  words  following :   "  As  touching  these 
articles,  I  have  not  spoken  them  as  they  be  here  laid ;  howbeit  unad- 
visedly I  have  spoken  words  somewhat  sounding  to  the  same,  for 
which  I  am  sorry,  and  ask  God  mercy,  and  submit  me  to  my  lord's 
This        charitable  and  favourable  correction  ;"  which  they  affirm  to  be  written 
smeUeth   with  Hun's  own  hand  :  but  how  likely  to  truth  that  is,  let  the  discreet 
radcxafty  wisdom  of  the  reader  indifferently  judge  by  the  whole  sequel  of  this 
lacking,   process.     And  further,  if  it  were  his  own  act,  what  occasion  then  had 
they  so  cruelly  to  murder  him  as  they  did  ?  seeing  he  had  already  so 
willingly  confessed  his  fault,  and  submitted  himself  to  the  charitable 
and  favourable  correction  of  the  bishop  (for  which,  even  by  their  own 
law,  in  cases  of  most  heinous  heresy,  he  ought  to  be  again  received 
and  pardoned)  ;  except  perhaps  they  will  account  horrible  murder  to 
Arpi-      be  but  the  bishop's  favourable  correction.     Again,  it  seems  they  had 
and  tear    very  few  credible  witnesses  to  prove  certainly  that  this  was  his  answer 
proving    an(i  hand-writing;  for  the  registrar,  or  some  other  for  him,  appointed 
B«?era"ot  *°  rccor(t  tnc  samc,  hath  certified  it  as  of  hearsay  from  others,  and  not 
to  be  ot    of  his  own  proper  sight  and  knowledge,  as  the  words  noted  in  the 
margin  of  the  book,   adjoining  to  the  aforesaid  answer,  plainly  do 
declare,  which  arc  these  :  "  Hoc  fuit  scriptum  manu  propria  Ricardi 
limine,  ut  diciiw?     Now  if  he  had  any  sure  ground  to  establish 
this  certificate,  I  doubt  not  but  he  would,  instead  of  "  ut  dicitur,1' 
have  registered  the  names  of  the  assistants  at  the  time  of  his  examina- 
tion (which  he  confesseth  to  be  many),  as  generally  they  do  in  all 
their  acts,   especially  in  cases  of  heresy,  as  they  term  it.     But  how 
scrupulous  those  good  fellows  that  spared  not  so  shamelessly  to  murder 
him,  would  be  to  make  a  lie  of  him  that  was  already  dead,  let,  as  I 
said,  the  indifferent  judgment  of  the  godlywisc  discern. 

This  examination  ended,  the  bishop  sent  him  back  again  the  same 
day  onto  the  Lollards'  tower;  and  then,  by  the  appointment  of  Dr. 




Hm*v  most  likely,  that  if  the  party  were  once  condemned  of  heresy,  the  inquest 
rt"-  dust  not  then  but  find  him  guilty  of  his  own  death,  and  so  clearly 
A.  I),  acquit  them  from  all  the  former  suspicion  of  privy  murder.  This  de- 
1509    termination  of  theirs  they  did  immediately  put  in  practice,  in  order  as 

*?      followcth: 

1,)]S-        First,  besides  the  articles  before  mentioned,  which  they  affirm  were 

Dr.  Hed   0Djected  against  him  in  his  life-time,  Dr.  Hcd  did  now  also  after  his 

°f«i»e  "    death  collect  certain  others  out  of  the  prologue  of  his  English  Bible, 

remaining  then  in  the  bishop's  hands,  which  he  diligently  perused,  not 

to  learn  any  good  thing  therein,  but  to  get  thereout  such  matter  as  he 

thought  might  best  serve  their  cursed  purpose ;  as  appeareth  by  the 

tenor  of  the  articles,  which  arc  these :' 

New  Articles  commenced  against  Hun  after  his  Death. 

I.  First,  The  said  book  damneth  all  holy'  canons,  calling  them  ceremonies 
and  statutes  of  sinful  men  and  uncunning,  and  calleth  the  pope  Satan,  and  Anti- 

II.  Item,  It  damneth  the  pope's  pardons,  saying  they  be  but  leasings. 

III.  Item,  The  said  book  of  Him  saith,  that  kings  and  lords,  called  christian 
in  name,  and  heathen  in  conditions,  defile  the  sanctuary  of  God,  bringing  clerks 
full  of  covetousness,  heresy,  and  malice,  to  stop  God's  law,  that  it  cannot  be 
known,  kept,  and  freely  preached. 

IV.  Item,  The  said  book  saith,  that  lords  and  prelates  pursue  full  cruelly 
them  that  would  teach  truly  and  freely  the  law  of  God,  and  cherish  them  that 
preach  sinful  men's  traditions  and  statutes ;  by  which  he  meaneth  the  holy 
canons  of  Christ's  church. 

V.  Item,  That  poor  men  and  idiots  have  the  truth  of  the  holy  Scriptures,  more 
than  a  thousand  prelates,  and  religious  men,  and  clerks  of  the  school. 

VI.  Item,  That  christian  kings  and  lords  set  up  idols  in  God's  house,  and 
excite  the  people  to  idolatry. 

VII.  Item,  That  princes,  lords,  and  prelates  so  doing,  be  worse  than  Herod 
that  pursued  Christ,  and  worse  than  Jews  and  heathen  men  that  crucified  Christ. 

VIII.  Item,  That  every  man,  swearing  by  our  lady,  or  any  other  saint  or 
creature,  giveth  more  honour  to  the  saints  than  to  the  Holy  Trinity;  and  so  he 
saith  they  be  idolaters. 

IX.  Item,  He  saith  that  saints  ought  not  to  be  honoured. 

X.  Item,  He  damneth  adoration,  prayer,  kneeling,  and  offering  to  images, 
which  he  calleth  stocks  and  stones. 

XI.  Item,  He  saith,  that  the  very  body  of  the  Lord  is  not  contained  in  the 
sacrament  of  the  altar,  but  that  men  receiving  it,  shall  thereby  keep  in  mind 
that  Christ's  flesh  was  wounded  and  crucified  for  us. 

XII.  Item,  He  damneth  the  university  of  Oxford,  with  all  degrees  and  facul- 
ties in  it,  as  art,  civil,  canon,  and  divinity ;  saying,  that  they  hinder  the  true 
way  to  come  to  the  knowledge  of  the  laws  of  God  and  holy  Scripture. 

XIII.  Item,  He  defendeth  the  translation  of  the  Bible  and  the  holy  Scrip- 
ture into  the  English  tongue,  which  is  prohibited  by  the  laws  of  our  mother,  holy 

These  articles  thus  collected,  as  also  the  others  before  specified,  they 
caused,  for  a  more  show  of  their  pretended  justice  and  innocency,  to 
be  openly  read  the  next  Sunday  following,  by  the  preacher  at  Paul's 
Cross,  with  this  protestation  made  before. 

'  Masters  nnd  friends,  for  certain  causes  and  considerations,  I  have  in  £om- 
mandment  to  rehearse,  show,  and  publish  here  unto  you,  the  articles  of  heresy 

(1)  Ex  Regint,  R.  Fitzjamcs,  Lond. 

(2)  A  'holy  mother  church'  which  cannot  abide  the  word  of  Uodto  be  translated! 


upon  which  Richard  Hun  was  detected  and  examined  :    and  also  other  great  jiewy 

articles  and  damnable  points  and  opinions  of  heresy  contained  in  some  of  his  f  iJ'- 

books,  which  be  come  to  light  and  knowledge  here  ready  to  be  shown.'  ^  ^) 

And  therewith  he  read  the  articles  openly  unto  the  people,  con-      to 
eluding  with  these  words  : 


'  And  masters,  if  there  be  any  man  desirous  to  see  the  specialty  of  these  The 
articles,  or  doubt  whether  they  be  contained  in  this  book  or  not,  for  satisfying  1|,sh°Ps 
of  his  mind  let  him  come  to  my  lord  of  London,  and  he  shall  see  it  with  good  J",'/,  at 
will.  P**'* 

'-  Moreover,  here  I  counsel  and  admonish,  that  if  there  be  any  persons  that  !|™?*st 
of  their  siir.pleness  have  been  familiar  and  acquainted  with  the  said  Richard  Hun. 
Hun  in  these  articles,  or  have  heard  him  read  upon  this  book,  or  any  other 
sounding  to  heresy,  or  have  any  like  books  themselves,  let  them  come  unto  my 
lord  of  London  betwixt  this  and  Candlemas  next,  and  acknowledge  their  fault, 
and  they  shall  be  charitably  treated  and  dealt  withal,  so  that  both  their  goods 
and  honesty  shall  be  saved :  and  if  they  will  not  come  of  their  own  offer,  but 
abide  the  process  of  the  law,  then  at  their  own  peril  be  it,  if  the  rigour  of  the 
law  be  executed  against  them.' 

After  which  open  publication  and  admonition,  the  bishop  at  sundry 
times  examined  clivers  of  his  priests,  and  other  lay-persons,  upon  the 
contents  of  both  these  articles.  Among  which  examinatcs  there  was 
a  man-servant  and  a  maid  of  the  said  Hun's,  who,  although  they  had 
of  long  time  dwelt  with  him,  were  not  able  to  charge  him  with  any 
great  thing  worthy  of  reprehension,  no,  not  in  such  points  as  the 
bishop  chiefly  objected  against  him.  But  yet  the  priests  (through 
whose  procurement  this  mischief  was  first  begun)  spared  no  whit  stoutly 
and  maliciously  to  accuse  him,  some  in  the  contents  of  the  first  articles, 
and  some  in  the  second.  Wherefore  having  now,  as  they  thought, 
sufficient  matter  against  him,  they  purposed  speedily  to  proceed  to 
his  condemnation  ;  and  because  they  would  seem  to  do  all  things  for- 
mally, and  by  prescript  order,  they  first  drew  out  certain  short  and 
summary  rules,1  by  which  the  bishop  should  be  directed  in  this  solemn 
session  ;  which  are  these : 

I.  First,  Let  the  bishop  sit  in  his  tribunal-seat  in  our  lady's  chapel. 

II.  Secondly,  Let  him  recite  the  cause  of  his  coming,  and  take  notaries  to 
him,  to  enact  what  shall  be  there  done. 

III.  Thirdly,  Let  him  declare,  how  upon   Sunday  last,  at  Paul's  Cross,  he  Mark  the 
caused  to  be  published  a  general  monition  or  denunciation,  that  all  fautors  and  [£?""*™f 
maintainers  of  Richard  Hun  should  come  in  as  by  this  day,  and  submit  them-  ce^i,'^, 
selves  :  and  let  him  signify  withal,  how  certain  have  come  in,  and  have  appeared 

IV.  Fourthly,  Let  him  protest  and  say,  that  if  there  remain  any  yet  behind, 
who  have  not  appeared  according  to  the  former  monition  and  denunciation, 
yet  if  they  will  come  and  appear,  and  submit  themselves,  they  shall  be  heard 
and  received  with  grace  and  favour. 

V.  Fifthly,  Let  the  bishop,  or  some  other  at  his  appointment,  recite  the 
articles  objected  against  Richard  Hun  in  the  time  of  his  life,  and  then  the 
other  articles  likewise,  which  were  out  of  his  great  book  of  the  Bible  extracted. 

VI.  Sixthly,  Let  the  answers  and  confessions  of  the  said  Richard  Hun  smn- 
marily  be  recited,  witli  the  attestations  made  to  the  same  articles.  Also  let 
his  books  be  exhibited,  and  then  Thomas  Brooke,  his  servant,  be  called  for. 

VII.  Seventhly,  Let  it  be  openly  cried  at  the  choir  door,  that  if  there  be 
any  who  will  defend  the  articles,  opinions,  books,  or  the  memory  of  the  said 

P)  li:<  I'.r  1st.  a.  Fi..:j.i:i>cs.  Lund. 


_         Richard  Hun,  let  them  come  and  appear,  and  they  shall  be  heard  as  the  law  in 
rill,     that  behalf  shall  require. 

' VIII.  Eighthly,  Let  it  he  openly  cried,  as  in  manner  hefore,  for  such  as  he 

1509  favourers,  defenders,  or  believers  of  the  said  Richard  Hun,  that  all 
t<x       such  do  appear  and  submit  themselves  to  the  bishop,  or  else  he  intendeth  to 
1518.    proceed  to  the  excommunication  of  them  in  general,  according  to  the  exigence 
of  the  law  in  that  behalf. 

IX.  Ninthly,  Let  the  bishop  speak  to  the  standers-by,  aud  to  those  of  the 
clergy  who  sit  with  him  upon  the  bench,  demanding  of  them,  what  their  judg- 
ment and  opinion  is  touching  the  premises  ?  and  whether  they  think  it  con- 
venient and  agreeable  for  him  to  proceed  to  the  sentence  against  the  said 
Richard  Hun,  in  this  part  to  be  awarded  ? 

X.  Tenthly,  After  their  consent  and  counsel  given,  let  the  bishop  read  out 
the  sentence. 

XL  Finally,  After  the  sentence  read,  let  the  bishop  appoint  the  publication 
and  denunciation  of  the  aforesaid  sentence  to  be  read  at  Paul's  Cross,  or  else- 
where, as  to  him  shall  seem  expedient;  with  a  citation  likewise  generally  against 
all  those  that  be  receivers,  favourers,  and  believers  of  the  said  Hun,  to  give  to 
understand  why  he  ought  not  further  to  proceed  against  them,  &c. 


Now  according  to  the  tenor  of  these  prescripts  and  rules,  the 
bishop  of  London,  accompanied  with  the  bishops  of  Durham  and 
Lincoln,  sat  in  judgment  the  16th  day  of  December  then  next  follow- 
ing, within  the  place  by  the  same  appointed ;  adjoining  also  unto 
them,  as  witnesses  of  their  proceedings,  six  public  notaries,  his  own 
register,  and  about  twenty-five  doctors,  abbots,  priors,  and  priests  of 
name,  with  a  great  rabble  of  other  common  anointed  catholics : 
where,  after  a  solemn  proclamation  made,  that  if  there  were  any  that 
would  defend  the  opinions  and  books  of  Richard  Hun,  they  should 
presently  appear  and  be  heard  according  to  law,  he  commanded  all 
the  articles  and  objections  against  Hun  openly  to  be  read  before  the 
assembly:  and  then,  perceiving  that  none  durst  appear  in  his  defence, 
by  the  advice  of  his  assistants  he  pronounced  the  sentence  definitive 
against  the  dead  carcase,  condemning  it  of  heresy  ;  and  therewith 
committed  the  same  unto  the  secular  power,  to  be  by  them  burned 
accordingly.  This  ridiculous  decree  was  as  fondly  accomplished  in 
Smithfield  on  the  twentieth  day  of  the  same  month  of  December 
(being  full  sixteen  days  after  they  had  thus  horribly  murdered 
death,  him)  to  the  great  grief  and  disdain  of  all  the  people.  And  because 
the  bishop,  in  his  sentence  definitive,  useth  a  more  formal  and  ample 
order  of  words  than  accustomably  is  used  in  others,  and  also  pre- 
tendcth  full  hypocritically  in  the  beginning,  as  it  were  by  way  of 
induction,  divers  causes  that  moved  him  to  proceed  against  the 
dead  carcase;  I  thought  good  therefore  here  to  adjoin  the  same, 
as  a  final  conclusion  of  their  crafty  coloured  tragedy,  the  tenor  whereof 
is  hereunder  written.1 

(1)  The  sentence  definitive  against  Richard  Hun  after  his  death. 

In  Del  nomine,  Amen.  Cum  nuper  (pendente  sacra  synodo,  et  general]  pnrlatomm  et  cleri 
provincial  Cantuariensis  convocatione,  in  ecclesia  nostra  cathedrali  sancti  Pauli  London,  per 
prcelatoi  el  clerum  provincial  Cantuariensis,  actualitcr  ibidem  exercita)  contijiisset,  quod  quidam 
ELichardui  Hunnede  parocliia  sancta-  Marjjaret.-p  in  Ilrifre-strcte  Lond.  de  ct  super  crimine  ha-rc- 
OetB  pravitatis  iintatus  ct  ditlamatus  extitisset:  revcrendissimus  in  Christo  pater  et  dominus, 
don  linns  Williclinus  miseratione  divina  Cantuariensis  archiepiscopus,  totius  Anglia-  prinias,  it 
•I11  '"in  ■<•  M-'lis  li'iratus,  ipsius  vcneraliilis  cactus  et  convocations  caput  et  praisidens,  ex  vehe- 
mentibua  el  vlolentU  (quae  contra  eundem  Richardum  limine  super  ha-rctica  pravitate  tune 
babebat)  pwesumptlonibua  contra  eundem  Richardum,  debitam  faceie  Inquieitionem  cuplens,  ut 


corpse  of 

alter  his 


Notwithstanding,  after  all  this  tragical  and  cruel  handling  of  the    '//•»'.</ 
dead  body,  and  their  fair  and  colourable  show  of  justice,  yet  the  in- 

quest no  whit  stayed  their  diligent  searching  out  of  the  true  cause     1  •"><)<) 
and  means  of  his  death.     Insomuch  that  when  they  had  been  divers      *° 

times  called  both  before  the  king's  privy-council  (his  majesty  himself ° 

being  sometimes  present),  and  also  before  the  chief  judges  and  justices 
of  this  realm,  and  that  the  matter  being  by  them  throughly  examined, 
and  perceived  to  be  much  bolstered  and  borne  withal  by  the  clergy, 
was  again  wholly  remitted  unto  their  determination  and  ending  ;  they 
found  by  good  proof,  and  sufficient  evidence,  that  Dr.  Horsey  the  Dr.  Hor- 
chancellor,  Charles  Joseph  the  simmer,  and  John  Spalding  the  bell-  ceMar,    " 
ringer,    had  privily  and  maliciously  committed  this  murder;    and  j(,)'s"rl" 
therefore  indicted  them  all  three  as  wilful  murderers.      Howbcit,  and 
through  the  earnest  suit  of  the  bishop  of  London   unto  cardinal  murder-' 
Wolsey  (as  appeareth  by  his  letters  hereafter  mentioned),  means  Rfc°/ar(1 
were  found,  that  at  the  next  sessions  of  gaol-delivery  the  king's  H"»- 
attorney  pronounced  the  indictment  against  Dr.  Horsey  to  be  false 
and  untrue,  and  him  not  to  be  guilty  of  the  murder ;  who,  being 
then  thereby  delivered  in  body,  having  yet  in  himself  a  guilty  con- 
science, gat  him  unto  Exeter,  and  durst  never  after  for  shame  come 
again  unto  London.     But  now  that  the  truth  of  all  this  may  seem 
more  manifest  and  plain  unto  all  men's  eyes,  here  shall  follow,  word 
by  word,  the  whole  inquiry  and  verdict  of  the  inquest,  exhibited  by 

(si  ratione  hseresis  hujusmodi  membrum  fuissct  a  corpore  Christi  mystico  praeeisum)  ipsum  ad 
caput  et  corpus  (id  est,  Christum,  sancta;que  matris  ecclesiae  unitatem)  per  salutaria  monita  etcon- 
dignani  pcenitentiam  revocaret  et  reduceret :  ne  idem  Richardus  inter  simplices  et  devotas  Christi 
fidelium  et  catholicorumanimas  coerrando,  et  zizania  haeretica  seminando,  fidelium  mentes  macu- 
laret  et  inficeret,  et  sinistris  ac  perversis  assertionibus  et  opinionibus,  a  veritatis  semita  et  vera 
fide  Christiana  aberrare  faceret;  ad  effectumcitandi  eum  ad  comparendum  coram  dicto  reverendis- 
simo  patre  et  domino  architpiscopo,  suisque  coepiscopis  et  suffraganeis,  cajterisque  illius  concionis 
sive  sacra  synodi  praelatis,  super  praemissis  responsurum  perquiri  fecit  et  mandavit.  Verum 
idem  Richardus  apprehendi  non  potuit.  Unde  dictus  reverendissimus  Pater  suum  tam  pium,  tarn 
sanctum  et  laudabile  propositum  ad  effectum  perducere  non  potuit.  Quod  cum  nos  Richardus 
permissionedivina  Londinensis  episcopus,  dicti  Richardi  ordinarius,  (cui  etiamtanquam  de  haeresi 
Buspectus,  idem  Richardus  a  multis  retroactis  temporibus  delatus  et  detectus  extiterat)  intellexe- 
rimus,  non  volentes  nee  audentes  pra?dicta  facinora  silentio  et  conniventibus  oculis  pertransire  et 
praetermittere,  ne  ob  nostram  negligentiam,  et  torporem  sanguis  ejus  in  districto  examine,  sive 
Dei  judicio,  de  manibus  nostris  requiratur,  volentes  certiorari  et  informari  an  ea  quae  de  ipso  et 
contra  eum  nobis  delata  et  dicta  fuerant,  veritate  aliqua  fulcitentur,  et  an  in  luce  vel  in  tenebris 
ambularet,  ne  fortasse  ovis  morbida  existens,  innocuas  animas  gregis  dominici  pestifera  lueresi 
corrumperet  et  inficeret,  ad  informandum  animum  nostrum,  ipsum  coram  nobis  vocandum,  et 
super  praemissis  diligenter  interrogandum  et  examinandum,  omniaque  faciendum,  quae  secundum 
canonicas  sanctiones  erant  facienda  (ejus  animam  pio  et  paterno  zelantes  affectu),  descendimus  et 
properavimus  :  contra  quern  objectis  judicialiter  et  propositis  publice  in  judicio  articulis,  de  et 
super  quibus  nobis  (utpra'fertur)  delatus,  detectus,  et  notatus  fuerat.  Quos  pervenerabilcm  virum 
magistrum  Johannem  Downam  hie  publice  jam  lectos,  pro  hie  lectis  et  insertis  habemus  et  haberi 
volumus;  habitisque  etreceptis  ad  eosdem  articulos  responsionilms  et  confcssionlbus  suis.  Deinde 
testes  fide  dignos  de  et  super  eisdem  articulis  et  aliis  contra  dictum  Richardum  in  debits  juris 
forma  recepimus,  admisimus,  et  diligenter  examinari  fecimus;  propositdquc  nuper  per  nos  verbo 
Dei  ad  crucem  divi  Pauli,  ejus  detestabiles  haereses  eterrores,  in  articulis  et  libris  suis,  quibus  usus 
est,  comprehensas,  in  ejus  et  ipsorum  detestationem  et  damnationem  publicantcs,  atque  publico 
recitantes,  populo  in  magna  multitudine  ibidem  tunc  congregato,  notificavimus  et  intimavinius: 
Quod  isto  die  contra  eundem  Richardum,  tanquam  contra  hareticum,  ad  ipsiusque  condemna- 
tionem  et  excommunicationem  in  specie,  ad  aliaque  in  hac  parte  requisita,  necnon  ad  excommu- 
nicationem  receptatorum,  defensorum,  fautorum,  et  credentium  ipsius  in  genere,  juxta  canonicas 
sanctiones,  sanctorum  patrum  decreta,  et  omnem  juris  vigorem  et  dispositionem,  Deo  duce,  pro- 
cedere  intendebamus  :  monitionemque  sive  denunciationem  quandam  generalem  dedimus  et  feci- 
mus tunc  ibidem,  videlicet,  quod  si  qui  fuerint  ejus  receptatores.defensores,  fautores,  et  credentes, 
uu6d  citra  hunc  diem  ad  nos  et  sanctae  matris  ecclesi:e  giemium  redirent,  et  se  submitturent : 
quod  si  facerent  (de  misericordia  omnipotentis  Dei  conlisi),  polliciti  sumus  quod  ipsos  de  errori- 
bus  et  reatibus  suis  hujusmodi  pcenitentes,  cum  gratia,  benignitate,  misericordia,  et  favore,  adani- 
niarum  suarum  solatium  et  salutem  reciperimus,  quodque  bonestatem  eorum  pro  posse  serva- 
remus  in  hac  parte.  Alioquin  si  sic  sponte  venire  non  curarent,  sed  juris  ordinarium  processum 
expectarent ;  scirent  nos  hoc  admissum  adversus  eos  severius  exeouturos,  in  quantum  jura  permit- 
terent.  Adveniente  itaque  jam  die  isto,  ad  praeniissa  et  infra  scripia  facienda,  sic  ut  praefertur, 
per  nos  praetixo,  nos  Richardus  episcopus  antedictus,  in  negotio  Lnquisitionis  ha-rctica;  pra- 
ditatis  praedictre  legitime  procedentes,  volentesque,  hujusmodi  Degotium  sine  debito  terminare, 
solenne  concilium  tam  in  sacra  theologica  facilitate,  quam  jure  canonico  et  civili  doctorum, 
et  hunc  venerabilem  ccetum  cleri  et  populi  coram  nobis  fecimus  congregarv;  et  visis,  auditis, 
intelleetis,    rimatis,   ac   diligenter  et  niatura  dcliberatione    discussis  meritis  et  ciicumstantiis 


Henry      tllClll   UJltO   th( 

his  own  hand. 

iienry    them  unto  the  coroner  of  London,  and  so  given  up  and  signed  with 


Lr>1S.  The  fifth  and  the  sixth  day  of  December,  in  the  sixth  year  of  the  reign  of  our 
sovereign  lord  king  Henry  VIII.,  William  Barnwell,  coroner  of  London,  the 
day  and  year  abovesaid,  within  the  ward  of  Castle-Baynard  of  London,  assem- 
bled a  quest,  whose  names  afterward  do  appear,  and  hath  sworn  them  truly  to 
inquire  of  the  death  of  one  Richard  Hun,  which  lately  was  found  dead  in  the 
Lollards'  tower  within  Paul's  church  of  London  :  Whereupon  all  we  of  the  in- 
quest together  went  up  into  the  said  tower,  where  we  found  the  body  of  the 
said  Hun  hanging  upon  a  staple  of  iron,  in  a  girdle  of  silk,  with  fair  counte- 
nance, his  head  fair  kemped,  and  his  bonnet  right  sitting  upon  his  head,  with 
his  eye  and  mouth  fair  closed,  without  any  staring,  gaping  or  frowning,  also 
without  any  drivelling  or  spurging  in  any  place  of  his  body  :  Whereupon  by  one 
assent  all  we  agreed  to  take  down  the  dead  body  of  the  said  Hun,  and  as  soon 
as  we  began  to  heave  the  body  it  was  loose :  whereby,  by  good  advisement,  we 
perceived  that  the  girdle  had  no  knot  about  the  staple,  but  it  was  double-cast ; 
and  the  links  of  an  iron  chain,  which  did  hang  on  the  same  staple,  were  laid 
upon  the  same  girdle  whereby  lie  did  hang ;  Also  the  knot  of  the  girdle  that 
went  about  his  neck,  stood  under  his  left  ear,  which  caused  his  head  to  lean 
towards  his  right  shoulder.  Notwithstanding  there  came  out  of  his  nostrils 
two  small  streams  of  blood  to  the  quantity  of  four  drops.  Save  only  these  four 
drops  of  blood,  the  face,  lips,  chin,  doublet,  collar,  and  shirt  of  the  said  Hun 
were  clean  from  any  blood.  Also  we  find  that  the  skin  both  of  his  neck  and 
throat,  beneath  the  girdle  of  silk,  was  fret  and  failed  away,  with  that  thing 
which  the  murderers  had  broken  his  neck  withal.  Also  the  hands  of  the  said 
Hun  were  wrung  in  the  wrists,  whereby  we  perceived  that  his  hands  had  been 

Moreover,  we  find  that  within  the  said  prison  was  no  mean  whereby  a  man 

negotii  memorati,  actisque  et  actitatis  in  eodem  productis  et  deductis  praedictorum,  digesto  et 
mature  concilio  (cum  nullus  appareat  contradictor  seu  defensor,  qui  dicti  Richardi  opiniones, 
articulos,  et  memoriam  defendero  velit),  solum  Deum  oculis  nostris,  proponentes  ad  sententiam 
nostram  contra  eum,  ejus  opiniones  et  libros,  receptatoresque,  fautores,  defensores,  et  credentes, 
se  nobis  juxta  tenorem  et  formam  monitionis  et  denunciationis  nostrarum  pnedictarum  minimi 
submittentes,  nee  ad  gremium  sanctae  matris  ecclesiae  redire  curantes,  licet  quidam  salvationis 
pii  filii  citra  monitionem  et  denunciationem  nostras  praedictas  ad  nos  venerunt,  et  se  submise- 
runt,  quos  cam  gratia  et  favore  recepimus  in  hac  parte  ferendam,  sic  duximus  procedendum 
et  procedimus  in  hunc  qui  sequitur  modum.  Quia  per  acta  actitata,  inquisita,  deducta,  confessata, 
et  probata,  necnon  per  vehementes  et  urgentes  prasumptiones,  et  judicia  perspicua  compcrimus 
luculenter,  et  invenimus  dictum  Richardum  Hunne  crimine  hfereticaa  pravitatis  multipliciter 
irri'tihim,  atque  hoereticum  fuisse  et  esse,  nonnullasque  opiniones  et  assertiones  detestabiles  et 
haereses  damnates,  dum  in  humanis  agebat,  et  vitales  caperet  auras,  afhrmasse,  proposuisse,  et 
recitasse,  librisque  suspectis,  et  de  jure  damnatis,  et  nonnullas  haereses  pestiferas  in  se  continen- 
tibus  usum  fuisse,  receptisque,  admissis  et  examinatis  testibus  per  commissarios  ad  hoc  depu- 
tatos  de  et  super  impcenitentia  finali,  pertinacia,  et  obitu  dicti  Richardi  Hunne:  Idcirco  nos 
Rlchardus  episcopus  antedictus,  servatis  servandis  (prout  in  tali  negotio  postulat  ordo  juris), 
(a)  dicti  Richardi  Hunne  impcenitentia  ac  finali"  obstinatia  et  pertinacia,  per  evidentia  signa  testibus 
legitimis,  vehementissimis  et  violentis  praesumptionibus  comprobatis,  prout  jam  coram  nobis 
legitime  extitit  facta  fides,  edicto  apud  crucem  ,divi  Pauli,  die  dominico  ultimo  prasterito,  ad 
audiendum  et  per  nos  ferendum  sententiam,  ad  hunc  diem  per  nos  publice  facto  et  proposito  : 
propterea  de  hujux  vcnerabilis  coctus  (videlicet,  reverendorum  patrum,  dominorum  Thomas 
Dunelnuiisis,  et  Wilhclmi  Lincolniensis,  ac  Johannis  Calipolensis,  episcoporum,  necnon  in  sacra 
theologia,  decretorum,  et  legum  dectorum,  et  cleri,  atque  proborum  et  venerabilium  virorum, 
domini  majoris,  aldermanorum,  et  vicecomitum  civitatis  Londinensis,  et  populi  hie  congregato- 
runi,  et  nobis  in  hac  parte  assidentium  et  assistentium)  consensu,  assensu,  et  consilio,  eundem 
Richardum  Hunne  diversarum  haresium  libris,  dum  vixit,  usum  fuisse,  ac  notorium  et  pertina- 
cem  impenitentem  haereticum  fuisse,  ac  in  haeresi  decesisse,  atque  conscientia  criminis  et  metu 
fntur;c  Bententiae,  animo  pertinaci  et  impcenitenti,  corde  indurato  obiisse  et  decesisse,  praeraisso- 
rumque  prretextu  de  jure  excommunicatum  fuisse  et  esse,  atque  in  excommunicatione  hujusmodi 
decessisse,  ipsiusque  receptatores,  fautores,  defensores,  et  credentes,  etiam  in  genere  de  jure 
fcxcon.inunicatns,  atque  sententia  majoris  excommunicationis  innodatoset  involutos  fuisse  et  esse 
pronunciamus,  deceniimus,  et  declaramus:  ipsum  Richardum  Hunne  et  libros  suos  lux'reticos  de 
jure  damnatos,  suamque  ac  librorum  ipsorum  memoriam  in  detestationem et  damnationem  sceleris 
it  crftnlnis  liiijusmodi  condemnamus  :  dictumque  Richardum  Hunne  (ob  prcemissa),  ecclesiastica 
can-re  dc-bcre  sepultura  sententiamus,  etiam  pronunciamus,  decernimus,  et  declaramus,  et  in  foro 
<  la-iirn  t.iiu|ii:un  membrum  putridum  projicimus,  corpusque  suum  et  ossa  brachio  et  potestati 
ncnJaii  teUnqulmui  et  coimnittimus,  juxta  et  secundum  canonicas  et  legitinias  sniictiones,  con- 

*'"'" "    j1"'  '  ludabllei  in  regno  Anglia-  ah  antiquo  usitatas  et  ohservatas,  in  opprobrium  sempi- 

icriitiin  .-I  ,|.  I, ■•.tationcm  rrimuiis  ncfandissimi  pnedicti,  ad  reternamque  hujus   rei  memoriam, 
rnmquc   Chnsti   hdelium   metum   atque   terrorem,    per  banc   nostram    sententiam,   sive 
cnale  aecretum,  quam  sive  quod  ferimus  et  promulgamus  in  his  scriptis. 

.!,"}   m'',',1  ll";,l,1,',K',i,"^y  •»,  ^  l»im,  when  you  say  before,  that  by  his  own  hand-writing  he 
MibmitU'd  himself  to  the  biflhop'e  favourable  correction! 


might  hang  himself,  but  only  a  stool ;  which  stool  stood  upon  a  bolster  of  a  bed,  Henry 
so  tickle,  that  any  man  or  beast  might  not  touch  it  so  little,  but  it  was  ready  to  iUI- 
fall :  whereby  we  perceived,  that  it  was  not  possible  that  Hun  might  hang  ,  ,. 
himself,  the  stool  so  standing.  Also  all  the  girdle  from  the  staple  to  his  neck,  i.'Q' 
as  well  as  the  part  which  went  about  his  neck,  was  too  little  for  his  head  to  ' 

come  out  thereat.     Also  it  was  not  possible  that  the  soft  silken  girdle  should    15]8 

break  his  neck  or  skin  beneath  the  girdle.    Also  we  find  in  a  corner,  somewhat °  '  ' 

beyond  the  place  where  he  did  hang,  a  great  parcel  of  blood.  Also  we  find 
upon  the  left  side  of  Hun's  jacket,  from  the  breast  downward,  two  great 
streams  of  blood.  Also  within  the  flap  of  the  left  side  of  his  jacket  we  find  a 
great  cluster  of  blood,  and  the  jacket  folden  down  thereupon  :  which  thing  the 
said  Hun  could  never  fold  nor  do  after  he  was  hanged :  whereby  it  appcareth 
plainly  to  us  all,  that  the  neck  of  Hun  was  broken,  and  the  great  plenty  of 
blood  was  shed,  before  he  was  hanged.  Wherefore  all  we  find,  by  God  and  all 
our  consciences,  that  Richard  Hun  was  murdered.  Also  we  acquit  the  said 
Richard  Hun  of  his  own  death. 

Also  there  was  an  end  of  a  wax-candle,  which,  as  John  the  bellringer  saith, 
he  left  in  the  prison  burning  with  Hun  that  same  Sunday  night  that  Hun  was 
murdered ;  which  wax-candle  we  found  sticking  upon  the  stocks,  fair  put  out, 
about  seven  or  eight  foot  from  the  place  where  Hun  was  hanged,  which  candle, 
after  our  opinion,  was  never  put  out  by  him,  for  many  likelihoods  which  we 
have  perceived. 

Also  at  the  going  up  of  master  chancellor  into  the  Lollards'  tower,  we  have 
good  proof  that  there  lay  on  the  stocks  a  gown,  either  of  murrey,1  or  crimson 
in  grain,  furred  with  shanks :  whose  gown  it  was  we  could  never  prove,  neither 
who  bare  it  away.  All  we  find,  that  Master  William  Horsey,  chancellor  to  my 
lord  of  London,  hath  had  at  his  commandment  both  the  rule  and  guiding  of  the 
said  prisoner..  Moreover,  all  we  find,  that  the  said  Master  Horsey,  chancellor, 
hath  put  Charles  Joseph  out  of  his  office,  as  the  said  Charles  hath  confessed, 
because  he  would  not  deal  and  use  the  said  prisoner  so  cruelly,  and  do  to  him 
as  the  chancellor  would  have  had  him  to  do.  Notwithstanding  the  deliverance 
of  the  keys  to  the  chancellor  by  Charles,  on  the  Saturday  night  before  Hun's 
death,  and  Chailes  riding  out  of  the  town  on  that  Sunday  in  the  morning  en- 
suing, was  but  a  convention  made  betwixt  Charles  and  the  chancellor  to  colour 
the  murder.  For  the  same  Sunday  that  Charles  rode  forth,  he  came  again  to 
the  town  at  night,  and  killed  Richard  Hun,  as  in  the  depositions  of  Julian 
Littel,  Thomas  Chicheley,  Thomas  Simondes,  and  Peter  Turner,  doth  appear. 

After  colouring  of  the  murder  betwixt  Charles  and  the  chancellor  conspired, 
the  chancellor  called  to  him  one  John  Spalding,  bellringer  of  Paul's,  and  de- 
livered to  the  same  bellringer  the  keys  of  the  Lollards'  tower,  giving  to  the 
said  bellringer  a  great  charge,  saying,  I  charge  thee  to  keep  Hun  more  straitly 
than  he  hath  been  kept,  and  let  him  have  but  one  meal  a  day ;  moreover,  I 
charge  thee  let  nobody  come  to  him  without  my  license,  neither  to  bring  him 
shirt,  cap,  kerchief,  or  any  other  thing,  but  that  I  see  it  before  it  come  to*  him. 
Also  before  Hun  was  carried  to  Fulham,  the  chancellor  commanded  to  be  put 
upon  Hun's  neck  a  great  collar  of  iron,  with  a  great  chain,  which  is  too  heavy 
for  any  man  or  beast  to  wear,  and  long  to  endure. 

Moreover,  it  is  well  proved,  that  before  Hun's  death  the  said  chancellor  Proofs  of 
came  up  into  the  said  Lollards'  tower,  and  kneeling  down  before  Hun,  held  J1"^5 
up  his  hands  to  him,  praying  of  him  forgiveness  of  all  that  he  had  done  to  him, 
and  must  do  to  him.  And  on  Sunday  following  the  chancellor  commanded  the 
penitentiary  of  Paul's  to  go  up  to  him  and  say  a  gospel,  and  make  for  him  holy 
water,  and  holy  bread,  and  give  it  to  him,  which  he  did :  and  also  the  chan- 
cellor commanded  that  Hun  should  have  his  dinner.  And  the  same  dinner- 
time Charles,  the  boy,  was  shut  in  prison  with  Hun,  which  was  never  so  before; 
and  after  dinner,  when  the  bellringer  fetched  out  the  boy,  the  bellringer  said 
to  the  same  boy,  '  Come  no  more  hither  with  meat  for  him  till  to-morrow  at 
noon,  for  my  master  chancellor  hath  commanded  that  he  should  have  but  one 
meal  a  day.'  And  the  same  night  following  Richard  Hun  was  murdered,  which 
murder  could  not  have  been  done  without  consent  and  license  of  the  chancellor, 
and  also  by  the  witting  and  knowledge  of  John  Spalding,  bellringer ;  for  there 
(1)  "  Murrey,"  mulberry  colour. — Ed. 



Henry    could  no  man  come  into  the  prison  but  by  the  keys,  being  in  John  the  bellringer's 
/'///.     keeping.    Also,  as  by  my  lord  of  London's  book  doth  appear,  John  the  bellringer 

' is  a  poor  innocent  man.     Wherefore  all  we  do  perceive,  that  this  murder  could 

not  be  done  but  by  the  commandment  of  the  chancellor,  and  by  the  witting 
1^9     and  knowing  of  John  the  bellringer. 
1518.        Charles  Joseph,  within  the  Tower  of  London,  of  his  own  free  will,  and  un- 

' —  constrained,  said,   That  master  chancellor  devised,   and  wrote  with  his  own 

n,1'^ "r'"  hand,  all  such  heresies  as  were  laid  to  Hun's  charge;  record  John  God,  John 
Charlei  True,  John  Pasmere,  Richard  Gibson,  with  many  others.  Also  Charles  Joseph 
" |lh  saith,  That  when  Richard  Hun  was  slain,  John  the  bellringer  bare  up  the  stairs 
into  the  Lollards'  tower  a  wax-candle,  having  the  keys  of  the  doors  hanging  on 
his  arm  ;  and  I  Charles  went  next  to  him,  and  master  chancellor  came  up  last : 
and  when  all  we  came  up,  we  found  Hun  lying  on  his  bed ;  and  then  master 
chancellor  said,  '  Lay  hands  on  the  thief;'  and  so  all  we  murdered  Hun  :  and 
then  I  Charles  put  the  girdle  about  Hun's  neck;  and  then  John  bellringer 
and  I  Charles  did  heave  up  Hun,  and  master  chancellor  pulled  the  girdle  over 
the  staple  ;  and  so  Hun  was  hanged. 

The  Deposition  of  Julian  Littell,  late  servant  of  Charles  Joseph,  by 
her  free  will,  unconstrained,  the  sixth  year  of  our  Sovereign  Lord 
King  Henry  the  Eighth,  within  the  chapel  of  our  Lady  of  Beth- 
lehem, showed  to  the  Inquest. 

First,  Julian  saith,  That  the  Wednesday  at  night,  after  the  death  of  Richard 
Hun,  Charles  Joseph  her  master  came  home  to  his  supper :  then  Julian  said  to 
him,  '  Master,  it  was  told  me  that  ye  were  in  prison.'  Charles  answered,  '  It 
is  merry  to  turn  the  penny :'  and  after  supper  Charles  trussed  up  a  parcel  of  his 
goods,  and  with  help  of  Julian,  bare  them  into  Mr.  Porter's  house  to  keep  : 
and  that  done,  Charles  said  to  Julian  ;  '  Julian,  if  thou  wilt  be  sworn  to  keep 
my  counsel,  I  will  show  thee  my  mind.'  Julian  answered,  '  Yea,  if  it  be 
neither  felony  nor  treason.'  Then  Charles  took  a  book  out  of  his  purse,  and 
Julian  sware  to  him  thereupon.  Then  said  Charles  to  Julian,  '  I  have  destroyed 
Richard  Hun!'  'Alas,  master,'  said  Julian,  'how?  he  was  called  an  honest 
man.'  Charles  answered,  'I  put  a  wire  in  his  nose.'  'Alas,'  said  Julian,  'now 
be  ye  cast  away  and  undone.'  Then  said  Charles,  '  Julian,  I  trust  in  thee  that 
thou  wilt  keep  my  counsel :'  And  Julian  answered,  '  Yea,  but  for  God's  sake, 
master,  shift  for  yourself.'  And  then  Charles  said,  '  I  had  leefer  than  100  pound 
it  were  not  done  ;  but  what  is  done  cannot  be  undone.'  Moreover  Charles  said 
then  to  Julian,  '  Upon  Sunday,  when  I  rode  to  my  cousin  Barington's  house,  I 
tarried  there  and  made  good  cheer  all  day  till  it  was  night ;  and  yet  before  it 
was  midnight  I  was  in  London,  and  had  killed  Hun.  And  upon  the  next  day 
I  rode  thither  again,  and  was  there  at  dinner,  and  sent  for  neighbours,  and 
made  good  cheer.'  Then  Julian  asked  Charles,  'Where  set  you  your  horse 
that  night  you  came  to  town,  and  wherefore  came  you  not  home  ?'  Charles  an- 
swered, '  I  came  not  home  for  fear  of  bewraying.'  And  then  Julian  asked 
Charles,  '  Who  was  with  you  at  the  killing  of  Hun  V  Charles  answered,  '  I  will 
not  tell  thee.'  And  Julian  saith  that  upon  the  Thursday  following  Charles 
tarried  all  day  in  his  house  with  great  fear :  and  upon  Friday  following,  early 
in  the  morning  before  day,  Charles  went  forth,  as  he  said,  to  Paul's;  and  at  his 
coming  in  again  he  was  in  a  great  fear,  saying  hastily,  '  Get  me  my  horse  ;'  and 
with  great  fear  and  haste  made  him  ready  to  ride  ;  and  bade  Master  Porter's 
lad  lead  his  horse  into  the  field  by  the  backside.  And  then  Charles  put  into 
his  sleeve  his  mace,  or  masor,  with  other  plate  borrowed  of  Master  Porter,  both 
gold  and  silver ;  but  how  much  I  am  not  sure  :  and  Charles  went  into  the  field 
utter  his  horse,  and  Julian  brought  his  budget  after  him.  Also  upon  Friday  in 
Christinas  week  following,  Charles  came  home  late  in  the  night,  and  brought 
with  him  three  bakers  and  a  smith  of  Stratford,  and  the  same  night  they  carried 
out  of  Charles's  house,  all  his  goods  by  the  fieldside,  to  the  Bell  in  Shoreditch, 
and  early  in  the  morning  conveyed  it  with  carts  to  Stratford. 

Moreover  Julian  saith,  That  the  Saturday  at  night  before  the  death  of  Hun, 
Charles  came  home,  and  brought  with  him  a  gurnard,  saying,  it  was  for  Hun  ; 
and  Charles's  boy  told  Julian,  that  there  was  also  ordained  a  piece  of  fresh 
Salmon,  which  John  the  bellringer  had. 


Also  Charles  said  to  the  said  Julian,   '  Were  not  this  ungracious  trouble,  I  Henry 

could  bring  my  lord  of  London  to  the  doors  of  heretics  in  London,  both  of  men  vni 

and  women,  that  be  worth  a  thousand  pounds;  but  I  am  afraid  that  the  ungra-  A.D. 

cious  midwife  shall  bewray  us  all.'  1509 

Also  Charles  said  unto  Mrs.  Porter  likewise  and  more  largely,  speaking  of       to 

the  best  in  London  :  whereto  Mrs.  Porter  answered,  'The  best  in  London  is  1518. 
my  lord  mayor.'     Then  Charles  said,  '  I  will  not  excuse  him  quite,  for  that  he 
taketh  this  matter  so  hot.' 

Whereas  Charles  Joseph  saith  he  lay  at  Neckhill  with  a  harlot,  a  man's  wife, 
in  Barington's  house,  the  same  night  that  Richard  Hun  was  murdered,  and 
there  abode  until  the  morrow  at  eleven  of  the  clock ;  and  thereupon  brought 
before  the  king's  council,  for  bis  purgation,  the  aforesaid  woman,  Barington's  wife,        -f 
and   also   the  other   woman :  this  purgation   we  have    proved  all  untrue,  as 
right  largely  may  appear,   as  well  by  the  deposition  of  Julian   Littel,  as  of 
Thomas  Chicheley,  tailor,  Thomas  Simondes,  stationer,  of  Robert  Johnson  and 
his  wife,  and  of  John  Spalding,  bellringer  :  also  of  Peter  Turner,  son-in-law  of  the  The  wit- 
aforesaid    Charles    Joseph ;  who    said   before,   to  an  honest   woman,    a  wax-  "ess  of 
chandler's  wife,  that  before  this  day  seventh-night  Hun  should  have  a  mis-  T^er. 
chievous  death,  &c.     Also  of  John  Enderby,  baker,  to  whom  John  Spalding  The  wit- 
himself  declai-ed  these  words  :  That  there  was  ordained  for  Hun  so  grievous  "ess  of 
penance,  that  when  men  hear  of  it,  they  shall  have  great  marvel  thereof,  &c. ;  spaidiuC 
besides  the  deposition  moreover  of  Allen  Creswell,  wax-chandler,  and  Richard  iiimstir. 
Horsenail,  bailiff  of  the  sanctuary  town  called  Godsture,  in. Essex.     Which 
testimonies  and  depositions  hereafter  follow 

*  The  Deposition  of  Thomas  Chicheley,  Tailor.1 

The  said  Thomas  sayeth  :  The  same  Monday  that  Richard  Hun  was  found 
dead,  within  a  quarter  of  an  hour  after  seven  o'clock  in  the  morning,  he  met 
with  Charles  Joseph,  coming  out  of  St.  Paul's,  at  the  nether  north  door,  going 
toward  Paternoster  row,  saying,  '  Good  morrow,  Master  Charles  !'  and  the  said 
Charles  answered,  '  Good  morrow  !'  and  turned  his  back,  when  he  was  without 
the  church  door,  and  looked  upon  the  said  Chicheley. 

*  The  Deposition  of  Thomas  Simondes,  Stationer. 

He  sayeth,  That  the  same  morning  that  Hun  was  dead,  within  a  quarter  of 
an  hour  after  seven  o'clock  in  the  morning,  Charles  Joseph  came  before  him  at 
his  stall,  and  said,  '  Good  morrow,  gossip  Simondes!'  and  the  said  Simondes 
said,  '  Good  morrow'  to  him  again ;  and  the  wife  of  the  said  Simondes  was  by 
him ;  and  because  of  the  deadly  countenance  and  hasty  going  of  Charles,  the 
said  Thomas  bade  his  wife  look  whither  Charles  goeth ;  and  as  she  could  per- 
ceive, Charles  went  into  an  alehouse  standing  in  Paternoste.r-row,  by  the  alley 
leading  into  the  road  of  Northern,  or  into  the  alley,  whither,  she  could  not  well  tell. 

*  The  Deposition  of  Robert  Johnson  and  his  Wife,  dwelling  at  the 
Bell,  in  Shoreditch.2 

The  said  Robert  sayeth,  That  Charles  Joseph  sent  his  horse  to  his  house  upon  a 
holyday,  at  night,  about  three  weeks  before  Christmas,  by  a  boy  ;  which  horse  was 
all  besweat  and  all  bemired  :  and  the  said  boy  said,  '  Let  my  father's  horse  stand 
saddled,  for  I  cannot  tell  whether  my  father  will  ride  again  to  night  or  not ;'  and 
the  said  horse  stood  saddled  all  night,  and  in  the  morning  following,  Charles  came 
booted  and  spurred  about  eight  of  the  clock,  and  asked  if  his  horse  was  saddled  ? 
and  the  servant  answered,  '  Yea.'  And  the  said  Charles  leaped  upon  his  horse, 
and  prayed  the  host  to  let  him  out  of  his  back  gate,  that  he  might  ride  out  by 
the  field  side  ;  which  host  so  did.  And,  because  he  was  uncertain  of  the  day, 
we  asked  him  if  he  heard  speak  of  the  death  of  Hun  at  that  time  or  not,  and  he 

(1)  The  depositions  of  witnesses,  distinguished  hy  asterisks,  arc  inserted  from  the  edition  of  1563, 
pp.  393-395.— Ed. 

(2)  Where  Charles  Joseph  set  up  his  horse,  the  night  that  he  came  to  town  to  murder  Richard 

VOL.  IV.  f) 





194,  DEPOSITIONS    CONCERNING    the    murder    OF    HUN. 

Bmn  answered,  'Nay!'  But  shortly  after  he  did.  Nevertheless  Peter  Turner, 
rill.  Charles's  son-in-law,  who  brought  the  horse  by  night  into  the  Bell,  which  was 
Robert  Johnson's  house,  confessed  it  was  the  same  night,  before  that  Hun  was 
found  dead  in  the  morning.  Moreover  the  Friday  before  Hun's  death,  Peter 
Turner  said  to  an  honest  woman,  a  wax-chandler's  wife,  dwelling  before  St. 
Mary's,  Spitalgate,  that  before  this  day  seven-nights,  Hun  should  have  a  mis- 
chievous death.  And,  the  same  day  at  afternoon,  on  which  this  Hun  was 
found  dead,  the  said  Peter  came  to  the  same  wife  and  told  her  that  Hun  was 
hanged  ;  saying,  '  What  told  I  you?' 

Also  James,  the  chancellor's  cook,  the  Friday  before  Hun's  death,  said  to 
five  honest  men,  that  Hun  should  die  ere  Christmas,  or  else  he  would  die  for 
him.  And  on  the  Monday  that  Hun  was  found  dead,  the  said  James  came  to 
the  same  men  and  said,  '  What  told  I  you  ?  is  he  not  now  hanged  ?'  And  we  of 
the  inquest  asked  both  of  Peter  Turner,  and  of  James  Cook,  where  they  had 
knowledge  that  Hun  should  so  shortly  die?  and  they  said,  'In  Master  Chancel- 
lor's place,  by  every  man.' 

*  The  Deposition  of  John  Spalding,  Bellringer. 

First  the  said  deponent  sayeth,  That  on  Saturday  the  2d  day  of  December, 
a.  d.  1514,  he  took  the  charge  of  the  prison  at  four  of  the  clock  in  the  after- 
noon, by  the  commandment  of  Master  Chancellor,  and  so  took  the  keys ; 
whereupon  he  gave  commandment  to  the  deponent,  that  he  should  let  no  man- 
ner of  person  speak  with  the  prisoner,  except  he  had  knowledge  of  them  ;  and 
so  at  five  of  the  clock  the  same  day,  the  said  deponent  went  to  the  prisoner  him- 
self alone,  and  saw  him,  and  cherished  him,  where  he  gave  the  said  deponent  a 
piece  of  fresh  salmon  for  his  wife.  And  after  that,  the  said  deponent  sayeth, 
that  he  went  to  Master  Commissary's,  to  supper  with  his  fellow,  where  he  re- 
membered that  he  had  left  his  knife  with  the  said  prisoner ;  whereupon,  by  the 
counsel  of  Master  Commissary,  he  went  to  the  prisoner  and  fetched  his  knife, 
when  he  found  the  prisoner  saying  of  his  beads,  and  so  the  said  deponent  re- 
quired his  knife  of  the  said  prisoner,  and  the  said  prisoner  delivered  the  knife 
to  the  said  deponent  gladly ;  and  so  he  departed  for  that  night. 

And  after  that,  on  the  Sunday  next  following,  the  said  deponent  came  to  the 
prisoner  at  nine  o'clock,  and  asked  him  what  meat  he  would  have  to  his  dinner  ? 
and  he  answered,  'but  a  morsel ;'  and  so  the  said  deponent  departed  and  went 
to  the  chancellor  into  the  choir,  and  he  commanded  that  he  should  take  the 
penitentiary  up  to  the  prisoner  with  him,  to  make  him  holy  water  and  holy  bread, 
and  made  the  said  deponent  to  depart  the  prison-house  for  a  while ;  and  after 
that  he  brought  him  his  dinner,  and  locked  Charles's  boy  in  with  him  all 
dinner  time,  unto  the  hour  of  one  o'clock,  and  so  let  the  lad  out  again,  and 
asked  him  what  he  would  have  to  his  supper  ?  and  he  answered,  that  he  had 
meat  enough ;  and  so  departed  until  six  of  the  clock ;  and  then  the  said  de- 
ponent brought  him  a  quart  of  ale.  And  at  that  time  one  William  Sampson 
went  with  the  said  deponent  to  see  the  prisoner  where  he  was,  and  saw  him,  and 
spake  together;  and  so,  from  the  hour  of  six  aforesaid,  unto  twelve  o'clock  on 
the  morrow,  the  said  deponent  came  not  there,  and  when  he  came  there,  he 
met  the  chancellor,  with  other  doctors,  going  to  see  the  prisoner  where  he 

*  The  Deposition  of  Peter  Turner,  Son-in-law  of  Charles  Joseph. 

First,  he  sayeth,  That  his  father-in-law  rode  out  of  the  town,  upon  Sunday 
the  4th  day  of  December,  a.  d.  1514,  at  six  o'clock  in  the  morning,  wearing  a 
coat  of  orange  tawny,  on  a  horse,  grizzle  colour,  trotting. 

He  saith,  the  Sunday  next  before  that,  one  Button's  wife  gave  knowledge  to 
the  said  deponent,  that  his  father  should  be  arrested  by  divers  sergeants  as  soon 
as  he  could  be  taken ;  and  thereupon  the  said  deponent  gave  knowledge  to  the 
said  father-in-law  at  the  Mack  Friars  at  the  water  side,  whereupon  he  avoided ; 
and,  the  same  night,  Master  Chancellor  gave  the  keys  to  Thomas,  bellringer, 
and  gave  him  charge  of  the  prisoner.  And  on  the  said  Sunday  the  said  depo- 
nent, with  John,  bellringer,  served  the  said  prisoner  with  his  dinner  at  twelve 


o'clock,  and  then  John,  bellringer,  said  to  the  deponent,  that  he  would  not  come  Benry 
to  him  until  the  morrow,  for  my  lord  had  commanded  him  that  the  prisoner  VUI 
should  have  but  one  meal's  meat  on  the  day.  Notwithstanding  that,  the  said  j±  j) 
John,  bellringer,  after  that  he  had  shut  St.  Paul's  church  doors,  went  to  the  i/jqjJ 
aforesaid  prisoner,  with  another  with  him,  at  seven  of  the  clock  at  night  t0 
the  said  Sunday.  1518. 

And  the  said  deponent  sayeth,  That  he  came  on  the  Monday,  at  the  hour  of - 

eight  o'clock  in  the  morning,  to  seek  John,  bellringer,  and  could  not  find  him, 
and  tarried  until  the  high  mass  of  St.  Paul's  was  done,  and  yet  he  could  not 
find  the  said  John  ;  and  then  one  William,  John  the  bellringer's  fellow,  delivered 
the  keys  to  the  said  deponent,  and  so  the  said  deponent,  with  two  officers  of  my 
lord's,  being  somners,  went  to  serve  the  said  prisoner,  and  when  they  came,  the 
prisoner  (they  said)  was  hanged  ;  his  face  to  the  wallward.  And,  upon  that, 
the  said  deponent  immediately  gave  knowledge  to  the  chancellor,  whereupon 
the  chancellor  went  up  with  the  Master  of  the  Rolls,  and  Master  Subdean,  with 
other  doctors  unknown,  to  the  number  of  a  dozen,  and  their  servants. 

*  The  Deposition  of  John  Enderby,  Barber. 

The  said  John  Enderby  sayeth,  The  Friday  before  the  death  of  Richard  Hun, 
betwixt  eight  and  nine  o'clock  in  the  morning,  he  met  with  John  the  bellringer  in 
Eastcheap,  and  asked  him  how  Master  Hun  fared  ?  the  said  bellringer  answered, 
saying :  There  is  ordained  for  him  so  grievous  penance,  that  when  men  hear  of 
it,  they  shall  have  great  marvel  thereof. 

The  witnesses  that  heard  John,  bellringer,  say  these  words,  were  John  Rutter, 
scrivener,  and  William  Segar,  armourer. 

Also  the  said  John  Enderby  saith,  The  same  Monday  that  Richard  Hun  was 
found  dead,  he  met  with  the  aforesaid  John  at  the  Conduit,  in  Gracious 
street,1  about  nine  of  the  clock  in  the  morning,  asking  the  said  bellringer  how 
Master  Hun  fared  ?  the  said  bellringer  answered,  saying  :  he  fared  well  this  day 
in  the  morning  betwixt  five  and  six  of  the  clock  ;  howbeit,  I  am  sorry  for  him, 
for  there  can  nobody  come  to  him  until  I  come,  for  I  have  the  keys  of  the  doors 
here  by  my  girdle  ;  and  showed  the  keys  to  the  said  Enderby.* 

The  Deposition  of  Allen  Creswell,  Waxchandler. 

The  said  Allen  saith,  That  John  Granger,  servant  with  my  lord  of  Lon- 
don, in  my  lord  of  London's  kitchen,  at  such  time  as  the  said  Allen  was 
serving  of  Hun's  coffin,  told  him,  that  he  was  present  with  John  the  bell- 
ringer  the  same  Sunday  at  night  that  Richard  Hun  was  found  dead  on  the 
morrow,  when  the  keepers  set  him  in  the  stocks  ;  insomuch  that  the  said  Hun 
desired  to  borrow  the  keeper's  knife  :  and  the  keeper  asked  him  what  he  would 
do  with  his  knife ;  and  he  answered,  '  I  had  leifer  kill  myself  than  to  be  thus 
treated.'  This  deposition  the  said  Allen  will  prove  as  far  forth  as  any  christian 
man  may;  saying,  that  Granger  showed  to  him  these  words  of  his  own  free 
will  and  mind,  without  any  question  or  inquiry  to  him  made  by  the  said  Allen. 
Moreover  the  said  Allen  saith,  that  all  that  evening  Granger  was  in  great  fear. 

The  Deposition  of  Richard  Horsenail,  Bailiff  of  the  Sanctuary-Town 
called  Godsture  in  Essex. 

The  said  Richard  saith,  That  the  Friday  before  Christmas-day  last  past,  one 
Charles  Joseph,  sumner  to  my  lord  of  London,  became  a  sanctuary-man,  and 
the  aforesaid  Friday  he  registered  his  name ;  the  said  Charles  saying  it  was  for 
the  safeguard  of  his  body,  for  there  be  certain  men  in  London  so  extreme 
against  him  for  the  death  of  Richard  Hun,  that  he  dare  not  abide  in  London. 
Howbeit  the  said  Charles  saith,  he  knowledgcth  himself  guiltless  of  Hun's 
death;  for  he  delivered  the  keys  to  the  chancellor  in  Hun's  life.  Also  the  said 
bailiff  saith,  that  Charles  paid  the  duty  of  the  said  registering,  both  to  him  and 
sir  John  Studley,  vicar. 

(1)  So  it  stands  in  the  original. —Ed. 

]J)6  THE    STORY    OF    THE    MURDER    OF    RICHARD    HUN. 

r//Z    Copy  of  the  Letter  of  Richard  Fitzjames,  then  Bishop  of  London, 
~ r~^~~  sent  to  Cardinal  Wolsey. 

1 509         ]  beseech  your  good  lordship  to  stand  so  good  lord  unto  my  poor  chancellor  now 
to       in  ward,  and  indicted  by  an  untrue  quest,  for  the  death  of  Richard  Hun,  upon 

15 1 8.  tin-  only  accusation  of  Charles  Joseph  made  by  pain  and  durance ;  that  by  your 
—  intercession  it  may  please  the  king's  grace  to  have  the  matter  duly  and  suffi- 
ciently examined  by  indifferent  persons  of  Ins  discreet  council,  in  the  presence 
of  the  parties,  ere  there  be  any  more  done  in  the  cause :  and  that  upon  the 
innocency  of  my  said  chancellor  declared,  it  may  further  please  the  king's 
grace  to  award  a  placard  unto  his  attorney,  to  confess  the  said  indictment  to  be 
untrue,  when  the  time  shall  require  it :  for  assured  am  I,  if  my  chancellor  be 
tried  by  any  twelve  men  in  London,  they  be  so  maliciously  set,  '  in  favorem 
hsereticac  pravitatis,'  that  they  will  cast  and  condemn  any  clerk,  though  he  were 
as  innocent  as  Abel.  '  Quare  si  potes  beate  Pater,  adjuva  infirmitates  nostras, 
et  tibi  in  perpetuum  devinctierimus !'  Over  this,  in  most  humble  wise  I  beseech 
you,  that  I  may  have  the  king's  gracious  favour,  whom  I  never  offended  wil- 
lingly ;  and  that  by  your  good  means  I  might  speak  with  his  grace  and  you : 
and  1  with  all  mine  shall  pray  for  your  prosperous  estate  long  to  continue, 

Your  most  humble  orator,  Richard  London. 

Lastly,  now  it  remaineth  to  infer  the  sentence  of  the  questmen, 
■which  followeth  in  like  sort  to  be  seen  and  expended,  after  I  have 
first  declared  the  words  of  the  bishop -spoken  in  the  parliament-house. 

The  Words  that  the  Bishop  of  London  spake  before  the  Lords  in 
the  Parliament-house. 

Memorandum,  That  the  bishop  of  London  said  in  the  parliament-house,  that 
there  was  a  bill  brought  to  the  parliament,  to  make  the  jury  that  was  charged 
upon  the  death  of  Hun,  true  men ;  and  said  and  took  upon  his  conscience,  that 
they  were  false  perjured  caitifs.  And  said  furthermore  to  all  the  lords  there  being, 
'  For  the  love  of  God  look  upon  this  matter ;  for  if  you  do  not,  I  dare  not  keep 
mine  house  for  heretics  :'  and  said,  that  the  said  Richard  Hun  hanged  himself, 
and  that  it  was  his  own  deed,  and  no  man's  else.  And  furthermore  said,  that 
there  came  a  man  to  his  house,  whose  wife  was  appeached  of  heresy,  to  speak 
with  him ;  and  he  said  that  he  had  no  mind  to  speak  with  the  same  man  : 
which  man  spake  and  reported  to  the  servants  of  the  same  bishop,  that  if  his 
wife  would  not  hold  still  her  opinions,  he  would  cut  her  throat  with  his  own 
hands ;  with  other  words. 

The  Sentence  of  the  Inquest,  subscribed  by  the  Coroner. 

The  inquisition  intended  and  taken  at  the  city  of  London,  in  the  parish  of 
St.  Gregory,  in  the  ward  of  Baynard  Castle  in  London,  the  sixth  day  of  Decem- 
ber, in  the  sixth  year  of  the  reign  of  king  Henry  VIII.,  before  Thomas  Barnwell, 
coroner  of  our  sovereign  lord  the  king,  within  the  city  of  London  aforesaid. 
Also  before  James  Yarford  and  John  Mundey,  sheriffs  of  the  said  city,  upon 
the  sight  of  the  body  of  Richard  Hun,  late  of  London,  tailor,  who  was  found 
hanged  in  the  Lollards'  tower;  and  by  the  oath  and  proof  of  lawful  men  of  the 
same  ward,  and  of  other  three  wards  next  adjoining,  as  it  ought  to  be,  after  the 
custom  of  the  city  aforesaid,  to  inquire  how,  and  in  what  manner-wist  the  said 
Richard  Hun  came  unto  his  death:  and  upon  the  oath  of  John  Bernard, 
Thomas  Stert,  William  Warren,  Henry  Abraham,  John  Aborow,  John  Turner, 
Robert  Allen,  William  Marler,  John  Burton,  James  Page,  Thomas  Pickhill, 
William  Burton,  Robert  Bridgwater,  Thomas  Busted,  Gilbert  Howell,  Richard 
Gibson,  Christopher  Crafton,  John  God,  Richard  Holt,  John  Pasmere,  Edmund 
Hudson,  John  Arunsell,  Richard  Cooper,  John  Tyme  :  who  said  upon  their 
oaths,  that  whereas  the  said  Richard  Hun,  by  the  commandment  of  Richard 
bishopoi  London,  was  imprisoned  and  brought  to  hold  in  a  prison  of  the  said 
bishops,  called  Lollards'  tower,  lying  in  the  cathedral  church  of  St.  Paul  in 
London,  m  the  parish  of  St.  Gregory,  in  the  ward  of  Baynard  Castle  aforesaid  j 

THE    STORY    OF    THE    MURDER    OF    RICHARD    HUN.  197 

William  Horsey,  of  London,  clerk,  otherwise  called  William  Heresie,  chancellor  Henry 

to  Richard  bishop  of  London ;  and  one  Charles  Joseph,  late  of  London,  sumner,  *M 

and  John  Spalding  of  London,  otherwise  called  John  Bellringer,  feloniously  as  .    ^ 

felons  to  our  lord  the  king,  with  force  and  arms  gainst  the  peace  of  our  sove-  ,  I,   ' 
reign  lord  the  king,  and  dignity  of  his  crown,  the  4th  day  of  December,  the 

sixth  year  of  the  reign  of  our  sovereign  lord  aforesaid,  of  their  great  malice,  at  .    ° 
the  parish  of  St.  Gregory   aforesaid,    upon  the   said    Richard   Hun  made 

fray,  and  feloniously  strangled  and  smothered  the  same  Richard  Hun,  and  also  Hun 
the  neck  they  did  break  of  the  said  Richard  Hun,  and  there  feloniously  slew  &%£ 
him  and  murdered  him.     And  also  the  body  of  the  said  Richard  Hun,  after-  inquest, 
ward,  the  same  fourth  day,  year,  place,  parish,  and  w  aid  aforesaid,  with  the  Pot  t0 
proper  girdle  of  the  same  Richard  Htm,  of  silk,  black  of  colour,  of  the  value  of{£ngeel 
twelve  pence,  after  his  death,  upon  a  hook  driven  into  a  piece  of  timber  in  the  himself. 
wall  of  the  prison  aforesaid,  made  fast,  and  so  hanged  him,  against  the  peace 
of  our  sovereign  lord  the  king,  and  the  dignity  of  his  crown.     And  so  the  said 
jury  have  sworn  upon  the  holy  evangelists,  that  the  said  William  Horsey,  clerk, 
Charles  Joseph,  and  John  Spalding, "of  their  set  malice,  then  and  there  feloni- 
ously killed  and  murdered  the  said  Richard  Hun  in  manner  and  form  above- 
said,  against  the  peace  of  our  sovereign  lord  the  king,  his  crown  and  dignity. 
Subscribed  in  this  manner : 

Thomas  Barnwell,  Coroner  of  the  city  of  London. 

After  that  the  twenty-four  had  given  up  their  verdict,  sealed  and  The  par- 
signed  with  the  coroner's  seal,  the  cause  was  then  brought  into  the  jud'^-'tn 
parliament-house,  where  the  truth  was  laid  so  plain  before  all  men's  ^dari 
faces,  and  the  fact  so  notorious,  that  immediately  certain  of  the  bloody  Hon. 
murderers  were  committed  to  prison,  and  should  no  doubt  have  suf- 
fered what  they  deserved,  had  not  the  cardinal,  by  his  authority,  prac-  practice 
tised  for  his  catholic  children,  at  the  suit  of  the  bishop  of  London.  naiwlY 
Whereupon  the  chancellor,  by  the  king's  pardon,  and  secret  shifting,  se>' for 
rather  than  by  God's  pardon  and  his  deserving,  escaped,  and  went,  clergy. 
as  is  said,  to  Exeter,  &c.    Nevertheless,  though  justice  took  no  place 
where  favour  did  save,  yet  because  the  innocent  cause  of  Hun  should 
take  no  Avrong,  the  parliament  became  suitors  unto  the  king's  majesty, 
that  whereas  the  goods  of  the  said  Hun  were  confiscate  into  the  king's 
hands,  it  would  please  his  grace  to  make  restitution  of  all  the  said 
goods  unto  the  children  of  the  said  Hun.     Upon  which  motion,  the 
king,  of  his  gracious  disposition,  did  not  only  give  all  the  aforesaid 
goods  unto  the  aforesaid  children  under  his  broad  seal  yet  to  be  seen  ; 
but  also  did  send  out  his  warrants  (which  hereafter  shall  follow)  to 
those  that  were  the  cruel  murderers,  commanding  them,  upon  his 
high  displeasure,  to  re-deliver  all  the  said  goods,  and  make  restitution 
for  the  death  of  the  said  Richard  Hun :  all  which  goods  came  to 
the  sum  of  fifteen  hundred  pounds  sterling,  besides  his  plate  and 
other  jewels. 

The  Tenor  of  the  King's  Letter  in  behalf  of  Richard  Hun. 

Trusty  and  well-beloved  !  we  greet  you  well.     Whereas  by  the  complaint  to  The 
us  made,  as  well  as  also  in  our  high  court  of  parliament,  on  the  behalf  and  part  ¥"$*  I1',' 
of  Roger  Whapplot  of  our  city  of  London,  draper,  and  Margaret  his  wife,  late  restitu- ' 
the  daughter  of  Richard  Hun  :  and  whereas  you  were  indicted  by  our  laws,  of  Hon  ?f 
and  for  the  death  of  the  said  Richard  Hun,  and  the  said  murder  cruelly  com-  ^"[J^ 
mitted  by  you,  like  as  by  our  records  more  at  large  plainly  it  doth  appear,  about 
the  fifth  day  of  December,  in  the  sixth  year  of  our  reign  ;  the  same  we  abhor ; 
nevertheless  we  of  our  special  grace,  certain  science,  and  mere  motion,  pardoned 
you  upon  certain  considerations  us  moving  :  for  the  intent  that  the  goods  of  the 
said  Richard  Hun,  and  the  administration  of  them,  were  committed  to  the  said 


Ro^er  Whapplot.  We  then  supposed  and  intended  your  amendment,  and 
restitution  to  be  made  by  you  to  the  infants,  the  children  of  the  said  Richard 
Hun  •  as  well  for  his  death,  as  for  his  goods,  embezzled,  wasted,  and  consumed, 
by  your  tyranny  and  cruel  act  so  committed,  the  same  being  of  no  little  value ; 
and  as  hitherto  ye  have  made  no  recompense,  according  to  our  laws,  as  might 
stand  with  equity,  justice,  right,  and  good  conscience,  and  for  this  cause  due 
satisfaction  ought  to  be  made  by  our  laws :  wherefore  we  will  and  exhort,  and 
otherwise  charge  and  command  you,  by  the  tenor  of  these  our  special  letters, 
that  ye  satisfy  and  recompense  the  said  Roger  Whapplot,  and  the  said  Margaret 
his  wife,  according  to  our  laws  in  this  cause,  as  it  may  stand  with  right  and  good 
conscience,  else  otherwise  at  your  further  peril ;  so  that  they  shall  have  no  cause 
to  return  unto  us,  for  their  further  remedy  eftsoons  in  this  behalf,  as  ye  in  the 
same  tender  to  avoid  our  high  displeasure :  otherwise  that  ye  upon  the  sight 
hereof,  set  all  excuses  apart,  and  repair  unto  our  presence,  at  which  your  hither 
coming  you  shall  be  further  advertised  of  our  mind. 
From  our  manor,  &c. 


I  doubt  not  but  by  these  premises,  thou  hast,  christian  reader  ! 
sufficiently  to  understand  the  whole  discourse  and  story  of  Richard 
Hun,  from  top  to  toe.  First,  how  he  came  in  trouble  for  denying  the 
bearing-sheet  of  his  young  infant  departed ;  then  how  he  was  forced, 
for  succour  of  himself,  to  sue  a  praemunire ;  and  thereupon  what  con- 
spiracy of  the  clergy  was  wrought  against  him,  what  snares  were  laid, 
what  fetches  were  practised,  and  articles  devised,  to  snarl  him  in  the 
trap  of  heresy,  and  so  to  imprison  him.  Furthermore,  being  in  prison, 
how  he  was  secretly  murdered  ;  after  his  murder,  hanged ;  after  his 
hanging,  condemned  ;  after  his  condemnation,  burned  ;  and  after  his 
burning,  lastly,  how  his  death  was  required  by  the  coroner,  and  cleared 
by  acquittal  of  the  inquest.  Moreover,  how  the  case  was  brought 
into  parliament,  and  by  parliament  the  king's  precept  obtained  for 
restitution  of  his  goods.  The  debating  of  which  tragical  and  tumul- 
tuous story,  with  all  the  branches  and  particular  evidences  of  the 
same,  taken  out  as  well  of  the  public  acts,  as  of  the  bishop's  registers 
and  special  records  remaining  in  the  custody  of  Dunstan  Whapplot, 
the  son  of  the  daughter  of  the  said  Richard  Hun,  there  to  be  seen, 
I  thought  here  to  unwrap  and  discover  so  much  the  more,  for  three 
special  purposes  : ' 
Three  First,  as  is  requisite,  for  testimony  and  witness  of  truth  falsely 

omsider-  slandered,  °f  innocency  wrongfully  condemned,  and  of  the  party 
ed.  cruelly  oppressed. 

The  second  cause  moveth  me  for  sir  Thomas  More's  Dialogues, 
wherein  he  dallieth  out  the  matter,  thinking  to  jest  poor  simple  truth 
out  of  countenance. 

The  third  cause  which  constraineth  me,  be  the  Dialogues  of  Alan 
Cope  ;  which  two,  the  one  in  English,  the  other  in  Latin,  railing  and 
barking  against  Richard  Hun,  do  double-Avise  charge  him,  both  to  be 
a  heretic,  and  also  a  desperate  homicide  of  himself:  which  as  it  is 
false  in  the  one,  so  it  is  to  be  found  as  untrue  in  the  other,  if  simple 
truth,  which  hath  few  friends,  and  many  times  cometh  in  crafty 
handling,  might  freely  come  to  indifferent  hearing.  Wherefore,  as  I 
have  hitherto  described  the  order  and  manner  of  his  handling,  with 
the  circumstances  thereof,  in  plain  and  naked  narration  of  story, 

(I)  Ex  publicis  actis.  Kit  archivis  et  Regist.  Lond. 

A    DEFENCE    OF    IIUN    AGAINST    MORE    AND    COPE.  199 

simply  laid  out  before  all  men's  faces  ;  so  something  here  to  intermit  Btmn 

in  the  defence  as  well  of  his  oppressed  cause,  as  also  in  discharge  of 

myself,   I  will  now  compendiously  answer  to  both  these  aforesaid  A.  D. 

adversaries,  stopping,  as  it  were,  with  one  bush  two  gaps  ;  and  the  15^9 
mouths  also,  if  I  can,  of  them  both  together.     And,  first,  against 
sir  Thomas  More,  albeit  in  degree  worshipful,  in  place  superior,  in 


wit  and  learning  singular,  if  his  judgment  in  Christ's  matters  had  ^ail" 
been  correspondent  to  the  same,  being  otherwise  a  man  with  many  ^|'sr^.tv 
worthy  ornaments  beautified  :  yet,  being  but  a  man,  and  one  man,  I  tag  many 
lay  and  object  against  the  person  of  him,  the  persons  and  censures  of  fu"s,  had 
twenty  four  questmen,  the  deposition  of  so  many  jurats,  the  judg-  °"ceegreat 
ment  of  the  coroner,  the  approbation  of  the  parliament ;  and,  lastly,  His  Per- 
the  king's  bill  assigned  for  restitution  of  his  goods,  with  his  own  broad  tervaiied. 
seal   confirmed,  &c.     And  thus  much  to  the  person  and  credit  of 
sir  Thomas  More. 

Now  as  touching  his  reasons  :  whereas  he,  coming  in  with  a  flim-flam  His 
of  a  horse-mill,  or  a  mill-horse  (in  his  own  terms  I  speak),  thinketh  refuted3 
it  probation  good  enough,  because  he  could  not  see  him  taken  by  the 
sleeve  who  murdered  Hun :  against  these  reasons  unreasonable  of  his, 
I  allege  all  the  evidences  and  demonstrations  of  the  history  above 
prefixed,  to  be  considered,  and  of  all  indifferent  men  to  be  poised. 

First,  how  he  was  found  hanging,  with  his  countenance  fair,  with  his  The  ai- 
beard  and  head  fair  kemped,  his  bonnet  right  set  on  his  head,  with  his  stances  of 
eyes  and  mouth  fair  closed,  without  any  driveling  or  spurging.     His  g™^ 
body  being  taken  down,  was  found  loose  (which  by  hanging  could  not  condder-i 
be),  his  neck  broken,  and  the  skin  thereof  beneath  the  throat,  where  the  e  ' 
girdle  went,  fretted  and  faced  away ;  his  girdle  notwithstanding  being 
of  silk,  and  so  double  cast  about  the  staple,  that  the  space  of  the  girdle 
between  the  staple  and  his  neck,  with  the  residue  also  that  went  about 
his  neck,  was  not  sufficient  for  his  head  to  come  out  at.     His  hands, 
moreover,  wrung  in  the  -wrists ;  his  face,  lips,  chin,  doublet,  and  shirt- 
collar,  unstained  with  any  blood  :  when,  notwithstanding,  in  a  manner 
somewhat  beyond  the  place  where  he  did  hang,  a  great  quantity  of 
blood  was  found.    Also,  whereas  the  staple  whereon  he  hanged  was  so 
that  he  could  not  climb  thereto  without  some  mean,  there  was  a  stool 
set  up  upon  the  bolster  of  a  bed,  so  tickle,  that  with  the  least  touch  in 
the  world  it  was  ready  to  fall :  and  how  was  it  possible  that  Hun  might 
hang  himself  upon  that  staple,  the  stool  so  standing  ?  besides  the 
confession,  moreover,  of  Charles  Joseph's  own  mouth  to  Julian  Littell, 
of  Robert  Johnson,  John  Spalding  the  bellringer,  Peter  Turner,  and 
others.     All  which  testimonies  and  declarations  being  so  clear  ami 
undeniable,  may  suffice,  I  trust,  any  indifferent  man  to  see  where  the 
truth  of  this  case  doth  stand  :  unless  Master  More,  being  a  gentleman 
of  Utopia,  peradventure  after  some  strange  guise  of  that  country,  Utopia 
useth  to  carry  his  eyes  not  in  his  head,  but  in  his  affection;  not  Mon- 
Seeing  but  where  he  likcth,  nor  believing  but  what  he  listeth. 

Finally,  where  sir  Thomas  More,  speaking  of  himself,  so  con- 
cludeth,  that  he,  hearing  the  matter  what  well  might  be  said,  yet 
could  not  find  contrary,  hut  Hun  to  he  guilty  of  his  own  death  :  so 
in  as  many  words  to  answer  him  again,  1,  perusing  and  searching  in 
the  story  of  Richard  Hun  what  may  well  be  searched,  cannot  but 
marvel  with  myself,  either  with  what  darkness  the  eyes  of  Master  More 



20()  A    DEFENCE    OF    HUN    AGAINST    MORE    AND    COPE. 

Hemy  be  dared,1  not  to  see  what  is  so  plain  ;  or  else  with  what  conscience 
VUI-  ]ie  could  dissemble  that  which  shame  cannot  deny,  And  thus  by  the 
A.  D.    way  to  the  Dialogues  of  sir  Thomas  More. 

Thirdly,  touching  the  Dialogues  of  Alan  Cope,  who  had  rather  the 
bishop's  chancellor  and  officers  to  be  accounted  among  thieves  and 
murderers,  than  Hun  to  be  numbered  among  the  martyrs,  I  have 
tn'r^ms  herein  not  much  to  say,  because  himself  saith  but  little :  and  if  he 
','nt  R»<*-  had  said  less,  unless  his  ground  were  better,  it  had  made  as  little 
matter.  But  forasmuch  as  he,  saying  not  much,  sendeth  us  to  seek 
more  in  More ;  so  with  like  brevity  again  I  may  send  him  to  William 
Tindall,  to  shape  him  an  answer.  Yet  notwithstanding  lest  Cope,  in 
saying  something,  should  think  Hun's  innocent  cause  to  lack  some 
friends,  who  will  not,  or  dare  not,  adventure  in  defence  of  truth  ; 
somewhat  I  will  answer  in  this  behalf, 
nun  And  first,  touching  this  murder  of  Hun  not  to  be  his  own  wilful 

|i';,'tiri'!ylt'd  act,  but  the  deed  of  others  :  besides  the  demonstrations  above  pre- 
imTb lf'  mised  to  sir  Thomas  More,  now  to  Master  Cope ;  if  I  had  no  other 
others,  evidences  but  only  these  two,  I  would  require  no  more ;  that  is,  his 
cap  found  so  straight  standing  upon  his  head,  and  the  stool  so  totter- 
Not  pos-  ing  under  his  feet.  For  how  is  it,  I  will  not  say  likely ;  but  how  is 
iiun.'so1  it  possible,  for  a  man  to  hang  himself  in  a  silken  girdle  double  cast 
i':',waK'  aDout  d  staple,  in  such  shortness,  that  neither  the  space  of  the  knot 
hang  could  well  compass  his  head  about,  and  yet  have  his  cap  so  straight 
set  upon  his  head  as  his  was  ? 

Again,  how  is  it  possible,  or  can  it  be  imagined,  for  him  to  hang 
himself,  climbing  up  by  a  stool  which  had  no  stay  for  him  to  stand 
upon,  but  stood  so  tickle,  that  if  he  had  touched  the  same  never  so 
little,  it  must  needs  have  fallen? 

But  Cope,  being  something  more  provident  in  this  matter,  seemeth 
to  exceed  not  altogether  so  far  as  doth  Master  More.   For  he,  under- 
standing the  case  to  be  ambiguous  and  doubtful,  so  leaveth  it  in  sus- 
pense ;  neither  determining  that  Hun  did  hang  himself,  and  yet  not 
Cope        admitting  that  he  died  a  martyr,  no  more  than  those  who  are  quelled 
him'to'     °y  thieves  and  murderers  in  high-way  sides.     Well,  be  it  so  as  Cope 
''''■  I       doth  argue,  that  those  who  die  by  the  hands  of  felons  and  murderers 

martyr.      ...°.  ,  ,  J  .,  ,.  .... 

in  thievish  ways,  be  no  martyrs ;  yet,  notwithstanding  this,  his  own 

similitude,  comparing  the  bishop's  chancellor  and  officers  to  thieves 

and  murderers,  doth  grant  at  least  that  Hun  died  a  true  man,  although 

The         no  martyr.     Now  if  the  cause  be  it,  and  not  the  pain,  that  maketh  a 

not  the     martyr,  in  pondering  the  cause  why  Hun  was  slain,  we  shall  find  it 

!;,",;!;. Ml ,,  not  altogether  like  to  the  cause  of  those  who  perish  by  thieves  and 

martyr,     robbers.     For  such  commonly,  because  of  their  goods,  and  for  some 

worldly  gain  to  be  sought  by  their  death,  are  made  away,  and  being 

true  men,  may  peradventure  have  the  reward,  although  not  the  name 

of  martyrs  :  whereas  this  man's  death  being  wrought  neither  for  money, 

nor  any  such  temporal  lucre  to  redound  to  his  oppressors  ;  as  it  hath 

tik-        another  cause,  so  may  it  have  another  name,  and  deserve  to  be  called 

Abrff0     by  the  name  of  martyrdom.     Like  as  Abel,  being  slain  by  wicked 

;;; ■  *       Cam,  albeit  he  had  no  opinion  of  religion  articulated  against  him,  but 

! ■!,',',',' '"      °'  sl)iu'  ,,n'.v  an(l  °f  ,nancc  was  made  away,  yet  notwithstanding  is 

pared,     justly  numbered  among  the  martyrs :  so  what  let  to  the  contrary,  but 

(\)  '  Dared,'  harmed  or-pained.— Ed. 

A  DEFENCE    OF    HUN    AGAINST    MORE    AND    COPE.  201 

that  Hun  also  with  him  may  be  reckoned  in  the  same  society,  seeing    nnrj, 
tK.  cause  wherefore  they  both  did  suffer,  proceeded)  together  out  of. 

one  fountain  ?  And  what,  moreover,  if  a  man  should  call  Naboth  A.  I), 
(who  for  holding  his  right  inheritance  was  slain)  a  martyr,  what  great  l;)0y 
injury  should  he  do  either  to  the  name,  or  cause,  of  the  person,    15^8 

worthy  to  be  carped  at  ?    Against  Thomas  Becket,  you  know  Master '- 

Cope,  no  special  article  of  faith  was  laid,  wherefore  he  died:1  and 
why  then  do  you  bestow  upon  him  so  devoutly  the  title  of  a  martyr, 
for  withholding  that  from  the  king,  which  by  the  law  of  God,  and  of 
the  realm,  did  belong  unto  him  ;  and  cannot  suffer  Hun  to  be  entitled 
a  martyr,  dying  in  his  own  right,  by  the  hands  of  spiritual  thieves 
and  homicides,  as  you  yourself  do  term  them  ?  But  what  do  I  strain 
my  travail  any  further  to  prove  Hun  a  martyr,  when  Cope's  own 
confession  doth  import  no  less,  though  I  said  nothing  ?  For,  if  I 
should  take  no  more  but  his  own  very  words,  and  say,  that  he  was 
known  to  be  a  heretic,  as  Cope  doth  affirm,  what  could  I  say  more, 
seeing  he  died  for  their  heresy,  to  prove  him  to  die  a  martyr  ?  for  to 
die  a  heretic  with  the  papists,  what  is  it  else  (to  say  truth)  but  to  die 
with  God  a  martyr  ?  2 

But  howsoever  it  pleaseth  either  sir  Thomas  More  to  jest,  or 
Alan  Cope  to  scold  out  the  matter,  and  to  style  Richard  Hun  for 
a  known  and  desperate  heretic :  yet  to  all  true  godly  disposed  men, 
Hun  may  well  be  known  to  be  a  godly  and  virtuous  person,  no 
heretic,  but  faithful  and  sound,  save  that  only  he  seemed  rather  half 
a  papist ;  at  least  no  full  protestant,  for  that  he  resorted  daily  to  Hun  ..o 
mass,  and  also  had  his  beads  in  prison  with  him,  after  the  catholic  testant. 
manner ;  albeit  he  was  somewhat  inclining  (as  may  appear)  toward  the 
gospel.  And  if  the  name  of  a  martyr  be  thought  too  good  for  him, 
yet  I  trust  Master  Cope  will  stand  so  good  master  to  him,  to  let  him 
at  least  be  a  martyr's  fellow.  But  what  now  if  I  go  further  with 
Master  Cope,  and  name  Richard  Hun,  not  only  for  a  martyr,  but 
also  commend  him  for  a  double  martyr  ?  Certes,  as  I  suppose,  in  so 
saying,  I  should  affirm  nothing  less  than  truth,  nor  any  thing  more  than 
may  truly  be  said,  and  justly  proved.  But  to  give  and  grant  this 
confession  unto  the  adversary,  which  notwithstanding  might  be  easily 
proved,  let  us  see  now  the  proof's  of  Master  Cope,  how  he  argueth 
that  Richard  Hun  is  no  martyr :  "  because,"  saith  he,  "  true  men, 
being  killed  in  high-ways  by  thieves  and  murderers,  are  not  therefore 
to  be  counted  martyrs,11  &c.  And  was  there  nothing  else  in  the  cause 
of  Hun,  but  as  in  true  men  killed  by  thieves  and  murderers?  They 
that  are  killed  by  thieves  and  murderers,  are  killed  for  some  prey,  or 
money  about  them  :  and  what  prey  or  profit  was  in  the  death  of  Hun, 
let  us  see,  to  redound  to  those  who  oppressed  him  ?  If  it  were  the 
mortuary,  or  the  bearing-cloth,  that  was  a  small  thing,  and  not  worthy 
his  death.  If  it  were  the  ;  praemunire,1  the  danger  thereof  pertained 
to  the  priest,  and  not  to  them.  If  they  feared  lest  the  example 
thereof  once  begun,  should  afterward  redound  to  the  prejudice  of  the 
whole  church,  then  was  the  cause  of  his  death  not  private  but  public, 
tending  to  the  whole  church  and  clergy  of  Rome  :  and  so  is  his  death 
not  altogether  like  to  the  death  of  those,  who,  for  private  respects, 
arc  killed  by  thieves  and  murderers. 

(1)  Cope,  Dial.  0,  p  847.  '2)  Cope,  ibid. 

I  lull's 


202  A  DEFENCE    OF    HUN    AGAINST    MORE    AND    COPE. 

ifmnj        "  But  he  was  a  heretic,"  saith  Cope.     By  the  same  reason  that 

Cope  taketh  him  for  a  heretic,  I  take  him  the  more  to  be  accepted 

for  a  martyr :  for  by  that  way  which  they  call  heresy,  the  living  God 

is  served,  and  by  no  way  better.     And  if  he  were  a  heretic,  why 

then  did  they  not  proceed  against  him  as  a  heretic  while  he  was  alive  ? 

When  they  had  him  at  Fulham  before  them,  if  they  had  been  sure 

of    to  entrap  him  in  that  snare,  why  did  they  not  take  their  advantage, 

when  they  might  with  least  jeopardy  ?  why  did  they  not  proceed  and 

murder    condemn  him  for  a  heretic  ?  why  made  they  such  haste  to  prevent 

'lX"""    his  death  before?  why  did  they  not  tarry  the  sentence  of  the  law, 

having  the  law  in  their  own  hands  ?     But  belike  they  perceived  that 

he  could  not  be  proved  a  heretic  while  he  lived,  and  therefore  thought 

it  best  to  make  him  away  privily,  and  to  stop  the  praemunire,  and 

afterwards  to  stop  the  pursuit  of  his  death  by  making  him  a  heretic. 

crafty      And  therefore  were  articles  devised  by  the  chancellor  (as  is  proved 

practice.   before  ^y  witness  of  Charles  Joseph  and  another)  against  him, 

and  he  condemned  for  a  heretic,  and  all  his  favourers  also,  whosoever 

durst  stir  to  take  his  part ;  and  so  thereupon  was  recommitted  to  the 

Hun  hid  secular  power,  and  burned :  wherein  they  did  him  double  wrong ; 

wrong,     first,  in  that  they  burned  him  for  a  heretic,  having  before  submitted 

himself  to  their  favourable  correction,  as  it  appeareth  yet  in  the 

bishop's  registers  by  his  own  hand,  as  it  is  there  pretended ;  which 

was  against  their  own  laws.     Again,  if  he  had  not  submitted  himself 

at  that  time,  yet  did  they  him  wrong  to  burn  him  before  they  knew 

him  and  heard  him  speak  (as  Tindall  saith)  whether  he  would  recant 

or  no.     And  yet,  admit  that  he  was  condemned  and  burned  for  a 

heretic,  yet  to  be  killed  and  burned  of  them  for  a  heretic,  that  taketh 

not  from  him  the  name  of  a  martyr,  but  rather  giveth  him  to  be  a 

double  martyr. 

cope's  Hut  Cope  yet  proceeding  in  his  hot  choler  against  Richard  Hun, 

why'iTun  a^er  ne  l'a(l  made  him  first  no  martyr,  and  then  a  heretic,  thirdly  he 

should      now  maketh  him  also  a  murderer  of  himself,  and  saith,  that  no  other 

him»eif.    man  was  any  part  of  his  death  but  only  his  own  hands,  and  that, 

cither  for  indignation  and  anger,  or  for  desperation,  or  for  some  cause 

he  knoweth  not  what.     And  in  his  Epilogue,  to  make  it  probable,  he 

allegeth  the  example  of  one,  but  nameless,  who,  in   queen  Mary's 

time,  in  like  sort  went  about  to  hang  himself,  had  he  not  been  taken 

in  the  manner  and  rescued. 

Furthermore,  as  touching  the  chancellor  he  argueth,  that  there  was 

no  cause  why  he  should  attempt  any  such  violence  against  him,  both 

for  his  age,  for  his  dignity,  for  his  learning,  and  for  the  greatness  of 

his  own  peril  which  might  ensue  thereof;  who,  if  he  had  maligned 

the  man,  and  had  been   so  disposed  to  work  his  destruction,  had 

means  otherwise,  without  danger,  to  bring  that  about,  having  him 

within  his  danger  convicted  and  fast  tied  for  heresy.     Whereunto  I 

num.-   answer,  that  to  all  this  matter,  sufficient  hath  been  answered  by  the 

mre?    stoi7  lt*^'  °f  his  death,  above  specified;  namely,  by  the  manner  of 

ProoA      his  death,  by  circumstances  of  his  handling  and  hanging,  by  his  neck 

aidnot     broke,  by  his  body  loose,  by  his  skin  fretted,  by  his  wrists  wrung,  by 

hunt'cif    ^'S  Kn'dle  m  such  shortness  double  cast  about  the  staple,  by  his  cap 

right  upon  his  head,  by  his  hair  kemped,  by  his  eyes  closed,  by  the 

cake  of  blood  found  on  the  floor,  by  his  shirt-collar,  doublet,  jacket, 

A  DEFENCE    OF    HUN    AGAINST    MORE    AND    COPE.  2( 

and  other  outward  parts  of  his  garments  without  drop  of  blood,  un-    Bmn 
spotted  ;  by  the  stool  so  standing  upon  the  bolster,  by  the  chancellor's  - 
murrey  gown,  found  the  day  after  upon  the  stocks,  the  wax  candle    A.  D. 
fair  put  out :  Furthermore,  by  the  verdict  of  the  inquest,  by  the    l509 
attestation  of  the  witnesses  sworn,  by  the  coroner's  judgment,  by  the    1518 

assent  of  the  parliament,  by  the  king's  letters  assigned,  and  broad - 

seal  for  restitution  of  his  goods ;  and  finally,  by  the  confession  of  the 
parties  themselves  who  murdered  him,  &c.  And  yet  thinkcth  Cope 
to  make  men  such  fools,  having  yet  their  five  wits,  to  ween  yet  that 
Hun  did  hang  himself,  after  so  many  demonstrations  and  evidences 
to  the  contrary,  as  in  every  part  of  this  story  may  appear  ?  And 
though  it  were,  as  it  was  unlikely,  and  hard  for  a  man  to  believe,  that 
Dr.  Horsey,  a  man  of  such  age,  dignity,  and  learning,  would  so  much 
forget  himself  to  attempt  such  a  villany ;  yet  so  great  is  the  devil 
sometimes  with  man,  where  God  permitteth,  that  he  worketh  greater 
things  than  this,  and  more  incredible.  For  who  would  have  thought 
it  likely  that  Cain  would  ever  have  killedAbel,  his  own  natural  brother  ? 
which  was  more  than  for  a  bishop's  chancellor  to  kill  a  citizen  :  yet  Manifest 
so  he  did.  And  where  Cope  prctendeth  the  causes  of  anger  and  Scopei 
desperation  whereby  Hun  did  hang  himself,  how  is  it  like,  or  who 
ever  did  hear,  a  man  being  in  such  extremity  of  desperation,  to  stand 
first  trimming  himself,  and  kemping  his  head,  before  he  go  to  hang 
himself  ?  No  more  credit  is  also  to  be  given  to  that  which  followeth  Another 
in  the  same  Cope,  where  he  saith,  that  Richard  Hun  being  in  prison,  Hated.* 
was  convicted  of  heresy :  by  which  word  convicted,  if  he  mean  that 
Hun  was  proved  a  heretic,  that  is  false  ;  for  that  he,  being  at  Fulham 
examined  upon  certain  articles,  both  denied  the  articles  to  be  true  as 
they  were  objected ;  and  also  if  they  were  true,  yet  he  submitted 
himself  to  their  favourable  correction  ;  and  therefore,  not  standing 
obstinately  in  the  same,  could  not  be  proved  a  heretic.  And  if  by 
this  term  convicted,  he  mean  that  he  was  by  sentence  cast ;  so  was 
Hun  never  cast  by  any  sentence  for  a  heretic,  so  long  as  he  lived, 
but  after  his  death,  when  he  could  nothing  answer  for  himself.  And  cope 
because  this  untruth  should  not  go  without  his  fellow,  sec  how  he  J] 
huddleth  up  one  false  narration  on  the  neck  of  another ;  affirming  ^lhn. 
moreover,  that  Hun  was  cast  into  prison  before  he  entered  Ids  suit  of  untruth, 
prsemunire  against  the  priest :  which  is  utterly  false  and  untrue,  both 
disagreeing  to  other  stories,  and  also  refuted  by  the  words  of  sir 
Thomas  More,  his  own  author ;  who  reporteth,  that  Hun  (in  suing 
his  praemunire  against  the  priest),  being  set  upon  a  glory  of  victory, 
made  his  boasting  among  his  friends,  that  trusted  to  have  the  matter 
long  spoken  of,  and  to  be  called  Hun's  case.  Whereby  it  appeareth 
that  Hun  was  not  then  in  prison  clapt  up  for  heresy,  but  was  abroad 
seeking  counsel  among  the  lawyers,  and  boasting  among  his  friends, 
as  write th  More.1 

After  this  heap  of  untruths  above  passed,  add  yet  further  another  Another 
copy  of  Cope's  false  dealing;   who,  seeking  all  corners   and   every-  taCop* 
where  how  to  pick  matter  against  my  former  history,-  charged,  me  with  noted 
arrogancy,  as  though  I  took  so  highly  upon  me  to  undo  and  derogate 
the  king's  acts  and  judgments   in   the  acquittal   of  Dr.  Horsey. 
If  it  so  pleased  the  king  to  acquit  Dr.  Horsey  by  his  gracious  pardon, 

(1)  Dial.  b.  lii.  (2)  The  lirst  edition,  1503.— Eu. 



enry    I  am  not  against  it,  neither  do  I  deny  but  the  king  so  did  :  neither 

'IIL    do  I  say,  nor  ever  did,  but  the  king,  of  his  supereminent  prerogative, 

A.  D.    may  so  do  :  and  wherein  then  do  I  unrip  or  loose  the  king's  acts  here 

1509    jone  and  concluded  ?     But  if  the  question  be  this,  Whether  Dr. 

,*?„     Horsey  with  his  conjurats,  did  kill  Richard  Hun   or  no  ?  then  do  I 

say,  that  the  pardon  of  the  king  doth  not  take  away  the  verity  of  the 

toOoprt  crime  committed,  but  removeth  away  the  penalty  of  the  law  deserved : 
' '•" 'ill:i"    and  so  if  the  lives  of  them  were  saved  by  way  of  pardon  (as  Mr.  More 
himself  seemeth  not  to  deny),  then  was  it  not  through  their  innocency 
claiming  justice,  that  they  escaped,  but  through  petition  standing  in 
need  of  mercy.     For  what  needeth  pardon,  where  justice  absolved)  ? 
yea,  who  sueth  pardon,  but  in  so  doing  must  yield  himself  guilty  ? 
for  pardon  never  cometh  lightly,  either  with  God  or  man,  except  the 
Ti,e  es-    crime  be  first  confessed.     Wherefore  if  they  escaped  by  justice,  as 
HorseK  °f  C°Pe  pretendeth,  how  then  doth  Master  More  say,  they  were  saved 
came  ra-  by  pardon  ?     And  if  they  escaped  by  pardon,  how  then  doth  Cope 
favour     say  they  were  not  guilty  ?     And  be  it  admitted,  that  the  sentence  of 
demerits,  the  king's  attorney  in  the  king's  name  did  absolve  them  as  unguilty, 
according  as  the  king  was  then  informed  by  the  cardinal  and  suit  of 
friends ;  yet  afterwards  the  king,  being  better  informed  by  the  par- 
liament, and  the  truth  better  known,  detested  and  abhorred  their  fact, 
and  yet  continued  his  pardon  unto  them,  as  by  the  king's  own  acts  and 
his  broad  seal  appeareth,  yet  remaining  in  records  to  be  seen. 

And  as  touching  my  former  histories  set  forth  in  Latin  and  in 
English,  which  spake  first  of  the  foreman  of  the  quest,  then  of  the 
king's  attorney,  to  be  laboured  with  some  gifts  or  money  :]  as  Cope 
hath  yet  proved  no  untruth  in  my  saying,  so  less  can  he  find  any  re- 
pugnance or  disagreeing  in  the  same.  For  he  that  speaketh  of  bribing, 
first  of  one  person,  and  then  afterwards  of  another,  where  both  might 
be  bribed  together,  is  not  contrary,  I  think,  to  himself,  but  rather  doth 
comprehend  that  in  the  one  book,  which  he  before  leaveth  out  in  the 
other ;  and  yet  no  great  repugnance  either  in  the  one  or  in  the  other, 
seeing  that  which  is  said  may  be  verified  in  both,  as  it  is  no  other 
like  but  in  this  matter  it  was.  For  how  is  it  otherwise  likely  or  pos- 
sible, but  that  there  must  needs  be  found  some  privy  packing  in  this 
matter,  seeing  after  such  evidence  found  and  brought  in  by  the  coro- 
ner's inquest  and  jury  of  twenty-four  chosen  persons,  after  so  many 
marks  and  tokens  of  the  murder  so  clear  and  demonstrable,  and  laid 
forth  so  plain  to  the  eyes  of  all  the  world,  that  no  man  could  deny,  or 
not  see  the  same ;  yet  through  the  handling  of  tfie  aforesaid  attorney, 
and  of  the  foreman  of  the  quest,  the  murderers  were  borne  out  and 
confessed  to  be  no  murderers.  If  such  bolstering  out  of  matters  and 
partiality  were  then  such  a  rare  case  in  the  realm  of  England,  in  the 
time  of  cardinal  Wolsey  (who  then  under  the  king  and  in  the  king's 
name  did  what  he  list),  then  let  it  seem  untrue  what  I  have  written  in 
my  former  stories.  And  yet  the  words  of  my  story,  which  Cope 
carpeth  at  so  much,  be  not  mine,  but  the  words  of  Edward  Hall,  nis 

(1)  In  the  first  Edition  of  the  Acts  and  Monuments,  London,  1563,  page  39],  Foxe  says,  "So 
upon  good  evidence  Dr.  Horsey  the  chancellor,  and  Belringer,  with  Charles  Joseph  the  somner, 
vv '  ' ''  '"dieted  for  the  murder;  but  afterwards,  by  the  means  of  the  spiritualty  and  nwncij;  Doctor 
Horsey  eavised  the  king's  attorney  to  confess  him,  on  his  arraignment,  not  to  be  guilty,  and  so  he 
atoned  and  went  to  Exeter.'  See  the  Latin  Edition  also;  page  121.  ISasle ;  1559.  '  Ille,  largiti- 
onibus  corrupto  pnecoue,'  &c.  piofugit  Exoniam.— Ed. 




n  author.1     Wherefore,  if  his  disposition  be  so  set,  he  must    &** 
needs  be  a  censor  of  other  men's  writings,  let  him  expostulate  with     VIII_ 
Hall,  and  not  with  me.  A.D. 

But  I  trouble  the  reader  too  much  in  this  matter  of  Richard  Hun,    * 
being  of  itself  so  clear,  that  no  indifferent  judge  can  doubt  thereof. 
As  for  -wranglers  and  quarrelers,  they  will  never  be  satisfied.  Where- 
fore I  return  again  to  the  purpose  of  our  story  intermitted. 

«E{i$abetlj  ^tamforb,  ant>  otfjer£. 

In  the  table  above,  containing  the  names  of  those  who,  about  this 
time  of  Richard  Hun,  were  forced  to  deny  and  abjure  their  professed 
opinions,  mention  was  made  of  Elizabeth  Stamford,  John  Houshold, 
and  others,  abjuring  about  a.  d.  1517  ;  -whose  vexation  and  weakness, 
although  it  be  pitiful  to  behold,  yet  to  consider  the  confession  of  their 
doctrine  in  those  ancient  days,  it  is  not  unprofitable  ;  wherein  we  have 
to  see  the  same  form  of  knowledge  and  doctrine  then  taught  and 
planted  in  the  hearts  of  our  fore-elders,  which  is  now  publicly  re- 
ceived, as  well  touching  the  Lord's  sacrament  of  his  body,  as  also  other 
specialties  of  sincerity.    And  although  they  lacked  then  public  autho-  th 
rity  to  maintain  the  open  preaching  and  teaching  of  the  gospel,  which  J|r 
the  Lord's  merciful  grace  hath  given  us  now  :  yet  in  secret  knowledge  former 
and  understanding  they  seemed  then  little  or  nothing  inferior  to  these  be  con 
our  times  of  public  reformation,  as  may  appear  by  this  confession  of  dered- 


Elizabeth  Stamford  hereunder  written ;  which  only  may  suffice  for 
example,  to  understand  what  ripe  knowledge  of  God's  Word  was  then 
abroad  ;  although  not  in  churches  publicly  preached,  for  danger  of  the 
bishops,  yet  in  secret  wise  taught  and  received  of  divers,  in  number  of 
whom  was  this  Elizabeth  Stamford ;  who,  being  brought  and  examined 
before  Fitzjames  bishop  of  London,  a.  d.  1517,  confessed,  that  she  Thomas 
was  taught  by  one  Thomas  Beele  (sometime  dwelling  at  Henley)  Beeie. 
these  words  eleven  years  before : 

'  Christ  feedeth,  and  fast  nourisheth  his  church  with  his  own  precious  body, 
that  is,  the  bread  of  life  coming  down  from  heaven :  this  is  the  worthy  Word 
that  is  worthily  received,  and  joined  unto  man,  to  be  in  one  body  with  him. 
Sooth  it  is,  that  they  be  both  one,  they  may  not  be  parted  :  this  is  the  wisely 
deeming  of  the  holy  Sacrament,  Christ's  own  body :  this  is  not  received  by 
chewing  of  teeth,  but  by  hearing  with  ears,  and  understanding  with  your  soul, 
and  wisely  working  thereafter.  Therefore,  saith  St.  Paul,  I  fear  me  amongst 
us,  brethren,  that  many  of  us  be  feeble  and  sick ;  therefore  I  counsel  us,  brethren, 
to  rise  and  watch,  that  the  great  day  of  doom  come  not  suddenly  upon  us,  as 
the  thief  doth  upon  the  merchant.' 

Also  the  said  Beele  taught  and  showed  her,  that  the  sacrament  of 
the  altar  was  not  the  very  body  of  Christ,  but  very  bread  :  and  that 
the  sacrament  was  the  very  body  of  Christ  put  upon  the  cross,  after 
a  divine  and  mystical  manner.  And  moreover,  that  the  said  Thomas 
Beele  did  many  times  and  oft  teach  her  this  aforesaid  lesson,  that  she 
should  confess  her  sins  to  God,  and  that  the  pope's  pardons  and  indul- 
gences were  naught  worth,  and  profited  not,  and  that  worshipping  of 
images  and  pilgrimages  is  not  to  be  done. 

To  this  Elizabeth  Stamford,  may  also  be  annexed  the  doctrine  and 

(1)  Ex  Ed.  Hal),  in  vit.  Henry  VIII.  anno  C. 


iienry   confession  of  Joan  Sampson,  wife  of  John  Sampson,   carpenter,  of 
'    Aldermanbury  in  London  :  against  whom,  being  cited  and  examined 

A.I),  before  the  bishop  of  London,  certain  witnesses  were  producted  ;  who, 
1509  Upon  their  oath,  being  sworn,  did  detect  and  denounce  the  said  Joan 
,  J?8    Sampson  in  these  articles  and  opinions  following : 

Articles         I.  That  she  being  in  her  labour,  what  time  Joan  Sampson  her  predecessor, 
oi  Joan     ljien  being  alive,  was  with  her,  and  after  the  manner  then  of  women,  called 
Sampson.  muc^  Upon  the  help  of  the  Virgin  Mary,  she,  spitting  thereat,  was  in  such  sort 
aggrieved,  that  the  other  party  was  compelled  to  forsake  the  house. 

II.  Also,  that  she  spake  against  pilgrimage,  and  the  worshipping  of  the  blessed 
Virgin,  and  of  all  saints,  affirming  that  there  is  none  holy  but  one. 

III.  Item,  Another  time,  in  the  hearing  of  one  Margaret  Anworth,  when  she 
and  other  women  were  invocating  the  blessed  Virgin  to  help  in  woman's  labour, 
she  stood  against  them,   and  contumeliously  spake  against  the  invocators. 

IV.  Item,  That  she,  speaking  against  the  pilgrimage  of  our  lady  of  Wilsdon 
(as  she  was  then  called)  and  of  St.  Saviour  at  Bermondsey,  called  the  said  St. 
Saviour,  St.  Sawyer. 

V.  Item,  For  having  two  certain  books  in  English,  one  bigger,  and  another 
lesser,  which  she  committed  to  one  John  Anstead  a  cook ;  which  books  in  the 
register  be  not  named. 

Against         VI.  Item,  That  the  said  Joan  Sampson,  at  a  supper,  in  the  hearing  of  certain 

the  sacra-  meri)  ancj  0f  a  certain  widow  named  Joan  White,  spake  openly  in  contempt  of 

tile  altar,  the  sacrament  of  the  altar ;  saying,  that  the  priests  were  idolaters  who  did  lift 

up  the  bread  over  their  heads,  making  the  people  to  worship  it,  and  making 

the  people  to  believe  that  it  was  the  Lord's  body ;  and  that  it  was  better  to  eat 

the  altar-cloth,  if  it  might  be  eaten  and  digested  as  easily  as  the  other. 

Here  follow,  moreover,  the  names  of  divers  others  who,  in  the  regis- 
ters, be  specified  to  abjure  : 

William  Jacum,  carpenter.  John  Hatchot.  Geo.  Laund,  prior  of  St. 

John  Stradling.  Jacob  Sturdey.                        Sithe. 

John  Newman,  shereman.  Thomas  Purual,  tailor.  Henry  Coll. 

Robert  Boshel.  John  Bitam.  William  Man. 

Thomas  Edward,  dyer.  Robert  Hutton,  pinner.  William  Sweting. 

Richard  Dewar.  Robert  Pope.  Jacob  Brewster. 

Richard  Apulby.  John  Geeste  of  Stafford.  Sabine  Manne. 

John  Osburne.  John  Brian  of  the  parish  John  Spencer. 

Robert  Roger.  of  St.  Stephen.  Patrike  Dowdal,  alias 

John  Eton.  John  Bol.                                Capper. 

John  Chapman.  Richard  Wescot.  Robert  Aleyn. 

William  Chakon.  William  Crosse.  John  Finch,  cook. 

Richard  Mildnal.  John  Southwick. 

3Iofjn  &out[jtoicfc. 

Against  this  John  Southwick  last  named,  it  was  laid  and  objected, 
that  when  one  Rivelay,  coming  from  the  church  of  the  Grey  Friars 
in  London,  had  said  to  his  wife  (asking  where  he  had  been),  that  he 
had  heard  mass,  and  had  seen  his  Lord  God  in  fonn  of  bread  and 
wine  over  the  priest's  head,  the  aforesaid  John  Southwick  there 
present  answered  again  and  said  ;  "  Nay,  William  !  thou  sawest 
not  thy  Lord  God,  thou  sawest  but  bread,  wine,  and  the  chalice."" 
And  when  the  said  William  answered  again  in  the  same  words  as 
before,  saying,  "  I  trust  verily  that  I  saw  my  Lord  God  in  form  of 
bread  and  wine,  and  this  I  doubt  not;"  the  other  replying  again, 
answered  and  said  as  before,  "  Nay,  I  tell  thee  thou  sawest  but  only 


a  figure  or  sacrament  of  him,  which  is  in  substance  bread  and  wine,"    /wv 
&c.     This  was  a.d.  1520,  in  which  he  was  compelled  to  abjure.  VU1 

All  these  abovenamed,  in  one  key  of  doctrine  and  religion,  did  A.  D. 
hold  and  concord  together  :  against  whom  wore  objected  five  or  six  150y 
special  matters;  to  wit,  for  speaking  against  worshipping  of  saints,    ,  ° 

against  pilgrimage,  against  invocation  of  the  blessed  Virgin,  against '- 

the  sacrament  of  the  Lord's  body,  and  for  having  Scripture  books  in  Sdoc"' 
English ;  which  books  I  find  to  be  especially  named,  as  these ;  the  trin 
book  of  the  four  evangelists,  a  book  of  the  epistles  of  Paul  and  Peter, 
the  epistle  of  St.  James,  a  book  of  the  Apocalypse,  and  of  Anti- 
christ, of  the  Ten  Commandments,  and   Wickliff's   Wicket,  with 
other  such. 

3fol)n  4btifman,  Jlartpc. 

It  would  ask  a  long  tractation,  and  tedious,  to  recite  in  order  the  a.d.isis, 
great  multitude  and  number  of  good  men  and  women,  besides  these 
above-rehearsed,  who,  in  those  days,  recanted  and  abjured  about  the 
beginning  of  king  Henry's  reign  and  before  :  among  whom,  yet  not- 
withstanding, some  there  were  whom  the  Lord  reduced  again,  and 
made  strong  in  the  profession  of  his  truth,  and  constant  unto  death ; 
of  which  number  one  was  John  Stilman  by  name,  who,  about  Sept. 
24,  a.d.  1518,  was  apprehended  and  brought  before  Richard  Fitz- 
james  then  bishop  of  London,  at  his  manor  of  Fulham,  and  by  him 
was  there  examined  and  charged,  that  notwithstanding  his  former 
recantation,  oath,  and  abjuration,  made  about  eleven  years  then  past, 
before  Edmund  then  bishop  of  Salisbury,  as  well  for  speaking  against 
the  worshipping,  praying,  and  offering  unto  images  ;  as  also  for 
denying  the  carnal  and  corporal  presence  in  the  sacrament  of  Christ's 
memorial :  yet  since  that  time  he  had  fallen  into  the  same  opinions 
again,  and  so  into  the  danger  of  Telapse :  and  further  he  had  highly 
commended  and  praised  John  Wickliff,  affirming  that  he  was  a  saint 
in  heaven,  and  that  his  book  called  The  Wicket  was  good  and  holy.1  ^j^ef* 
Soon  after  his  examination  he  was  sent  from  thence  unto  the  Lollards1 
tower  at  London,  and  on  October  22,  then  next  ensuing,  was  brought 
openly  into  the  consistory  of  Paul's,  and  was  there  judicially  examined 
by  Thomas  Hed  the  bishop's  vicar-general,  upon  the  contents  of 
these  articles  following : 

Articles  laid  against  John  Stilman. 

I.  First  I  object  unto  you,  that  you  have  confessed  before  my  lord  of  Lon-  Years  of 
don,  and  me  Dr.  Hed,  his   vicar-general,   that  about  twenty  years  past,  one  antiquity 

Stephen  Moone  of  the  diocese  of  Winchester  (with  whom  you  abode  six  or  '"J*. 
is     \     i-i  i  ii-  ii  —\  noted. 

seven  years  alter),  did  teach  you  to  believe  that  the  going  on  pilgrimage  and  a  godly 
worshipping  of  images,  as  the  lady  of  Walsingham  and   others,  were  not  to  be  martyr, 
used.     And  also  that  afterwards  one  Richard  Smart,  who  was  burned  at  Salis-  s„'Kl'rt 
bury  about  fourteen  or  fifteen  years  past,  did  read  unto  you  Wickliff 's  Wicket,  burned  at 
and  likewise  instructed  you  to  believe  that  the  sacrament  of  the  altar  was  not  f aIi1ro3,ry' 
the  body  of  Christ:  all  which  things  you  have  erroneously  believed. 

II.  Item,  You  have  divers  times  read  the  said  book  called  WicklifF's  Wicket, 
and  one  other  book  of  the  ten  commandments,  which  the  said  Richard 
Smart  did  give  you;  and-at  the  time  of  your  first  apprehension  you  did  hide 
them  in  an  old  oak,  and  did  not  reveal  them  unto  the  bishop  of  Salisbury, 
before  whom  you  were  abjured  of  heresy  about  eleven  years  since  ;  where  you 

(1)  Ex  Rcgist.  Fitzjames,  London. 


iTenni    promised,  by  oath  upon  the  evangelists,  ever  after  -to  "believe  and  hold  as  the 

vni-    christian  faith  taught  and  preached,  and  never  to  offend  again  in  the  said  here- 

sies,  or  any  other,  upon  pain  of  relapse.     And  further,  you  there  promised  to 



perform  all  such  penance  as  the  said  bishop  of  Salisbury  did  enjoin  you  :  who 
then  enjoined  you,  upon  the  like  pain,  not  to  depart  his  diocese  without  his 
,     special  license. 

lt>1"j  JII.  Item,  It  is  evident  that  you  be  relapsed,  as  well  by  your  own  confession, 
as  also  by  your  deeds,  in  that  about  two  years  after  your  abjuration  you  went 
into  the  said  place  where  you  had  hidden  your  books ;  and  then  taking  them 
away  with  you,  you  departed  the  aforesaid  diocese  without  the  license  of  the 
bishop,  and  brought  them  with  you  to  London  ;  where  now,  being  attached  and 
taken  with  them  upon  great  suspicion  of  heresy,  you  are  brought  unto  the 
bishop  of  London  :  by  reason  of  which  your  demeanour,  you  have  showed  by 
your  impenitent  and  dissembled  conversation,  both  your  errors,  and  also  your 
unfaithful  abjuration  and  disobedience  unto  the  authority  of  our  mother  "holy 
church,  in  that  you  performed  not  the  penance  :  in  which  behalf  you  be  volun- 
tarily perjured,  and  also  relapsed,  in  that  you  departed  the  said  diocese  without 

IV.  Item,  You  be  not  only  (as  afore  is  said)  impenitent,  disobedient,  volun- 
tarily perjured  and  relapsed,  by  this  your  aforesaid  heretical  demeanour,  but 
also,  since  your  last  attachment  upon  suspicion  of  heresy,  you  have  maliciously 
spoken  erroneous  and  damnable  words,  affirming  before  my  lord  of  London, 
your  ordinary,  and  me,  judicially  sitting  at  Fulham,  that  you  were  sorry  that 
ever  you  did  abjure  your  said  opinions,  and  had  not  suffered  then  manfully  for 
them,  for  they  were,  and  be,  good  and  true ;  and  therefore  you  will  now  abide 
by  them  to  die  for  it.  And  furthermore,  you  have  spoken  against  our  holy 
father  the  pope,  and  his  authority,  damnably  saying  that  he  is  Antichrist,  and 
not  the  true  successor  of  Peter,  or  Christ's  vicar  on  earth  ;  and  that  his  pardons 
and  indulgences,  which  he  granteth  in  the  sacrament  of  penance,  are  naught, 
and  that  you  will  none  of  them.  And  likewise  that  the  college  of  cardinals  be 
limbs  of  the  said  Antichrist :  and  that  all  other  inferior  prelates  and  priests  are 
the  synagogue  of  Satan.  And  moreover  you  said,  that  the  doctors  of  the 
church  have  subverted  the  truth  of  holy  Scripture,  expounding  it  after  their 
own  minds,  and  therefore  their  works  be  naught,  and  they  in  hell :  but  that 
Wickliffis  a  saint  in  heaven,  and  that  the  book  called  his  Wicket  is  good,  for 
therein  he  showeth  the  truth.  Also  you  did  wish  that  there  were  twenty 
thousand  of  your  opinion,  against  us  scribes  and  pharisees,  to  see  what  you 
would  do  for  the  defence  of  your  faith.  All  which  heresies  you  did  afterwards 
erroneously  affirm  before  the  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  and  then  said  that  you 
would  abide  by  them  to  die  for  it,  notwithstanding  his  earnest  persuasions  to 
the  contrary  :  and  therefore,  for  these  premises  you  be  evidently  relapsed,  and 
ought  to  be  committed  unto  the  secular  power. 

All  these  articles  thus  ,  propounded,  and  his  constant  persevering 
in  the  truth  perceived,  Dr.  Hcd,  vicar-general,  Oct.  25,  by  his  sentence 
definitive,  did  condemn  him  for  a  relapsed  heretic,  and  so  delivered 
him  the  same  day  unto  the  sheriffs  of  London,  to  be  openly  burned 
in  Smithfield. 

ftfjomajci  JUan,  Mattpz. 

Next  to  John  Stilman  abovementioned,  followeth  in  this  order  of 
blessed  martyrs,  the  persecution  and  condemnation  of  Thomas  Man; 
who,  March  29,  a.d.  1518,  was  burned  in  Smithfield.  This  Thomas 
Man  had  likewise  been  apprehended  for  the  profession  of  Christ's 
gospel  about  six  years  before  (Aug.  14,  1511),  and  being  at  that 
time  brought  before  Dr.  Smith,  bishop  of  Lincoln,  was  by  him  ex- 
amined upon  divers  and  sundry  articles,  the  effect  whereof  is  this: — 

The  Articles  of  Thomas  Man. 

I.  First,  That  he  had  spoken  against  auricular  confession,  and  denied  the 
corporal  presence  of  Christ's  body  in  the  sacrament  of  the  altar. 


II.  Item,  That  ho  believed  that  all  holy  men  of  his  sect  were  only  priests.  limn, 

III.  Item,  That  he  had  affirmed  that  the  Father  of  heaven  was  the  altar,  Vl" 
and  the  Second  Person  the  sacrament;  and  that  upon  the  ascension  day  the  .  .. 
sacrament  ascended  unto  the  altar,  and  there  abideth  still.  1500 

IV.  Item,  That  he  believed  not  aright  in  the  sacrament  of  extreme  unction.  . 

V.  Item,  That  he  had  called  certain  priests,  meanly  arrayed,  pilled  knaves,      ,-j^ 

VI.  Item,  That  he  had  said  that  pulpits  were  priests'  lying  stools.  ! - 

VII.  Item,  That  he  had  believed  that  images  ought  not  to  be  worshipped, 
and  that  he  neither  believed  in  the  crucifix,  nor  yet  would  worship  it. 

VIII.  Item,  That  he  had  affirmed  that  he  heard  say,  the  word  of  God  and 
God  to  be  all  one,  and  that  he  that  worthily  receiveth  the  word  of  God,  receiveth 

IX.  Item,  That  he  had  said  that  the  popish  church  was  not  the  church  of 
God,  but  a  synagogue  ;  and  that  holv  men  of  his  sect  were  the  true  church 
of  God. 

For  these  and  such  like  matters  was  he  a  long  time  imprisoned, 
and,  at  last,  through  frailty  and  fear  of  death,  was  content  to  abjure 
and  yield  himself  unto  the  judgment  of  the  Romish  church,  and 
thereupon  was  enjoined,  not  only  to  make  his  open  recantation,  but 
also  from  thenceforth  to  remain  as  prisoner  within  the  monastery  of  Thomns 
Osney  beside  Oxford,  and  so  to  bear  a  faggot  before  the  first  cross,  JJathesent 
at  the  next  general  procession  within  the  university.     Howbeit  not  m°nfaste- 
long  after,  the  bishop  having  need  of  the  poor  man's  help  in  his  osney, 
household  business,  took  him  out  of  the  said  monastery,  and  placed 
him  within  his  own  house  until  his  business  was  ended  ;  and  then  (his 
turn  once  served)  he  appointed  Dr.  Wilcocks  his  vicar-general,  that 
in  his  next  judicial  session  within  the  priory  of  Frideswide  at  Oxford,  he  And  of 
should  assign  him  to  remain  within  the  said  priory,  and  not  to  depart  ^ilT 
thence  without  license  of  the  prior  for  the  time  being,  upon  pain  of 
relapse  :  and  upon  like  pain  he  also  enjoined  him  to  wear  the  sign  of 
a  faggot  under  his  uppermost  garment,  until  he  were  dispensed  withal 
for  the  same.     All  which  notwithstanding  (being  belike  both  sorry 
for  his  offence  in  denying  the  truth,  and  also  weary  of  his  servile  and 
prison-like  bondage),  he  bethought  himself  how  he  might  best  escape 
their  cruel  hands ;  and  therefore,  after  a  while,  seeing  good  opportu- 
nity offered  him,  he  fled  the  diocese  and  jurisdiction  of  Lincoln,  and  Fieesout 
seeking  abroad  in  other  counties  for  work,  thereby  to  sustain  his  poor  n^,?™0' 
life,  he  most  commonly  abode,  sometimes  in  Essex,  sometimes  in 
Suffolk;  where  also  he  associated  and  joined  himself  unto  such  godly 
professors  of  Christ's  gospel,  as  he  there  could  hear  of.     But  within 
few  years  after  (such  is  the  cruel  rage  of  Satan  and  his  wicked  mem- 
bers, who  never  suffer  the  godly  long  to  continue  untroubled,)  he  was 
again  accused  of  relapse  by  the  inquest  of  the  inquisition  of  London, 
and  thereupon  was  apprehended  and  brought  before  Richard  Fitz-  Thomns 
james  then  bishop  of  London,  and,  Feb.  9th,  1518,  he  was  examined  """mi'1 
by  Dr.  Hed,  the  bishop's  vicar-general,  within  his  palace  at  London  :  tir^e^; 
where  the  said  Hed,  judicially  assisted  by  divers  of  his  complices,  ed. 
declared  first  unto  Man,  that  forasmuch  as  he  was,  since  his  first  ab-  Thecause 
juring,  again  detected  and  accused,  by  certain  credible  and  honest  martyr- 
persons,  of  the  same  heresies  which  he  had  once  before  recanted  :  riom- 
and  further  (contrary  to  the  order  of  penance  enjoined  him  by  the  late 
bishop  of  Lincoln),  he  had  departed  the  priory  of  St.  Frideswide,  and 
the  diocese  of  Lincoln,  without  leave  either  of  the  bishop  or  prior ; 
and  was  now  also  found  within  the  diocese  of  London,  and  that  with- 


Henry  out  liis  badge  assigned  him  by  the  said  bishop's  vicar-general :  he 
VUI-  therefore,  as  chancellor  and  vicar-general  unto  the  bishop  of  London, 
A.  1).  deputed  for  that  purpose,  did  then  mean  to  proceed  against  him  as  a 
1509  relapse,  by  order  of  the  ecclesiastical  laws  in  that  behalf  provided. 
t0      Wherefore  he  appointed  him   to  appear  again  in  the  consistory  of 

— Paul's,  on  the  12th  of  February  next  after,  there  to  answer  unto  such 

articles  as  then  should  be  propounded  against  him.  At  which  day 
and  place,  the  chancellor  (first  reciting  the  causes  above  mentioned, 
why  he  did  then  proceed  against  him)  objected  unto  him  these  articles 
following : — 

Articles  again  objected  against  Thomas  Man. 

I.  First,  That  he  was  of  the  diocese  of  London. 

II.  Item,  That  he  was  a  christian  man,  and  professed  Christ's  faith,  and  the 
determinations  of  holy  church  concerning  the  seven  sacraments,  and  other 
articles  of  the  catholic  faith. 

III.  Item,  That  it  was  not  lawful  for  any  man  (especially  a  layman)  erro- 
neously and  obstinately  to  hold,  teach,  or  defend  any  opinion  contrary  unto  the 
determinations  of  the  said  church  ;  and  that  the  person  so  doing  is  a  heretic. 

IV.  Item,  That  within  one  of  the  twelve  months  of  the  year  of  our  Lord 
1511,  he  had  been  detected  before  the  bishop  of  Lincoln  that  then  was,  of  divers 
points  of  heresy ;  as  that  he  had  affirmed,  that  the  very  body  and  blood  of 
Christ  was  not  in  the  sacrament  of  the  altar,  but  material  bread  and  wine,  and 
that  he  had  received  it  at  Easter  as  holy  bread :  and  likewise  had  affirmed,  that 

crament.  the  crucifix  and  other  images  in  the  church,  were  not  to  be  worshipped ;  and 
also,  that  confession  made  unto  a  priest  was  of  no  effect;  with  divers  other 
like  opinions  and  heresies. 

V.  Item,  That  for  these  and  such  like  points  of  heresy  he  had  been  abjured 
in  St.  Mary's  church  at  Oxford,  before  Dr.  Wilcocks,  chancellor  unto  the  said 
bishop  of  Lincoln,  in  the  month  of  October,  in  the  year  last  above-said,  and 
there  did  renounce  them  and  all  other,  promising  to  fall  no  more  into  the  like. 

VI.  Item,  That  there  also  he  had  taken  a  solemn  oath,  to  do  such  penance  as 
should  be  enjoined  him  by  the  authority  of  the  said  bishop. 

VII.  Item,  That  then  he  was  enjoined  to  abide  within  the  monastery  of 
Osney  by  Oxford ;  and  also  there  to  Dear  a  faggot  before  the  first  cross  in  the 
general  procession. 

VIII.  Item,  That  after  a  certain  time  that  he  had  been  in  the  monastery  of 
Osney,  the  bishop  of  Lincoln  (for  certain  causes)  took  him  into  his  own  house 
and  service,  respiting  his  penance  for  a  time. 

IX.  Item,  That  afterwards,  which  was  on  the  9th  of  October,  1512,  the  said 
bishop's  chancellor,  judicially  sitting  in  the  chapter-house  of  the  priory  of  St. 
Frideswide,  in  Oxford,  did  enjoin  him  that  he  should  tarry  within  the  said 
priory,  and  not  go  out  of  the  gates  thereof  without  license  of  the  prior  for  the 
time  being,  until  he  had  other  commandment  from  the  bishop ;  upon  pain  of 
relapse  :  and  further,  that  he  should  from  thenceforth,  upon  the  like  pain,  wear 
a  sign  of  a  faggot  under  his  uppermost  garment. 

X.  Item,  That  after  his  abjuration,  and  since  the  promises  thus  done,  he  was 
yet  again  detected  to  the  bishop  of  London  by  open  fame,  and  denounced  by 
worshipful  and  credible  persons,  that  he  had  used  like  false  errors  and  heresies, 
and  had  spoken  and  taught  certain  conclusions  of  heresy  against  the  christian 
faith,  and  determinations  of  holy  church :  and  that  he  had  fallen  into  the  like 
heresies  as  before  his  abjuration,  both  against  the  sacrament  of  the  altar,  against 
pilgrimages  and  worshipping  6f  images :  and  had  blasphemed  our  blessed  lady, 
calling  her  Mahly.1 

XI.  Item,  That  when  he  wrought  with  one  John  Bates,  in  Stratford  Lang- 
thorn,  in  Rogation-week  then  three  years  past,  and  being  bidden  by  the  said 
Bates's  wife  to  go  and  hear  the  gospel,  he  answered  and  said  unto  her,  '  I  will 
not  go  there  ;  go  you  if  you  list ;  ye  shall  have  as  much  need  for  it,  as  to  put  your 
finger  in  the  Cue  and  to  burn  it.' 

(1)  He  meant  some  image  or  picture  of  the  Virgin,  set  up  in  some  blind  place  to  be  worshipped. 


XII.  Item,  That  in  times  past,  for  fear  of  abjuration,  lie  had  fled  from  Col-  Smn 

Chester  to  Newbury,  and  after  that  unto  Amersham,  and  had  there  damnably  fJ,J- 
accompanied  with  heretics,  and  had  taught  heresies  among  them  :    and  also 

since  the  time  of  his  abjuration  he  had  said,  that  lie  and  his  wife  had  turned  six  .  I     ' 


seven  hundred  people  unto  those  opinions  which  he  was  abjured  of,  and 
others  also,  contrary  to  Christ's  faith,  and  determinations  of  holy  church. 

His  answer  unto  these  articles  was,  that  as  touching  the  first  nine, 
he  granted  them  in  part  to  be  true ;  confessing  to  the  second,  that  he 
was  a  true  Christian,  and  did  profess  the  true  christian  faith :  but  the 
contents  of  the  last  three  he  utterly  denied  to  be  true ;   affirming  for 
certain  answer  unto  the  eleventh  article,  that  at  the  time  mentioned 
in  the  same  he  did  not  work  in  the  town  of  Stratford.     Upon  which 
answer,  the  chancellor  called  forth  two  witnesses  to  be  sworn  and  False 
examined  against  him,  willing  him  that  if  he  had  any  just  matter  ",!'X>";.i 
against  any  of  them,  he  should  refuse  them.     But  to  what  purpose  ■»■*>»•* 
this  his  fair  offer  and  trim  show  of  upright  justice  served,  1  cannot  Man. 
see,  for,  notwithstanding  that  he  charged  one  of  the  witnesses  with 
theft  and  adultery  (for  that  having  a  wife  of  his  own,  he  did  yet  run 
away  with  another  man's  wife  and  goods),  and  also  alleged  that  the 
other  was  too  young  to  be  a  sworn  witness  in  case  of  life  and  death  : 
yet  were  they  both  still  retained  and  allowed  by  the  chancellor,  and 
sworn  not  to  depart  away  or  hide  themselves,  but  to  be  always  ready 
to  justify  that  which  they  had  to  say  against  the  said  Thomas  Man. 
And  so  for  that  time,  as  well  they  as  also  all  the  rest  were  commanded 
to  depart,  and  the  prisoner  sent  again  to  his  prison. 

And  here,  in  the  order  of  the  oath  ministered  unto  these  witnesses, 
I  find  one  note,  me  thinketh,  worthy  of  present  remembrance,  both 
for  that  it  is  mentioned  in  this  process,  and  also  because  it  somewhat 
openeth  the  foolish,  ridiculous,  and  feigned  figurative  ceremonies  of 
the  papists,  who   do  attribute  a  spiritual  signification  unto  almost 
all  their  doings.      The  register,   discoursing  at  large  the  manner  of 
their  oath,  hath  these  words  :x  "  He  caused  them  to  swear  upon  the  The  cere- 
holy  evangelists,  with  their  three  middle  fingers  stretched  out  right,  SSma 
and  laid  upon  the  book  in  sign  of  the  Trinity  and  catholic  faith  ;  and  rf *£ 
the  other  two  (to  wit,  the  thumb  and  the  little  finger)  put  downwards  minis 
under  the  book,  in  token  of  damnation  of  body  and  soul,  if  they  did  {j^  "f 
not  depose  the  truth  in  the  matter."     This  ceremonial  order  and  oath- 
exposition  of  theirs,  as  it  is  of  their  own  fond  invention,  without  any 
ground  or  example  of  the  Scriptures  of  God,  so  mind  I  to  leave  it 
still  unto  themselves,  with  other  their  apish  toys  and  ridicules,  as 
things  worthy  to  be  laughed  at ;   and  will  now  further  proceed  with 
the  rest  of  this  process  which  I  have  in  hand. 

On  the  15th  of  February,  Dr.  Hed  the  eliancellor,  again  judicially  Thomas 
sitting  in  the  consistory  at  Paul's,  commanded  Thomas  Man   to  be  at.'"\u 
brought  before  him,  and  there  causing  the  articles  objected  against  j^'Vu',!! 
him  by  the  bishop   of  Lincoln,   with  his  order  of  abjuration  and  <ii 

})cnance,  and  also  his  own  articles  last  propounded,  to  be  first  read ; 
ic  called  forth  a  third  witness  to  be  sworn  and  examined  upon  the 
same.     But  because  he   would  seem  to   do  all  things  by  order  of 

(1)  "  Ad  sancta  Dei  evangelia  Jurari  fecit,  tribus  meiliis  digitis  erectis,  et  super  librum  positis,  in 
signun.  Trinitatis,  et  fidci  catholicae:  et  duobw  (videlicet  pollice  et  auriculari)  suppositis  et  sup- 
presais,  et  sub  libro  positis,  in  signum  damnations  corporis  et  animac,  si  non  deposuerint  veri- 
talem  in  liac  parte.", 





Jfmry    justice,  and  nothing-  against  law,  he  therefore  appointed  unto  the  said 
vuu     Thomas  Man  certain  doctors  and  advocates  of  the  Arches,  as  his 
A.  D.    counsellors  to  plead  in  his  behalf;  which  was  even  like  as  if  the 
1509    lamb  should  be  committed  to  the  defence  and  protection  of  the  wolf, 
or  the  hare  to  the  hound.     For  what  good  help  could  he  look  for  at 
their  hands,  who  were  both  most  wicked  haters  and  abhorrers  of  his 
nip""3     christian  profession,  and  also  stout  upholders  and  maintainers  of  that 
commie-  antichristian  law,  by  which  he  was  for  the  same  condemned  ?    And 
that  full  well  appeared  by  the  good  advice  and  profitable  counsel 
which  they  gave  him  against  his  next  examinations.      For  as  well 
upon  the  twentieth,  and  also  the  twenty-third  of  the  same  month  of 
February,  in  their  several  sessions,  he  seeing  his  own  negations  to 
their  objections  to  take  no  place  against  their  sworn  witnesses,  had  no 
other  thing  to  allege  for  himself,  but  that,  through  his  twenty  weeks 
of  hard  imprisonment  under  the  bishop  of  Lincoln,  he  was  forced  to 
recant  and  abjure  ;  which  was  a  poor  shift  of  counsel,  God  knoweth : 
The  sub-  and  yet  Dr.  Rayncs  being  one  of  his  chief  assigned  advocates,  instead 
tuXniie  of  advice,  could,  by  his  subtle  questioning,  then  make  him  confess, 
church-    that  certain  talk  whereof  one  of  the  witnesses  had  accused   him,  was 
""•"        spoken  about  five  years  before  past :   which,  because  it  was  since  his 
recantation,  was  rather  an  accusation  of  himself,  than  an  excusing :  and 
therefore  it  is  easy  to  judge  with  how  favourable  and  uprightful  hearts 
they  took  upon  them  to  be  his  advocates  and  defenders.     The  chan- 
cellor likewise  charged  him  upon  the  same  twenty-third  day,  that 
since  his  last  imprisonment,  he  had  said  unto  Robert  Cluny  the 
bishop's  sumner,  and  his  keeper,  that  as  far  forth  as  he  could  see  or 
perceive  for  his  part  in  this  his  matter,  the  laAvs  of  the  church  were 
The  laws  grounded  upon  Pilate  and  Caiaphas :  which  objection  he  granting  to 
church  of  ')e  true,  the  chancellor  did  for  that  time  dismiss  the  court,  until  the 
grounded  ^rs^  ^  °^  March  next  following.     Upon  that  day   (minding  to 
upon  pi-  make  quick  dispatch)   he  in  few  words  asked  Man,  what  matter  he 
Caiaphas.  llafl  to  allege  for  himself  why  he  should  not  then  (considering  the 
premises)  be  pronounced  a  relapsed  heretic,  and  receive  such  punish- 
ment by  the  secular  power,  as  to  such  was  due  by  order  of  law  ?  But 
he,  having  no  other  allegations  than  before,  which  might  take  place 
with  them,  was  finally  condemned  as  a  heretic  ;  and  notwithstanding 
that,  as  the  register  noteth  (but  how  truly,  God  only  knoweth),  he 
did  again  forsake  his  former  renewed  profession  of  Christ's  gospel, 
and  yielded  himself  unto  the  bishop  of  Rome,  requiring  to  be  ab- 
solved from  his  curse  of  excommunication,  and  contented  to  do  such 
penance  as  they  should  enjoin  him,  he  was  yet,  the  29th  of  March, 
delivered  by  Dr.  Hed  to  the  sheriff  of  London,  to  be  then  presently 
burned,  with  this  protestation  made  before,  that  he  might  not  consent 
to  the  death  of  any,  and  therefore  he  desired  the  sheriff  that  he  would 
receive  this  person  as  relapsed  and  condemned,  and  yet  to  punish  him 
otherwise  than  by  rigorous  rigour.1      The  words  to  be  marked  in 
their  sentence  be  these  :2  "  We  desire,  in  the  bowels  of  our  Lord 
•bsus  Christ,  that  the  punishment  and  execution  of  due  severity,  of 

II)  The  popish  chancellor  would  not  seem  to  consent  to  his  death,  but  yet  could  send  birr  to  the 
Bhamhles  to  be  killed. 

(•2)  ■  Rogamiuattente  In  riseeribue  JesuChristi,  ut  hujusmodi  digne  scveritatis  ultioetexecutio 
".'  ''',"  contra  te  In  hac  parte  liendataliter  modcretur,  ut  non  sit  ri^or  rigidus.  nequc  mansuefudo 
diasoluta,  >ed  ad  lalutem  <-t  ganitatem  anima  fuse,"  Sec. 


thee  and  against  thee,  in  this  part,  may  so  be  moderated,  that  there    «wp 
be  no  rigorous  rigour,  nor  yet  no  dissolute  mansuetude,  but  to  the 

health  and  wealth  of  thy  soul,"  &c.  Wherein  these  catholic  church-  A.  I  >. 
men  do  well  declare,  according  to  the  words  of  Thomas  Man  before  l509 
expressed,  that  the  laws  of  their  church  be  grounded  upon  Pilate  and    ]:j'|'s 

Caiaphas.     For  like  as  Caiaphas,  with  his  court  of  Pharisees,  cried — 

against  Christ  unto  Pilate :  "  It  is  not  lawful  for  us  to  put  any  man 
to  death,"  but  "  if  thou  let  him  go,  thou  art  not  Caesar's  friend  ;" 
even  so  they,  first  condemning  the  saints  of  God  to  death,  and  then 
delivering  them  unto  the  secular  magistrate  to  be  thereupon  exe- 
cuted, would  yet  cover  their  malignant  hearts  with  the  cloak  of  hypo- 
critical holiness  and  unwillingness  to  shed  blood.  But  God  be 
thanked,  who  bringeth  all  things  to  light  in  his  due  time,  and  un- 
covereth  hypocrisy  at  last,  that  she  may  be  seen  and  known  in  her 
right  colours  ! 

Thus  Thomas  Man,  the  manly  martyr  of  Jesus  Christ,  being  con-  a '■'■■ 
demned  by  the  unjust  sentence  of  Hed  the  chancellor,  was  delivered  SSSed  „> 
to  the  sheriff  of  London  sitting  on  horseback  in  Paternoster-row,  'J 
before  the  bishop's  door  (a.  d.  1518),  he  protesting  to  the  said I  ••»»> •«;»•• 
sheriff,  that  he  had  no  power  to  put  Man  to  death ;  and  therefore  la" 
desiring  the  sheriff  to  take  him  as  a  relapse  and  condemned,  to  see 
him  punished  ;   "  et  tamen  citra  mortem,"  that  is,  "  without  death," 
as  the  words  stand  in  the  register.     The  sheriff,  receiving  neither 
articles  to  be  read  at  his  burning,  nor  any  indentures  of  that  his  de- 
livery, immediately  carried  him  to  Smithfield,  and  there,  the  same 
day  in  the  forenoon,  caused  him  to  be  "  put  into  God's  angel ;"  ac- 
cording to  the  words  of  the  said  Thomas  Man  before,  saying,  that  if 
he  were  taken  again  of  the  pilled  knave  priests,  as  he  called  them,  he 
wist  well  he  should  go  to  the  Holy  Angel,  and  then  be  an  angel  in 

In  the  deposition  of  one  Thomas  Risby,  weaver,  of  Stratford  - 
Langthorn,  against  the  aforenamed  martyr  Thomas  Man,  it  appeareth 
by  the  registers,  that  he  had  been  in  divers  places  and  countries  in 
England,  and  had  instructed  very  many,  as  at  Amersham,  at  London, 
at  Billericay,  at  Chelmsford,  at  Stratford-Langthorn,  at  Uxbridge,  at 
Burnham,  at  Henley-upon-Thames,  in  Suffolk  and  Norfolk,  at  New- 
bury, and  divers  places  more  :  where  he  himself  testifieth,  that  as  he 
went  westward,  he  found  a  great  company  of  well-disposed  persons, 
being  of  the  same  judgment  touching  the  sacrament  of  the  Lord's 
supper  that  he  was  of,  and  especially  at  Newbury,1  where  was  (as  he  six  score 
confessed)  a  glorious  and  sweet  society  of  faithful  favourers,  who  had  ^dthree 
continued  the  space  of  fifteen  years  together,  till  at  last,  by  a  certain  'Jj;^r 
lewd  person,  whom  they  trusted  and  made  of  their  council,  they  were  "Jural 
bewrayed ;  and  then  many  of  them,  to  the  number  of  six  or  seven  sixty  ury 
score,  were  abjured,  and  three  or  four  of  them  burnt.     From  thence  yearsae°- 
he  came  then  (as  he  confessed)  to  the  forest  of  Windsor,  where  he, 
hearing  of  the  brethren  who  were  at  Amersham,  removed  thither, 
where  he  found  a  godly  and  a  great  company,  which  had  continued 
in  that  doctrine  and  teaching  twenty-three  years,  which  was  from 
this   present   time   seventy  years  ago.     And  this  congregation    of 
Buckinghamshire  men  remained  till  the  time  of  John   Longland, 

(1)  Ex  Resist.  Ric.  Fitzjames,  fol.  798. 


Henry    bishop  of  Lincoln,  whereof  we   shall    (Christ   willing)    hear  more 
vin.  r 


A.  D.  A  "ainst  these  faithful  Christians  of  Amersham,  were  great  trouble 
150y  and  persecution  in  the  time  of  William  Smith  bishop  of  Lincoln, 
.r^'o    about  a.d.  1507,  at  which  time  divers  and  many  were  abjured,  and 

—  it  was  called  '  abjuratio  magna,'  '  the  great  abjuration  ;'    and  those 

maRna!'0  who  were  noted  of  that  doctrine  and  profession,  were  called  by  the 
men Wor    name  of  '  known  men,1  or  '  just  fast  men,'  &c.     In  this  congregation 
just-Vast-  0f  the  faithful  brethren,  were  four  principal  readers  or  instructors ; 
Amer-a     whereof  one  was  Tylsworth,  called  then  Dr.  Tylsworth,   who  was 
'b*ID'      burnt  at  Amersham,  mentioned  in  our  history  before,  by  the  name 
of  William  Tilseley,  whom  I  suppose  to  be  rather  called  Tylsworth. 
Another  was  Thomas  Chase,  called  amongst  them  Dr.  Chase,  whom 
we  declared  before  to  be  murdered  and  hanged  in  the  bishop  of  Lin- 
coln's prison  at  Woburn,  called  Little-ease.1      The  third  was  this 
Thomas  Man,  called  also  Dr.  Man,  burned  as  is  here  mentioned  in 
Smithfield,   a.d.  1518,  who,  as  by  his  own  confession,  and  no  less 
also  by  his  travail  appeareth,  was  God's  champion,  and  suffered  much 
Thomas    trouble  by  the  priests  for  the  cause  and  law  of  God.     He  confesseth 
g[eatarea-  himself  in  the  same  register,   that  he  had   turned  seven  hundred 
mon%he  People  to  his  religion  and  doctrine,  for  which  he  thanked  God.     He 
brethren   conveyed  also  five  couples  of  men  and  women  from  Amersham,  Ux- 
snam!er    bridge,   Burnham,   and  Henley-upon-Thames,  (where  they  dwelt), 
unto  Suffolk  and  Norfolk,  that  they  might  be  brought  (as  he  then 
termed  it)  out  of  the  devil's  mouth.     The  fourth  was  Robert  Cosin  ; 
named  likewise  among  them  Dr.  Cosin. 

Robert  Co#n,  of  SBucfiinpham,  Hftattpc. 

This  Robert  Cosin  seemeth  to  be  the  same  who  in  the  former  part 
of  this  history  is  mentioned,  being  called  by  the  name  of  father  Ro- 
ii is         bert,2  and  was  burnt  in  Buckingham.     Of  this  Robert  Cosin,  I  find 
!m'<uocg  m  tne  registers  of  Lincoln,  that  he,  with  Thomas  Man,  had  instructed 
trine.      and  persuaded  one  Joan  Norman,  about  Amersham,  not  to  go  on 
pilgrimage,  nor  to  worship  any  images  of  saints.     Also  when  she  had 
vowed  a  piece  of  silver  to  a  saint  for  the  health  of  her  child,  they  dis- 
suaded her  from  the  same,  and  said,  that  she  needed  not  to  confess 
herself  to  a  priest,  but  that  it  was  sufficient  to  lift  up  her  hands  to 
heaven.     Moreover,  they  were  charged  by  the  bishop,  for  teaching 
^ri'     the  said  Joan,  that  she  might  as  well  drink  on  the  Sunday  before 
mass,  as  on  any  other  day.      And  thus  you  see  the  doctrine  of  these 
good  men,  for  which  they  were  in  those  days  abjured  and  condemned 
to  death.3 

HDtUiam  ^rucetina,  alia£  Cler&e,  JBattnr. 

William  Sweeting,  otherwise  named  Clerke,  first  dwelt  with  the  lady 
Percy,  at  Darlington,  in  the  county  of  Northampton,  for  a  certain 
Bpace,  and  from  thence  went  to  Boxtcd,  in  the  county  of  Essex, 
where  he  was  the  holy  water  clerk  the  space  of  seven  years :  after 
that,  lie  was  bailiff  and  farmer  to  Mrs.  Margery  Wood,  the  term  of 
thii  ti  en  years.     From  Boxtcd  he  departed  and  came  to  the  town  of 

U)  Sec  vol.  Iv.  page  123.  (2)  Ibid,  page  124.  (3)  Ex  Regist.  Johan.  Longland. 


St.  Osithe,  where  he  served  the  prior  of  St.  Osithe's,  named  George    Bmma 
Laund,  the  space  of  sixteen  years  and  more  ;  where  lie  had  so  turned     ' 

the  prior  by  his  persuasions,  that  the  said  prior  of  St.  Osithe  was  A.D. 
afterwards  compelled  to  abjure.1  This  William  Sweeting,  coming  1509 
up  to    London    with  the  aforesaid   prior,   for   suspicion   of  heresy    15^8 

was  committed  to  the  Lollards1  tower,  under  the  custody  of  Charles '- 

Joseph,  and  there,  being  abjured  in  the  church  of  St.  Paul,  was  con-  Eaumi! 
strained  to  bear  a  faggot  at  Paul's  Cross,  and  at  Colchester ;  and  jjj'"^,, 
afterwards  to  wear  a  faggot  upon  his  coat  all  his  life,  which  he  did  two  atjured. ' 
years  together  upon  his  left  sleeve,  till  at  length  the  parson  of  Col- 
chester required  him  to  help  him  in  the  service  of  the  church  ;  and  so 
plucked  the  badge  from  his  sleeve,  and  there  he  remained  two  years, 
being  the  holy  water  clerk.     From  thence  afterward  he  departed,  and 
travelling  abroad,  came  to  Rederiffe,  in  the  diocese  of  Winchester, 
where  he  was  holy  water  clerk  the  space  of  a  year.     Then  he  went  to 
Chelsea,  where  he  was  their  neatherd,  and  kept  the  town  beasts ;  in 
which  town,  upon  St.  Ann's  day  in  the  morning,  as  he  went  forth 
with  his  beasts  to  the  field,   the  good  man  was  apprehended  and 
brought  before  the  bishop,  and  his  chamber  searched  for  books  ;  this 
was  a.d.  1511. 

The  crimes  whereupon  he  was  examined,  were  these : — 

First,  For  having  much  conference  with  one  William  Man,  of  Boxted,  in  a 
hook  which  was  called  Matthew. 

Item,  That  he  had  familiarity,  and  frequented  much  the  company  of  James 
Brewster,  who  had  heen  before  abjured. 

Item,  That  when  his  wife  should  go  on  pilgrimage,  he  asked  of  her,  what  Against 
good  she  would  receive  by  her  going  on  pilgrimage  ?  adding  moreover,  that  as  Pu8*>m- 
he  supposed  it  was  to  no  purpose  nor  profit ;  but  rather  it  were  better  for  her  to 
keep  at  home,  and  to  attend  her  business. 

Item,  That  he  had  learned  and  received  of  William  Man,  that  the  sacrament  Tranaub- 

'  the  priests'  altar,  was  not  I 
ceived  in  memorial  of  Christ. 

Item,  That  he  had  propounded  and  affirmed  the  same  doctrine  to  James 

Item,  Because  he  had  reprehended  his  wife  for  worshipping  the  images  in  the  Against 
church,  and  for  setting  up  candles  before  them.  images. 

And  thus  have  you  all  the  causes  and  crimes  laid  against  this 
William  Sweeting  wherefore  he  was  condemned  :  who  then  being 
asked  what  cause  he  had,  why  he  should  not  be  judged  for  a  relapse, 
said,  he  had  nothing  else,  but  only  that  he  committed  himself  to  the 
mercy  of  Almighty  God. 

3jame£  2Breto£ter,  of  Colcheter,  JEtartuc. 

With  William  Sweeting  also  the  same  time  was  examined  and  con- 
demned, James  Brewster,  of  the  parish  of  St.  Nicholas,  in  Colchester. 
This  James  Brewster  was  a  carpenter,  dwelling  ten  years  in  the  town 
of  Colchester ;  who,  being  unlettered,  could  neither  read  nor  write, 
and  was  apprehended  upon  the  day  of  St.  James,  in  one  Walker's 
house,  in  St.  Clement's  parish. 

About  six  years  before,  which  was  a.  d.  1505,  he  had  been  abjured 
by  William  Warham,  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  the  sec  of  London 

(1)  Ex  Regist.  Ric.  Fitzjaiiics,  fol.  CO. 


iienry    being  then  vacant ;  and  after  other  penance  done  at  Colchester,  was 
enjoined  to  wear  a  faggot  upon  his  upper  garment  during  his  life, 

A.D.  which  badge  he  did  bear  upon  his  left  shoulder  near  the  space  of  two 
years,  till  the  comptroller  of  the  earl  of  Oxford  plucked  it  away,  because 
he  was  labouring  in  the  works  of  the  earl. 

The  crimes  whereupon  he  was  examined,  and  which  he  confessed, 
were  these  : — 



Crimes         First,  That  he  had  been  five  times  with  William  Sweeting  in  the  fields  keep- 
objected    ing  beasts,  hearing  him  read  many  good  things  out  of  a  certain  book :  at  which 
lfrewster  reacmig  a'so  were  present  at  one  time  Woodroof  or  Woodbinde,  a  netmaker, 
with  his  wife ;  also  a  brother-in-law  of  William  Sweeting ;  and  another  time 
Thomas  Goodred,  who  heard  likewise  the  said  William  Sweeting  read. 

Item,  Because  he  used  the  company  and  conference  of  Henry  Hert,  carpen- 
ter, of  Westminster,  and  wrought  with  him  in  his  science  at  Westminster. 

Item,  For  having  a  certain  little  book  of  Scripture  in  English,  of  an  old 
writing  almost  worn  for  age,  whose  name  is  not  there  expressed. 

Item,  Because  he,  hearing  upon  a  time  one  Master  Bardfield,  of  Colchester, 
thus  say :  '  He  that  will  not  worship  the  Maozim  !  in  heart  and  thought,  shall 
die  in  sight,'  he  asked  afterwards  of  William  Man,  what  that  word  Maozim 
should  mean?  who  told  him,  that  it  signified  as  much  as  the  masing2  God,  to 
wit,  the  sacrament  of  the  altar. 

Item,  That  he  had  much  conference  with  Henry  Hert,  against  oblations  and 
images,  and  that  it  was  better  bestowed  mtmey  which  was  given  to  the  poor, 
than  that  which  was  offered  in  pilgrimage. 

Item,  For  that  he  had  communication  and  conference  with  Roger  Helliar, 
and  one  Walker,  a  thicker  of  St.  Clements,  concerning  divers  such  matters  of 
pilgrimage,  offering  to  images,  worshipping  of  saints,  and  the  sacrament  of  the 
a  peri-  Item,  When  Thomas  Goodred,  William  Sweeting,  and  he,  in  the  fields  keep- 

ings jng  beasts,  were  talking  together  of  the  sacrament  of  the  Lord's  body,  and  like 
matters,  this  James  Brewster  should  thus  say  :  '  Now  the  Son  of  the  living  God 
help  us:'  unto  whom  William  Sweeting  again  should  answer:  '  Now  Almighty 
God  so  do.'3 

And  thus  have  you  the  causes  likewise  and  crimes  laid  against 
James  Brewster,  upon  which  he,  with  William  Sweeting,  were  toge- 
ther examined  and  condemned.     Then  being  asked,  as  the  Romish 
manner  is,  Whether  he  had  any  cause  why  he  should  not  be  adjudged 
for  a  relapse ;  he,  trusting  to  find  favour  and  grace  in  submitting 
himself,  said,  that  he  submitted  him  to  the  mercy  of  Almighty  God, 
and  to  the  favourable  goodness  of  him  his  Judge.     And  likewise  did 
William  Sweeting  submit  himself;  trusting  belike  that  they  should 
find  some  favour  and  relief  in  this  humble  subjecting  themselves  unto 
their  goodness. 
The  un-        But  note  here   the  unmerciful  and  unchristian  dealing  of  these 
',',',',  n',,!'.    catholic  fathers,  who,  upon  their  submission,  were  contented  to  give 
de.'Sing"  out  a  s°lemn  commission,  the  tenor  whereof  was  to  release  and  par- 
'^ji'^    don  them  from  the  sentence  of  excommunication,  which  they  had 
papist.,    incurred :  but  immediately  after  upon  the  same,  the  bishop,  all  this 
swr. r>.,..  notwithstanding,  pronounced  upon  them  the  sentence  of  death  and 
Brewster  condemnation;   whereupon  they  were  both  delivered  to  the  secular 
slnitb,'"   P°*er,  and  both  together  burnt  in  Smithfield  at  one  fire,  the  18th 
"*        day  of  October,  a.  d.  1511. 

(1)  Maozim  in  Dan.  amidol,  and  Bignlfleth  as  much  as  torts  and  munitions. 
CI)  "  Masing,"  fanciful.— En.  (;i)  Ex.  Hegist.  Lund. 


Cfjrtftopfjer  &fjoemafcer,  of  feat  nai^enben,  lEtnrtnt.  rSSH 

To  these  blessed  saints  before-named,  we  will  also  adjoin  Christopher  A.  I). 
Shoemaker,  of  whom  this  I  find  briefly  in  the  register  of  sir  John  150y 
Longland  ;   that  the  said  Christopher  Shoemaker,  a  parishioner  of      l" 

Great  Missenden,  came  to  the  house  of  John  Say,  and  after  other - 

matters  of  talk,  read  to  him  out  of  a  little  book  the  words  which 
Christ  spake  to  his  disciples.     And  thus  coming  to  his  house  about 
four  times,  at  every  time  he  read  something  out  of  the  same  book 
unto  him,  teaching  him  not  to  be  deceived  in  the  priests1  celebration 
at  mass ;  and  declaring  that  it  was  not  the  same  very  present  body 
of  Christ,  as  the  priests  did  fantasy ;  but  in  substance  bread,  bearing 
the  remembrance  of  Christ :  and  taught  him  moreover,  that  pilgrimage, 
worshipping  and  setting  up  candles  to  saints,  were  all  unprofitable. 
And  thus  the  said  John  Say,  being  taught  by  this  Christopher,  and 
also  confirmed  by  John  Okenden  and  Robert"  Pope,  was  brought  to 
the  knowledge  of  the  same  doctrine.     Thus  much  briefly  I  find  in  {Jj5J£ 
that  register  concerning  Christopher  Shoemaker :  declaring  further,  burilt '" 
that  he  was  burned  at  Newbury  about  this  time,  which  was  a.d.  1518.  bury" 
And  thus  much  out  of  the  registers  of  London. 

In  turning  over  the  registers  and  records  of  Lincoln  likewise,  and 
coining  to  the  year  of  our  Lord  1520,  and  to  1521,  I  find  that  as 
the  light  of  the  Gospel  began  more  to  appear,  and  the  number  of 
professors  to  grow,  so  the  vehemency  of  persecution,  and  stir  of  the 
bishops  began  also  to  increase ;  whereupon  ensued  great  perturbation 
and  grievous  affliction  in  divers  and  sundry  quarters  of  this  realm, 
especially  about  Buckinghamshire  and  Amersham,  Uxbridge,  Henley, 
Newbury,  in  the  diocese  of  London,  in  Essex,  Colchester,  Suffolk, 
and  Norfolk,  and  other  parts  more.  And  this  was  before  the  name 
of  Luther  was  heard  of  in  these  countries  among  the  people.  Where- 
fore they  are  much  beguiled  and  misinformed,  who  condemn  this  kind 
of  doctrine  now  received,  of  novelty ;  asking,  "  Where  was  this 
church  and  religion  forty  years  ago,  before  Luther's  time  ?"  To 
whom  it  may  be  answered,  that  this  religion  and  form  of  doctrine  Theanti- 
was  planted  by  the  apostles,  and  taught  by  true  bishops ;  afterward  ut'JUll 
decayed,  and  now  reformed  again.  Although  it  was  not  received  nor  '^\\TJ.''■' 
admitted  of  the  pope's  clergy  before  Luther's  time,  neither  yet  is ;  gospel. 
yet  it  was  received  of  others,  in  whose  hearts  it  pleased  the  Lord 
secretly  to  work ;  and  that  of  a  great  number,  who  both  professed 
and  suffered  for  the  same,  as  in  the  former  times  of  this  history  may 
appear.  And  if  they  think  this  doctrine  be  so  new  that  it  was  not 
heard  of  before  Luther's  time,  how  then  came  such  great  persecution 
before  Luther's  time  here  in  England  ?  If  these  were  of  the  same 
profession  which  they  were  of,  then  was  their  cruelty  unreasonable, 
so  to  persecute  their  own  catholic  fraternity.  And  if  they  were 
otherwise,  how  then  is  this  doctrine  of  the  gospel  so  new,  or  how  arc 
the  professors  thereof  so  late  started  up  as  they  pretend  them  to  be  ? 
But  this  cometh  only  of  ignorance,  and  for  not  knowing  nor  con-  igno- 
sidering  well  the  times  and  antiquities  of  the  church  which  have  been  mildly 
before  us  ;  which  if  they  did,  they  should  see  and  say,  that  the  church 
of  England  hath  not  lacked  great  multitudes  who  tasted  and  followed 





}f,nrv  the  sweetness  of  God's  holy  word  almost  in  as  ample  manner,  for  the 
riIL  number  of  well-disposed  hearts,  as  now.  Although  public  authority 
A.I),  then  lacked  to  maintain  the  open  preaching  of  the  gospel,  yet  the 
lr\°(J  secret  multitude  of  true  professors  was  not  much  unequal :  certes  the 
fervent  zeal  of  those  christian  days  seemed  much  superior  to  these 
our  days  and  times ;  as  manifestly  may  appear  by  their  sitting  up  all 
umcsof  night  in  reading  and  hearing;  also  by  their  expenses  and  charges  in 
''<•! 'c"ui  buying  of  books  in  English,  of  whom  some  gave  five  marks,1  some 
pared  more,  some  less,  for  a  book :  some  gave  a  load  of  hay  for  a  few 
these  chapters  of  St.  James,  or  of  St.  Paul  in  English.  In  which  rarity  of 
books,  and  want  of  teachers,  this  one  thing  1  greatly  marvel  and  muse 
at ;  to  note  in  the  registers,  and  to  consider  how  the  word  of  truth, 
notwithstanding,  did  multiply  so  exceedingly  as  it  did  amongst  them  : 
wherein  is  to  be  seen  no  doubt  the  marvellous  working  of  God's 
mighty  power.  For  so  I  find  and  observe  in  considering  the  registers, 
how  one  neighbour,  resorting  and  conferring  with  another,  eftsoons 
with  a  few  words  of  the  first  or  second  talk,  did  win  and  turn  their 
minds  to  that  wherein  they  desired  to  persuade  them,  touching  the 
Earnest  truth  of  God's  word  and  his  sacraments.  To  see  their  travails,  their 
earnest  seekings,  their  burning  zeal,  their  readings,  their  watchings, 
their  sweet  assemblies,  their  love  and  concord,  their  godly  living,  their 
Christ's0  faithful  demeaning  with  the  faithful,  may  make  us  now,  in  these  our 
s°bl'c '     days  of  free  profession,  to  blush  for  shame. 

Four  principal  points  they  stood  in  against  the  church  of  Rome  : 
in  pilgrimage,  in  adoration  of  saints,  in  reading  Scripture-books 
in  English,  and  in  the  carnal  presence  of  Christ's  body  in  the 
Abjuratio  After  the  great  abjuration  aforesaid,  which  was  under  William 
Smith,  bishop  of  Lincoln,  they  were  noted  and  termed  among  them- 

zeal  of 
our  fore 
fathers  I 



rn"n]"st-  selves  by  the  name  of  '  known-men,'  or  '  just-fast-men  :'  as  now  they 
fast-men.  are  called  by  the  name  of  Protestants. 

Prac-  As  they  were  simple,  and  yet  not  uncircumspect  in  their  doings, 

Romish  s0  the  crafty  serpent,  being  more  wily  than  they,  by  fraudulent 
prelates.  subtlety  did  so  circumvent  them,  that  he  caused  the  wife  to  detect 
the  husband,  the  husband  the  wife,  the  father  the  daughter,  the 
daughter  the  father,  the  brother  to  disclose  the  brother,  and  neighbour 
the  neighbour.  Neither  were  there  any  assemblies  nor  readings  kept, 
but  both  the  persons  and  also  the  books  were  known  ;  neither  was 
any  word  so  closely  spoken,  nor  article  mentioned,  but  it  was  dis- 
covered. So  subtilely  and  sleightly  these  catholic  prelates  did  use 
their  inquisitions  and  examinations,  that  nothing  was  done  or  said 
among  these  '  known-men,'  so  covertly,  fifteen  or  twenty  years  before, 
but  it  was  brought  at  length  to  their  intelligence.  Such  captious 
interrogatories,  so  many  articles  and  suspicions  they  had,  such  espials 
and  privy  scouts  they  sent  abroad,  such  authority  and  credit  they  had 
with  the  king,  and  in  the  king's  name ;  such  diligence  they  showed 
in  that  behalf,  so  violently  and  impudently  they  abused  the  book  of 
the  peaceable  evangelists,  wresting  men's  consciences  upon  their  oath, 
swearing  them  upon  the  same  to  detect  themselves,  their  fathers  and 
mothers,  and  other  of  their  kindred,  with  their  friends  and  neighbours, 
and  that  to  death.     All  which  things  in  the  further  process  of  the 

(1)  A  mark  was  anciently  valued  at  thirty  shillings,  afterwards  at  thirteen  and  fourpence.— Ed. 


table  ensuing  (Christ  willing),  which  we  have  collected  out  of  some    Henry 
part  of  the  registers  of  Lincoln,  shall  appear. 

For  the  better  declaration  whereof,  first  here  is  to  be  premonished    A- L>- 
by  the  way,  touching  the  see  of  Lincoln,  that  after  William  Smith    150y 
succeeded  John  Longland.     This  William  Smith,  although  he  was    15°8 
somewhat  eager  and  sharp  against  the  poor  simple  flock  of  Christ's    „ 
servants,  under  whom  some  were  burned,  many  abjured,  a  great  number  Smith, 
molested,  as  partly  hath  been  afore  declared ;  yet  was  he  nothing  so  u^om*' 
bloody  or  cruel  as  was  the  said  Longland,  who  afterwards  succeeded  John 
in  that  diocese ;  for  so  I  find  of  him,  that  in  the  time  of  the  great  bShop  of' 
abjuration  and  troublesome  affliction  of  Buckinghamshire  men,  where-  Lillcoln- 
in  many  were  abjured,  and  certain  burned  ;  yet  divers  he  sent  quietly 
home  without  punishment  and  penance,  bidding  them  go  home  and 
live  as  good  christian  men  should  do ;  and  many  who  were  enjoined  israzcn- 
penance  before,  he  did  release.     This  Smith  died  about  a.  d.  1515,  oxford? 
by  whom  was  builded,  as  is  aforesaid,  the  college  of  Brazennose  in  huM^- 

Not  long  after  him  followed  John  Longland,  a  fierce  and  cruel 
vexer  of  the  faithful  poor  servants  of  Christ ;  who,  to  renew  again  the 
old  sparkles  of  persecution  which  were  not  yet  utterly  quenched,  first 
began  with  one  or  two  of  those  who  had  been  abjured.,  whom  he 
thought  to  be  most  notorious,  causing  them,  byforce  of  their  oath, 
to  detect  and  bewray,  not  only  their  own  opinions  touching  points  of 
religion,  but  also  to  discover  all  others  of  their  affinity,  who  were 
either  suspected  or  abjured  before.  And  them  likewise  he  put  to 
their  oath,  most  violently  constraining  them  to  utter  and  confess  both 
themselves,  and  whom  else  soever  they  knew :  by  reason  whereof  an  Longland 
incredible  multitude  of  men,  women,  and  maidens,  were  brought  forth  ousperse- 
to  examination,  and  straiehtly  handled ;  and  such  as  were  found  in  C"U'.T°,{ 

l  11  mi  l  l  l         •   l  •    •  Christ  s 

relapse  were  burned.  1  he  rest  were  so  burdened  with  superstitious  people, 
and  idolatrous  penance  and  injunctions,  that  either  through  grief  of  con- 
science they  shortly  died,  or  else  with  shame  they  lived.  All  which 
tragical  doings  and  proceedings  of  the  bishop  against  these  '  known1 
and  '  just-fast-men,1  in  these  tables  hereunder  following  (Christ 
granting)  shall  appear,  both  with  the  accusers,  and  with  the  parties 
themselves  accused,  and  also  the  crimes  objected. 

But  before  we  enter  into  the  table,  it  shall  be  requisite  first  to  hear 
the  order  and  copy  of  his  captious  and  crafty  interrogatories,  whereby 
he  constrained  the  simple  poor  men  to  accuse  and  impeach  one 
another :  which  interrogatories  were  these  in  order  as  followeth. 




The  inteiTogatories  or  articles  which  Longland,  bishop  of  Lincoln, 
used  most  commonly  to  minister  to  these  examinates  or  '  known-men,1 
in  number  were  nine,  and  are  these  as  followeth. 

I.  First,  Whether  they  or  any  of  them  did  know,  that  certain  of  the  parish  of 
Amersham  had  been  convented  before  William  Smith,  late  bishop  of  Lincoln, 
for  heresy  ? 


Jienry  II.  Item,  Whether  they  knew  that  they,  so  convented  before  the  said  bishop, 
11  "■  did  err  in  the  sacrament  of  the  altar,  or  in  any  other  sacrament  of  the  church  : 
.  n  and  if  they  did,  in  what  sacraments,  and  in  which  of  them?  Also  whether  they 
",  -„,."     knew  that  the  said  parties  so   convented  did  confess  their  errors,  and  receive 

.  penance  for  the  same? 

■ir-io  III.  Item,  Whether  they,  or  any  of  them,  were  of  the  society  of  those  so 

L  convented  for  heresy :  and  if  they  were,  what  fellowship  they  had  with  them, 

and  with  whom  ? 

IV.  Item,  Whether  they,  or  any  of  them,  were  ever  conversant  with  such  a 
one  (naming  the  person  whom  they  knew  suspected,  as  with  Thurstan  Little- 
page)  ?  And  if  they  were,  what  conversation  they  had  with  him,  how  long, 
and  when  :  and  whether  they  knew  the  said  person  to  have  been  suspected  of 
heresy  ? 

V.  Item,  Whether  they,  or  any  of  them,  were  ever  conversant  witli  him ; 
or  with  him  (naming  some  other  person  whom  they  suspected,  as  Alexander 
Mastall)  ?  and  if  they  were,  how,  and  how  long?  and  whether  they  knew  the 
said  person  to  be  suspected  of  heresy  ? 

VI.  Item,  Whether  they  or  any  of  them  had  been  beforetime  detected  of 
heresy,  to  the  office  of  the  aforesaid  William  bishop  of  Lincoln :  and  if  they 
were,  by  what  person  or  persons  they  were  detected  ?  or  else,  whether  they  only 
were  called  by  the  aforesaid  William  bishop  for  heresy  ? 

VII.  Item,  Whether  he  or  they  be  noted  and  holden  for  heretics;  or  be  re- 
puted and  defamed  to  be  of  the  sect  of  those  who  were  convented  for  heresy  ? 
and  whether  he  or  they  be  named  for  a  'known-man'  amongst  them? 

VIII.  Item,  Whether  "he  or  they  have  been  ever  at  any  readings  of  such  as 
have  been  so  convented  for  heresy"? 

IX.  Item,  Whether  he  or  they  were  ever  in  any  secret  communication  or 
conventicle  with  them?  whom  or  which  of  them  he  knew  to  be  named  and 
reputed  for  a  'known-man,'  or  holding  against  the  sacrament  of  the  altar,  or 
other  sacraments  and  articles  of  faith  ?  and  if  they  knew  any  such,  to  declare 
where  and  when,  and  what  they  were,  and  who  were  present  the  same  time? 

These  articles  and  interrogatories  thus  declared,  now  followcth  to 
be  showed  a  certain  brief  sum  compendiously  collected  out  of  the 
registers  of  John  Longland,  bishop  of  Lincoln,  declaring,  in  order  of 
a  table,  the  names  first  of  those  who  by  oath  were  constrained  against 
their  wills  to  detect  and  accuse  others.  Secondly,  The  persons  that 
were  accused.  Thirdly,  The  crimes  to  them  objected ;  as  in  the 
process  of  this  table  shall  follow  to  be  seen. 

And  first;  forasmuch  as  the  bishop  perceived  that  Roger  Bennet, 
William  Chedwell,  Edmund  Dormer,  Thomas  Harding,  Robert 
Andrew,  with  such  others,  were  men  especially  noted  to  be  of  that 
side,  therefore,  to  work  his  purpose  the  better,  he  began  with  them  ; 
producing  the  same  as  witnesses,  to  detect  first  Robert  Bartlet  of 
AnuTsham,  and  Richard  his  brother ;  understanding  that  these  afore- 
named witnesses,  because  they  had  been  abjured  before,  durst  now 
•In  no  other,  upon  pain  of  relapse,  but  needs  confess  whatsoever  was 
put  unto  them.  And  therefore,  because  Robert  Bartlet  and  Richard 
his  brother,  being  called  before  the  bishop,  and  sworn  upon  their 
oath,  would  confess  nothing  against  themselves;  the  bishop,  to  con- 
vict them  by  witnesses,  went  first  to  William  Chedwell,  lying  sore 
sick  in  his  bed,  causing  him  upon  the  evangelists  to  swear,  whether 
he  knew  the  aforesaid  Robert  and  Richard  Bartlet  to  be  '  known- 
men.1  Which  being  done,  the  bishop  then  called  before  him  Robert 
Andrew,  Roger  Bennet,  John  Hill,  Edmund  Dormer,  John  Milsent, 
Thomas  Bernard,  Thomas  Littlepage,  John  Dossct  (all  Anicrsham 
men),  who,   being  abjured  before,  as  is  said,  durst  no  otherwise  do 


but  confess  upon  their  oath  that  Robert  ami  Richard  Bartlet  were  Bm 
'known-men.1  Ami  yet  the  bishop,  not  contented  with  this,  caused  VI" 
also  their  two  wives,  to  wit,  Margaret  the  wife  of  Robert  Bartlet,  and  a .  i>. 
Isabel  the  wife  of  Richard  Bartlet,  to  depose  and  give  witness  against    1509 

their  own  natural  husbands.     Albeit  Isabel  Bartlet,  being  somewhat    .J?8 

more  temperate  of  her  tongue,  refused  utterly  to  confess  any  thing  of L 

hcr  husband,  and  denied  her  husband's  words  to  be  true;  till  at  last, 
she  being  convicted  of  perjury,  was  constrained  to  utter  tin-  truth,  as 
in  the  process  of  this  table  following,  more  particularly  followcth  to 
be  seen. 

OF    THE    SAID    DIOCESE,   A.  D.  1521.1 

William  Chcdwell,  sick  in  his  bed  ;  Robert  Andrew,  Robert  Bennet, 
John  Hill,  Edmund  Dormer,  John  Milsent,  Thomas  Bernard. 
Thomas  Littlepagc,  John  Dosset,  Margaret  Bartlet,  Isabel  Bartlet : 
these  being  before  abjured,  were  now  compelled  by  oath  to  detect 

Robert  Bartlet  and  Richard  Bartlet,  his  brother. 

This  Robert  Bartlet,  and  Richard  his  brother,  were  detected  by  these  afore-    A.D. 
said  accusers,  to  be  '  known-men,'  that  is,  to  be  of  the  same  company  and  affinity     ]  5 1  s 
with  these  jurats,  and  others  who  had  been   abjured  before  in  the  time  of  Wil-       to 
Ham  Smith,  bishop  of  Lincoln,  about  a.  d.  1508  ;  and  that  in  the  house  of  Thomas    1521. 
Harding  they  were  so  noted,  by  the  words  of  Harding's  wife,  who,  speaking  to 
Robert  Bartlet,  said,  That  she  was  glad  that  he   was  converted  to  grace,  and 
chosen  to  Almighty  God  ;  requiring  him  never  to  forsake  that  he  was  called  to ; 
for  if  he  did,  there  was  no  sacrifice  left  for  him.     Also  the  said  Harding's  wife, 
speaking  to  Richard  Bartlet  coming  into  her  house,  said,   '  Here  cometh  a  good 
man,  and  I  hope  he  will  be  a  good  man :  but  he  hath  so  much  mind  of  buying 
and  Belling  and  taking  of  farms,  that  it  putteth  his  mind  from  all  goodness.' 
'  By  which  words  it  appeareth,'  said  they,  '  that  he  is  a  'known-man.'     Item, 
That  Robert  Bartlet,  speaking  to  Harding's  wife,  said,  he  had  thought  to  have 
called  William  Tylsworth  false  heretic;  but  now  he  was  better  advised.     Item, 
That  they  used  the  lectures  and  readings  of  that  company. 

This  Robert  Bartlet,  and  Richard  his  brother,  first  being  sworn,  and  yet  con- 
fessing nothing  before   the  bishop,   at  last  were  convicted  by  witness,  as  above 
appeareth,  and  noted  therefore  of  perjury.     Wherefore  incurring  into  greater 
danger,  they  were  constrained  at  their  next  examination  to  Utter  themselves, 
and  confess  what  they  had  both   done  and  said;   that   is,  that   the  said  Robert  For  road- 
had  read  unto  Richard  his  brother  a  parcel  of  Scripture  beginning  thus  :   '  James  >ng  «rip- 
the  servant  of  God,   to  the  twelve  kinds,'  &rc.     Item,  that  lie   heard  William  English, 
Tylsworth  say,    that   images  of  saints   were  but   stocks   and   stones,    and  dead 
things  ;   and  that  he  taught  the  same  to  his  brother  Richard,  and  concealed  the 
words  of  William  Tylsworth.      Item,  That   he  partly  believed  Thomas  Mastal, 
teaching  him  that  the   true  presence  of  Christ  was  not  in  the  sacrament;  and 

(1)  Had  we  no  other  evidence  but  these  registers  of  bishop  Longlind,  we  should  have  abundant 
testimony  to  prove  that  the  church  of  Rome  is  an  enemy  to  the  diffusion  of  the  word  of  God.     Lei 
the  reader  peruse  the  nature  of  the  charges  preferred  against  the  above  honest  and  weB-dis] 
persons;  let  the  crimes  alleged  be  weighed  against  the  punishments  Inflicti  d  ource  from 

whence  the  persecution  arose ;  the  object  against  which  Romish  vengeance  was  principally  directed, 
be  respectively,  dispassionately,  and  attentively  considered,  and  it  will  not  now  excite  surprise, 
that  infidelity  and  Romanism  are  twin  sisters,  leagued  In  Impious  companionship,  tn  quench  the 
spirit  of  religion,  to  suppress  the  word  of  Cod,  and  to  subvert  the  course  of  pure  and  undefiled 
Christianity.— Ed. 


Henry    likewise  of  images  and  pilgrimages.     Item,  for  receiving  the  communion  at 
vui-     Easter  without  shrift,  &c. 


1518         Robert  Bartlet  brought  to  examination,  was  caused  by  his  oath  to 

detect  these  persons : 

Richard,  Brother  of  Robert  Bartlet. 


The  bro-  The  crime  whereof  Robert  Bartlet  impeached  his  brother  Richard  was  this  : 
ther  de-  Because,  be  said,  his  brother  Richard  had  been  much  conversant  with  Thurstan 
the'bro-  Littlepage,  and  had  learned  of  him  the  counsels  and  secrets  of  those  men  :  also 
ther.  that  he  had  learned  of  him  some  of  the  epistle  of  St.  James,  thus  beginning  : 
'James  the  servant  of  God,  to  the  twelve  kinds,'  &c. 

Isabel  Bartlet,  wife  of  Robert  Bartlet. 
The  The  cause  wherein  Robert  Bartlet  did  detect  his  wife,  was  this  :  That  when 

d'tectetl  tne  bishop's  servant  was  come  for  her  husband,  she  uttered  these  words,  say- 
the  wife,    ing,  Alas !  he  was  now  an  undone  man,  and  she  but  a  dead  woman. 

Futhermore,  the  said  Robert  being  demanded  of  the  bishop,  whether  he  knew 
Isabel  his  wife  to  be  of  the  sect  of  heretics  before  he  married  her,  said,  '  Yea.' 
Being  asked  again,  if  she  had  not  been  of  that  sect,  whether  then  he  would 
have  married  her  ?  he  granted  the  same  likewise. 

Agnes  Wellis,  his  Sister. 

The  Futhermore,  the  said  Robert  Bartlet  detected  his  own  sister,  in  that  he  had 

acenseth  tw*ce  instructed  her  not  to  worship  images,  and  also  had  taught  her  in  the 
the  sister,  epistle  of  St.  James. 

Elizabeth  Dean,  wife  of  Richard  Dean  of  West  Wycombe,  Emmar  Tylsworth, 
wife  of  William  Tylsworth,  William  Grinder  and  his  wife,  John  Scrivener, 
Alexander  Mastal,  William  Tylsworth,  Thurstan  Littlepage,  and  John  Bartlet, 
his  brother. 

The  said  Robert  Bartlet  detected  also  these  to  be  of  the  number  of '  known- 
men,'  for  that  they  resorted  many  times  together,  reading  and  conferring 
among  themselves,  and  talking  against  worshipping  of  images,  and  pilgrimage. 
And  if  any  carae  in  amongst  them  that  were  not  of  their  side,  then  they  would 
say  no  more,  but  keep  all  silence,  &c. 

Richard  Bartlet,  by  his  oath,  was  constrained  to  detect  the  follow- 
ing person : 

Agnes  Wellis,  wife  of  John  Wellis,  his  Sister. 

Thc.  This  Agnes  was  detected  of  her  brother  in  three  points ;  first,  for  learning 

acciueth  the    epistle   of    St.   James   in   English   of   Thurstan   Littlepage ;    secondly, 
liis  sister,  for  not  believing  the  bodily  presence  in  the  sacrament;  thirdly,  for  speaking 
against  worshipping  of  images,  and  going  on  pilgrimages. 

Also  of  old  Father  Bartlet,  his  own  Father. 

The  _  This  Richard  Bartlet  also  in  his  confession  said  of  his  father,  that  he  was  a 

j  J'J  s  better  man  than  he  was  taken  for:  for  the  other  day  there  came  a  man  to  him 
Almighty  as  he  was  threshing,  and  said,  '  God  speed,  father  Bartlet,  ye  work  sore:'  'Yea,' 
threshed   sa\^  ile   <  j  thresh  God  Almighty  out  of  the  straw!'1 

out  of  the  '  °     J 


Against  this  Agnes  Wellis  brought  and  examined  before  the 
bishop,  were  ministered  these  interrogatories,  which  for  certain  causes 
I  thought  here  to  insert,  for  our  posterity  to  note  and  consider  ;  and 
they  are  these  that  follow  : 

(I)  How  (Vibrant  must  be  the  idolatry  of  the  popish  service  at  the  elevation  and  adoration  of 
the  host,  to  have  provoked  a  rustic  of  the  sixteenth  century  to  utter  such  a  bitter  sarcasm !— Ed. 


Articles  ministered  to  Agnes  Wellis.  Bnr$ 

I.  Whether  she  knew   that  certain  of  the  parish  of  Amersham  were  con- 

vented  before  Wiiliam  Smith,  late  bishop  of  Lincoln,  for  heresy  ?  ;  U- 

II.  Item,  Whether  she  knew  that  certain  of  them,  so  convented  before  the     1518 
bishop  for  heresy,  did  err  in  the  sacrament  of  the  altar,  or  in  other  sacraments,       *° 
and  what  errors  they  were,  and  wherein  ?  laLI. 

III.  Item,  Whether  she  knew  any  others  to  be  suspected  of  the  same  heresy 
or  sect,  beside  those  of  Amersham  so  convented  ?  who  they  were,  and  how  many  ? 

IV.  Item,  Whether  she  had  been  of  the  same  company,  or  sect,  or  opinion 
with  them  that  were  convented  before  the  bishop  for  heresy  ?  and  if  she  were, 
what  company  she  used,  and  whose  ? 

V.  Item,  Whether  she  was  at  any  time  conversant  with  Thurstan  Littlepage? 
and  if  she  were,  how  oft  she  had  been  in  his  company,  how,  what  time,  in  what 
place,  who  else  were  present,  for  what  causes,  and  whether  she  knew  him  to  be 
suspected  for  heresy? 

VI.  Item,  Whe